A. Critics point to waste and lack of direct impact on a.
TOMS and phase-out of harmful chemicals b. Anarctic hole in the ozone layer1. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)b. Phase-out of exploratory surgery 3. Digital breast Biopsy system 1. mandating NASA to share with the private sector E.
Conclusion 1. Critics will remain negativeThere are critics from many corners who condemn theamounts of money spent in the pursuit of space. Some saythere is no need to waste money playing around in spacewhen there are so many people right here on earth who needhelp and could better use that money that now goes for spaceexploration and experimentation. Morton says, The hugeincrease in government-financed research and developmentthat came with Apollo did not increase America’s overalltechnological lead. It may even reduced it, by drawingscientific and commercial talent into heroic fields and awayfrom prosaic onesPeople who would scorn to put extradollars into welfare payments are happy to recommend thatscientific explorers be given billions, bewitched by thefrontier dreams of manifest destiny (Morton 18). What Morton and others who hold with his views fail totake into account, however, are the vast benefits that wehave already realized from space exploration.Order now
If we nevergained any more benefits from our own space program than wehave already seen, attaining them was well worth the cost inWe havent heard much environmental comment in the pastten years from environmentalist actors on television commercials claiming that the ocean would be dead withinseven years. Trained in acting rather than in oceanographyor marine biology, some of these outspoken, visible soulswere misled by other environmentalists in their claims ofthe proximity of catastrophe, and lacked either the abilityor desire to educate themselves on their subjects ofinterest before speaking out so publicly. The earths ozone layer is another dying ocean topic. Unlike the uneducated actors, however, scientists aroundthe world are working to determine how much of the ozonerelated change in the atmosphere is caused by humans, andhow much is attributed to natural processes (Kenitzer1996).
Of the several NASA space labs scattered across thecountry, Goddard Space Flight Center is the one most focusedon environmental matters. As such, Goddard teams areresponsible for measuring and monitoring ozone levels foundLaunched in 1978 aboard the Nimbus 7 polar orbitingsatellite, NASAs most visible and best-known ozoneresearch instrument is the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer(TOMS) (Kenitzer 1996) is managed by Goddard and provideshigh-resolution maps of global ozone levels. Ozonedepletion data supplied from TOMS has been instrumental inglobal agreements to phase out the use of ozone-depletingchemicals worldwide. The Antarctic ozone hole is seasonaland cyclical, being most prominent between August and October of each year. Though we dont yet know how much ofthe witnessed ozone depletion is natural and how much isman-made, TOMS data shows that the seasonal depletion grewevery year between its discovery in 1979 and 1994, when thedepletion was the most dramatic ever recorded.
Since then,however, the seasonal depletion has been shown to be muchless severe than in the past (Kenitzer 1996). Goddard manages other environmental survey systemsusing data collected from satellite-mounted mechanisms. TOMS is simply the most visible because of the popularinterest in the topic of ozone depletion, to the point thatits discussion among the most ill-informed of the staunchenvironmentalists has replaced the death of the ocean thatOther benefits of the space program concern diagnosticand monitoring techniques and devices used in the medicalfield. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a directoutgrowth of the system developed for use on manned spacemissions, and today is a standard diagnostic tool in everymajor hospital in the country (Cone 18).
Since it revealsthe structures of the soft tissues within the body,radiologists no longer are forced to rely solely on X-raysin order to make a best guess about what might behappening within an individuals body. No longer relegatedto dealing with visual shadows on X-rays, radiologists can attain perfect views of internal systems from anyMRI has also moved exploratory surgery closer andcloser to the realm of obsolescence. That in itself is amajor benefitthere is growing concern and potentialevidence that cancerous growths only begin their rampantruns after exposure to the atmosphere. If that theory doesindeed prove to be true, then MRI has already saved lives innumbers of which no one can measure. Another medical benefit resulting from the necessarymonitoring of manned space expeditions is that oftelemedicine.
Telemedicine is the .