The problem of discrimination has been around since the writing of theDeclaration of Independence in 1776. The U. S.
Constitution said nothing ofequality; instead, it legitimized the institution of slavery. TheEmancipation Proclamation issued January 1, 1863, set slaves in the confederatestates free. The Thirteenth Amendment permanently abolished slavery. The formerconfederate states, not wanting to let go of their control over blacks,established the restrictive Black Codes.
The Civil Rights Act of 1866proposed by Andrew Johnson was the first Civil Rights act ever written. The actwas turned down by congress. The act would have given all blacks the same rightsas whites. The issue of discrimination has been addressed in the court systemmany times. Beginning with the Dred Scott v.
Sanford (1) case, in which theSupreme Court ruled, that blacks as subordinate and inferior beings, couldnot constitutionally be citizens of the United States. More recently, the Bakkecase gave a look at the workings of affirmative action. A white student wasdenied admission to U. C. Davis because the school had already met its quotas forwhite students.
Affirmative action(2) is a term coined by President of theUnited States, Lyndon B. Johnson in 1965. In an executive order Johnson declaredthat federal contractors should take affirmative action, this was toguarantee that applicants are employed, and that employees are treated duringemployment, without regard to their race, color, religion, sex, or nationalorigin. Executive Order #11246 would increase the number of minoritiesemployed by federal contractors. This order would become a major policy issuefor years after it was made. Many people view affirmative action as reversediscrimination, or as reparations made by the government to minorities for pastdiscrimination.
It has been left up to the states own government to decidewhether or not affirmative action programs should be implemented. Most havedecided not to allow these programs. These states now have to figure out how tomake up for the unemployed minorities and loss of diversity in colleges. Thearguments against affirmative action have many aspects. A major complaint inmost arguments is the contradictions its policies support. Such as reversediscrimination.
The policies have been constructed to give women and minoritiesequal opportunities in applying and being accepted in schools and jobs. Othersthink that women and minorities did not earn their positions, but given agift, from the affirmative action programs. Another view is that women andminorities can have their self-worth affected by these programs. They will feelthat special arrangements, need to be made because women and minoritiesare biologically inferior, to white males. Another point againstAffirmative action is that it is no longer needed. Affirmative action began tohelp women and minorities into the workforce, and higher education.
It isconcluded that the process will continue on it is own with out the help of anyaffirmative action programs. Besides reverse discrimination, affirmative actionis claimed to be the cause of promoting, in many cases, the hiring of lessskilled workers and less qualified individuals being accepted into college. Proposals have been made to make up for the lack of minority enrollment inhigher education. One way to ensure minority representation would be to targethigh poverty schools. Texas legislature was seeking a way to preserve minorityaccess to college. The conclusion was that the top ten percent of students inevery high school are eligible for admission to the University of Texas.
Inaddition, an increased use of test scores and grades as entrance standards foreveryone would help with the loss of diversity. Other proposals have been togive applications in different languages, to have jobs offered on campuses, andto have a list of all people that do not have jobs in the area. Affirmativeaction should be implemented for sheer promotion of diversity. Some of thegreatest intellectual interactions a student experiences, are with otherstudents in college.
If those interactions are not diverse or culturallyenriching, then every person will have a narrow experience at college. Anotherreason affirmative action programs should be implemented is for the preventionof primarily white, dominated campuses. The affirmative action policiesshould be reinstated. Colleges and jobs should not look at race as the onlyfactor in accepting an applicant. That is true, they should look at leadershipqualities, experience, academics, and even athletics.
To limit the hiring andadmission of incompetent workers and students, those other factors should belooked at. It is a good possibility that many women and minorities could behired just for the simple fact that they have more experience, and is betterqualified than a white male. People blame so many things on affirmativeaction. A white man did not get a job over a black or Hispanic man so he blamesit on the affirmative action programs. The black or Hispanic man may have beenbetter qualified for the job.
Everyone deserves a chance to work and go toschool; affirmative action programs should not have to exist. There should be anequal chance for everyone to get a job and go to school, until there is, therewill be affirmative action.Government