Middle East, nowadaysbloodlake, war and criminal zone of the world. Place of richest nationalresourchesat the same time political disasters. There are many reasonswhat made chaos in the Middle East. Short history of Middle East Although rock art dating back to 10,000 BC lies hidden amid the desert monoliths of the JebelAcacusinLibya, little is known about the painters or their nomadic societies, which lived on the outermost rim of the Middle East.
The enduring shift from nomadism to more-sedentaryorganisedsocieties began in the fertile crescent of Mesopotamia (ancientIraq) and the Nile River Valley of AncientEgypt. In Mesopotamia it was the era of Sumer, which had arisen in around 4000 BC and became arguably the world’s first greatcivilisation. In 336 Alexander assumed the throne and began a series of conquests that would eventually encompass most ofAsiaMinor, the Middle East, Persia and northernIndia. Under Alexander, the Greeks were the first to impose any kind of order on the Middle East as a whole. Upon Alexander’s death, his empire was promptly carved up among his generals. This resulted in the foundingof three new ruling dynasties.
During these timesbornedreligions in the human life. Middle Eastern religious thought had a strong influence on the ancient Greeks. From the early 3rd centurybcon, the Middle East began to influence Greek thought increasingly. BabylonianHYPERLINK “https://www.
britannica. com/topic/astrology”astrologyinfluencedHYPERLINK “https://www. britannica. com/topic/Stoicism”Stoicphilosophy, and some Jewish influence onStoicethicsis likely as well.
With the partial Hellenization of Judaism and itsHYPERLINK “https://www. britannica. com/topic/Christianity”Christianoffshoot in the 1st centuryad, Jewish influence on the West rapidly became dominant. In four centuries Christianity conquered the entire Roman Empire and many outlying regions, thanks to the intensity of its faith and the tenacity with which Christians held to their views, following Jewish models, through the bitterest persecutions.
In the 6thcentury there was born newreligion. From the first side itlooked new religion but in the base of new religion consistjudaismandchristianity. Howeverislamwas a continue of two monotheistic religions, its ideologyevoluatedamongarabpeople. Prophet namedMohammed, born around AD 570 in the Arabian town of Mecca (now inSaudi Arabia), had begun preaching against the pagan religion of his fellowMeccans.
Middle East start new renaissance period by islamic conquers. Mohammed died in 632 but under his successors, known ascaliphs(from the Arabic word for ‘follower’),the new religion continued its rapid spread, reaching all of Arabia. Spreading ofislamhad started disturbing Europe. Christian worlds worriedislam’sfast conquers and decided to found a reason for suppressing in its cradle.
In 1095Pope Urban IIcalled for a Western Christian military expedition – a’Crusade’- to liberate the holy places ofJerusalemin response to the eastern empire’s alarm. Rome’s motives were not entirely benevolent: Urban was eager to assertRome’s primacy in the east over Constantinople. These successes were short-lived. It took less than 50 years for the tide to begin to turn against the Crusaders and only 200 before they were driven out of the region once and for all. The Muslim leader responsible for removing the Crusaders fromJerusalem(in 1187) wasSalah ad-Din al-Ayyoub In 1258, just eight years after theMamluksseized power inCairoand began their bloody dynasty, a boy named Osman (Othman) was born to the chief of a Turkish tribe in westernAnatolia. By the end of the 14th century the Ottomans had conqueredBulgaria,Serbia, Bosnia,Hungaryand most of present-dayTurkey.
They had also moved their capital across the Dardanelles to Adrianople, today the Turkish city ofEdirne. In 1453 came their greatest victory whenSultan Mehmet IItook Constantinople, the hitherto unachievable object of innumerable Muslim wars almost since the 7th century. With the outbreak ofWWIin 1914, the Ottoman Empire sided withGermany, and Sultan Mohammed V declared a jihad (holy war), calling on Muslims everywhere to rise up against Britain,FranceandRussia. World War Isignalledthe end of the Ottoman dynasty.
Stripped of its Arab provinces, the Ottoman monarchy was overthrown. American oil diplomacy in the Middle East The United States’ relationship with the Middle East prior toWorld WarIwas limited, although commercial ties existed even in the early 19th century. In comparison to European powers such as Britain and France which had managed to colonize almostall of theMiddle East region after defeating theOttoman Empirein 1918, the United States was”popular and respected throughout the Middle East”. American missionaries had brought modern medicine and set up educational institutions all over the Middle East.
Moreover, the United States had provided the Middle East with highly skilled petroleum engineers. Thus, there were some connections made between the United States and the Middle East before the Second World War. Other examples ofcooperationsbetween the U. S. and the Middle East are theRed Line Agreementsigned in 1928 and theAnglo-American Petroleum Agreementsigned in 1944.
Both of these agreements were legally binding and reflected an American interest in control of Middle Eastern energy resources, namely oil, and moreover reflected an American”security imperative to prevent the emergence of a powerful regional rival”. The Red Line Agreementhad been”part of a network of agreements made in the 1920s to restrict supply of petroleum and ensurethat the majorcompanies couldcontrol oil prices on world markets”. The Red Line agreement governed the developmentofMiddleEast oil for the next two decades. The Anglo-American Petroleum Agreementof 1944 was based on negotiations between the United States and Britain over the control of Middle Eastern oil. Below is shown what the American PresidentFranklin D. Roosevelthad in mind for to a British Ambassador in 1944: Persian oilis yours.
We share the oil of Iraq and Kuwait. As for Saudi Arabian oil, it’s ours. On August 8, 1944, the Anglo-American Petroleum Agreement was signed, dividing Middle Eastern oil between the United States and Britain. Consequently, political scholarFred H.
Lawsonremarks, that by the mid-1944, U. S. officials had buttressed their country’s position on the peninsula by concluding an Anglo-American Petroleum Agreement that protected”all valid concession contracts and lawfully acquired rights”belonging to the signatories and established a principle of”equal opportunity”in those areas where no concession had yet been assigned. Furthermore, political scholar Irvine AndersonsummarisesAmerican interests in the Middle East in the late 19th century and the early 20th century noting that, “the most significant event of the period was the transition of the United States from the position of net exporter to one of net importer of petroleum.
“In 1947, the U. S. and the Truman administration, under domestic political pressure, pushed for a solution and resolution on theArab-Israeliconflict. There is one purpose in the base of creating new radically different country amongarabworld. Take the control of region by hand.
Inmay1948,the new state of Israel came into existence. thefirst state to extend diplomatic recognition to Israel was the United States; the Soviet Union and several Western nations quickly followed suit. No Arab state, however, recognized Israel. Warsfor oil Saudi Arabia was the firstarabcountry which hoped to be recognized by the US, which at that time had no interest in Saudi Arabia. Initially, his efforts were rebuffed, but Washington eventually came around, promoted by the fact thatAl Saudhad obtained recognition from many nations.
In May 1931 the U. S. officially recognized Saudi Arabia by extending full diplomatic recognition. At the same timeIbnSaudgranted a concession to the U. S. company,Standard Oil of California,allowing them to explore for oil in the country’s Eastern Province,al-Hasa.
The company gave the Saudi government35,000and also paid assorted rental fees and royalty payments. After the promises that had been made by American oil explorers that Saudi Arabia could have a very good chance of finding oil,Al Saudaccepted the American offer of exploration,becausehe was hoping that his land could have valuable materials that would support the country’s economy. In May 1933 theCalifornia Arabian Standard Oil Company(CASOC), later called theArab American Company(ARAMCO), had started the exploration in the country with large area toexplore . Although the imported oil was not very important for the U.
S. at the time, Washington seemed hungry for the Saudi oil since their confidence in finding oil in Saudi Arabia had greatly grown, which resulted in stronger relations with Saudi Arabia. American increasing policy took over British power from Saudi Arabia. In 1950s, Americansenergy dependencewas 40% from petrol. This reason made bring together Saudi Americanrelations. Oilpolicy had begun control royal familie’s interests.
In 1970s, starteddevalivationin Americanseconomy. Countries asuch a Japan and Germany got a strong economical advancement. Firts time in his historyfor consolidate its economy,Americaintroduced diplomacy whichput the second plan his democratic princips for arabs royal family. He supported kings, monarchs interests to show him such a loyal friend.
As well this diplomacy worked out toarabkings for take its guarantee by America from other occupying forces. Though, relations betweenarabsat the same time America supported his alien Israel. Arab nationalism andlidership dream in arabworldalthough,arabshostility with Israel statewassuccedAmerican diplomacy. The another policywas aboutpetrocurrency whichoil countries acceptedamericandollar in trade relations.
Since the agreements of 1971 and 1973, all the members ofOPEC(Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) quote oil pricesonly in US Dollars. However, despite this in 1973 occurred energy crisis in America. Causeit was king Faisal’s conservative attitude to Arab-Israeli war in 1973. Arab members of theOrganization of Petroleum Exporting Countries(OPEC) also imposed an embargo against the United States in retaliation for the U.
S. decision to re-supply the Israeli military and to gain leverage in the post-war peace negotiations. ArabOPECmembers also extended the embargo to other countries that supported Israel including the Netherlands, Portugal, and South Africa. The embargo both banned petroleum exports to the targeted nations and introduced cuts in oil production. Several years of negotiations between oil-producing nations and oil companies had already destabilized a decades-old pricing system, which exacerbated the embargo’s effects. The 1973 Oil Embargo acutely strained a U.
S. economy that had grown increasingly dependent on foreign oil. The efforts ofPresidentRichard M. Nixon’s administration to end the embargo signaled a complex shift in the global financial balance of power to oil-producing states and triggered a slew of U. S. attempts to address the foreign policy challenges emanating from long-term dependence on foreign oil.
Despite effect of embargo to economical developmenAmericamanagednewstrategy in energysourches. President NixonandSecretary of State Henry Kissingerrecognized the constraints inherent in peace talks to end the war that were coupled withnegotiations with Arab OPEC members to end the embargo and increase production. Initial discussions between Kissinger and Arab leaders began in November 1973 and culminated with theFirst Egyptian-Israeli Disengagement Agreement on January18, 1974. Though a finalized peace deal failed to materialize, the prospect of a negotiated end to hostilities between Israel and Syria proved sufficient to convince the relevant parties to lift the embargo in March 1974.
The embargo laid bare one of the foremost challenges confronting U. S. policy in the MiddleEast, thatof balancing the contradictory demands of unflinching support for Israel and the preservation of close ties to the Arab oil-producing monarchies. The strains on U.
S. bilateral relations with Saudi Arabia revealed the difficulty of reconciling those demands. The U. S.
response to the events of 1973-1974 also clarified the need to reconcile U. S. support for Israel to counterbalance Soviet influence in the Arab world with both foreign and domestic economic policies. Weisbergargued that the embargo was a short-sighted reach for short-term gains.
When the short-term gains were not achieved, Arab countries started to soften their demands. Once this process started, it killed the embargo. The embargo on the US officially ended on Mar. 18, 1974. Butthe most important face of this embargo decisionwas more conservative among royal family king Faisal who madetroublenessfor western country especially for America.
On 25 March 1975King Faisalwas shot point-blank and killed by his half-brother’s son,Faisal binMusaid, who had just come back from the United States. American another big supporter was Iran in the regionby Reza Shah Pahlavi. The U. S.
has had relations with Iran ever since the last quarter of the nineteenth century. American missionaries have been in Iran even longer than that. Between 1945-79,the U. S. -Iranian relationship was in some ways similar to the U.
S. -Saudi relationship, where the U. S. dealt with one ruling family.
In the case of Iran, the U. S. dealt with one ruler,Mohammad Reza ShahPahlavi, who came to the throne in 1941 and continued to rule for almost four decades. In this period, the relationship was governed by a number of enduring and persistent features.
On the Iranian side, first, the U. S. was seen as a potential protector, initially against the dominance of the two great powers that Iran hadexperienced throughout its 19th-century and early 20th-century history Russia and Britain; and then against the Soviet Union. A second persistent feature of the U.
S. -Iranian relationship was Iran’s view of the U. S. not only as a patron and protector, but also as an ally in advancing what one scholar has called the Shah’s dreams of grandeur; the idea that Iran could and should be a great power, at least in the region. In 1973-74, Iran’s oil revenues quadrupled overnight.
The shah became not a debtor to the U. S. or the countries of Europe but a creditor. Iran not only gained enormous economic clout, but also offered the U. S. in a period of financial stringency and high oil prices a huge market for arms, industrial equipment, technology, and employment.
In this period the U. S. did make a number of serious errors in Iran, in addition to doing a number of things correctly. Aside from a brief period under PresidentKennedy’sadministration, whenKennedypressured the shah to begin some reforms in Iran, particularly to break up the landed estates and give a greater share in land ownership to the peasantry, there was very little pressure in this entire period on the shah in the political sphere. The U. S.
was pleased to see Iran stable and developing. It was developing spectacularly. The U. S. was pleased to have a large market for American goods. And as long as there was very little internal unrest, it seemed that everything was under control.
The U. S. in this period, when it had weight and influence in Iran, missed opportunities to guide the shah politically, internally, in another direction The1979 Revolution, which ousted the pro-American Shah and replaced him with the anti-American Supreme LeaderAyatollahRuhollahKhomeini, who referred to America as the”Great Satan”. The Islamic revolutionaries wished to extradite and execute the ousted Shah, and Carter refused to give him any further support or help return him to power. The Shah, suffering from terminalcancer, requested entry into the United States for treatment.
The American embassy in Tehran opposed the request, as they were intent on stabilizing relations between the new interim revolutionary government of Iran and the United States. therevolutionary groupMuslim Student Followers of the Imam’s Line, angered that the recently deposed Shah had been allowed into the United States, occupied the American embassy in Tehran and took American diplomats hostage. The 52 American diplomats were held hostage for 444 days. In Iran, the incident was seen by many as a blow against American influence in Iran.
Khameneiannounced to people,”do not use this term, democratic. ‘ That is the Western style”. After seizure of the American Embassy in Tehran, the United States froze about $12 billion in Iranian assets, including bank deposits, gold and other properties. According to American officials, most of those were released in 1981 as part of the deal to release the hostages.
The religious view wasdefinetelydifferent from his neighborhood country. Iran Islamic Republicchoosedhis religious scholar and politic fromshiaislam. This policy created problems in the foreign policy witharabstates which followedsunniislamicscholar. Although,deterioration of relations among neighbour countries causeswasarabandpersiannationalism. Relations between Iran and USAapproachedarabstates closer to USA than muslim idology. In the north borderosSaudi Arabia there is another oil-gas rich country instead of Mesopotamia, ruling bySaddam Hussein, Republic ofIraq.
In1980s Iranian revolution fascinated Iraqi citizens to Iranian government and revolutionary ideology which 60%of majority followsshiaislamas Iran. Islamic Republicusing itwanted influence to Iraqi government andmade ally amongarabcountry. Tensions between Iraq and Iran were fueled by Iran’s Islamic revolution and itsappearance of being aPan-Islamicforce, in contrast to Iraq’sArab nationalism. AyatollahRuhollahKhomeini called on Iraqis to overthrow the Ba’ath government, which was received with considerable anger in Baghdad. On 17 July 1979, despite Khomeini’s call, Saddam gave a speech praising the Iranian Revolution and called for an Iraqi-Iranian friendship based on non-interference in each other’s internal affairs. When Khomeini rejected Saddam’s overture by calling for Islamic revolution in Iraq, Saddam was alarmed.
In the base of conflict between Khomeini and Saddamlyed diversity ofislamicscholar. Though, most of population Iraqis beingshiamuslim, Saddam and government membersconsistedsunnimuslims. In 1979-1980, anti-Ba’ath riots arose in the Iraq’s Shia areas by groups who were working toward an Islamic revolution in their country. Saddam and his deputies believed that the riots had been inspired by the Iranian Revolution and instigated by Iran’s government. On 10 March 1980, when Iraq declared Iran’s ambassadorpersona non-grata, and demanded his withdrawal from Iraq by 15 March, Iran replied by downgrading its diplomatic ties to thecharged’affaireslevel, and demanded that Iraq withdraw their ambassador from Iran.
Iraq soon after expropriated the properties of 70,000 civilians believed to be of Iranian origin and expelled them from its territory. Many, if not most, of those expelled were in fact Arabic-speaking Iraqi Shias who had little to no family ties with Iran. This caused tensions between the two nations to increase further. Saddam decided to stop Iranianreligiouseffect to Iraq and towasto replaceEgyptas the”leader of the Arab world”and to achievehegemonyover the Persian Gulf.
The war beganofficalyby an Iraqi invasion of Iran in the pretext of ending the long term border dispute between the two countries over the Shatt al-Arab. United States seems waswaiting thiswar tooppose against Iran and supported Iraq during war. At the same time U. S pursued his energy policy in Iraq. Cause Iraq hold energyresourches inthesecond placeafter Saudi Arabia.
America, stayed in Iraq side for take advantage from oil, control energy resourches and for future use this diplomacy in the trade relations against other big powers such a Soviet Union, France and China. The war came at a great cost in lives and economic damage. One of the Rothschild family membercaracterizedAmericanbenefit:’We supportedIraq during war. After warnoonewasn’t achieved to victory. But we started control petrol reserves,sent our companies for reconstruction ofIraqand we won new partner”.
But later in the second Gulf War American policy changed against Iraq. Saddam wanted achieves hislieadershipgoal in thearabworld. Arabs saw the Iraq dangerous for their countries and was disturbed tofacedthe same situation by Saddam. During the second Gulf War between Iraq and Kuwaitarabcountries stayed with American alien. On August 2, 1990, a force of one hundred thousand Iraqi troops invaded Kuwait and overran the country in a matter of hours.
The invasion of Kuwait led to a United Nations Security Council embargo and sanctions on Iraq and a U. S. -led coalition air and ground war, which began on January 16, 1991, and ended with an Iraqi defeat and retreat from Kuwait on February 28, 1991. In retaliation, Saddam Hussein launched missile attacks against Israel and on coalition force bases in Saudi Arabia.
But Israel refused to retaliate and coalition forces took the offensive by launching a land campaign that began on February 24 and lasted four days. Comprising forces from thirty-four countries, including a number of Arab countries, the coalition forces liberated Kuwait City and drove Iraqi forces into a retreat. On March 2, theUnited Nations Security Council passed Resolution 686, which set forth conditions for a cease-fire. Iraq was obligated to accept its provisions, which included sanctions and payment of reparations for war damages. Iraq was obligated to return property stolen from Kuwait. The United States continued to put pressure on Iraq through the United Nations, which passedSecurity Council Resolution 687establishing the United Nations SpecialCommission(UNSCOM)to inspect Iraq’s suspected chemical and biological weapons capabilities.
The United States subsequently sought to ensure that the trade embargo imposed on Iraq the previous year through Resolution 661 remained in place and that Iraq was stripped of chemical weapons and missiles and its nuclear research capabilities. At the end warU. N. sanctions against Iraqmaintained until 2003. After warAmerica and Iraq stayed opposite to each other and in the result in 2003 America occupied Iraq. All situations leading by U.
S was only one benefit, to get Iraq’s oil and energyresourchesby hand. If before America supported dictatorship in the region, relate with Iraq America backed his democratic roots. The otherarabcountries saw American aggression and they joined American ally for protect theirpower. Except petrol, America didn’t face anyeconomic damage.
Cause most part of Americanexpensisto the war supplied by Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates,Kuwait. At the same time America sold weapons to thearabcountries formoderisationarmy. Saudi Arabiabought weapons amount 500bln dollars from USA. It is also true that the United States already has unrivaled strategic control of the world’s major oil regions. America is very influential in determination oil prices.
Iran is inviolable country for USA. However after 9/11 2001 terror attacks foreign policyof U. S is observed annexatioist his oil diplomacycould’t gethis aim. The other important factor is Israel. Amongmuslimcountries Israel can’t survive without big ally.
Interest of Israel also interests of U. S for controllarabicpolisy use jews. This obvious sample isIsraeli promised land dream fromEuphrates to Nile. Syria and Iran are big impedement for realize to increase borders. Arab spring, rememberedwithregime variations, creating radical movement inside of islam as ISIS, to blockade Iran show that American agression in the region. In the current situations show American increasengly decreasing powerin the Middle East.
Despite controllingIraq oil,America is unsuccessful Syrian war untilnowadays. USAsufficewith Saudi Arabia and other Gulf countries. Americans new president Donald Trump in his one of theelection speechsaid; The Gulf states haven’tnothingbutmoney. Iam going get them to pay money.
“We have 19trln dollars debt. We will not pay they will pay,Becausethese states can’texcistwithout us”. Qatar crisis Onmay20, thisyear Donald Trumprealisedhis first abroad visit to Saudi Arabiasince elected president. First timeafter 2001 tensions Saudi and American relationships began to softenwith Trump’s visit.
He also achieved to his aim to pay national debt byGulfstates. Saudi and Armericansides signed bilateral contract about 110bln dollars millitary sphere. There is another factor in Gulf states countries. The smallest country in the Gulf but on the 4th place for oil reserves, State of Qatar. Only with 2300. 000population, 300,000 native Qatari’sis the rich country among Gulf states.
But Qatarintroducevarious policy than otherarabcountries. These tensions were possibly exacerbated by theArab Springin 2011, when Saudi Arabia and Qatar were seen as backing different sides. The government support HAMASorganisationwhich fights with Israel,IhvanulMuslimun( MuslimBrothers) party in Egypt, rebellions in the Syria. A second source of tension is Doha’s accommodating stance toward Iran.
Qataris have taken steps such as voting against a UNSC resolution calling on Iran to halt its nuclear enrichment program and signing a bilateral counterterrorism agreement with Iran; this more conciliatory approach is likely the result of both Qatar’s relative military weakness compared to Iran as well as its economic interest in maintaining cooperation with the country with which it shares the world’s largest gas field. More recently, the Emir of Qatar congratulated Iranian PresidentHassanRouhanion his reelection and according to theFinancial Times, the government of Qatar irritated many of its Gulf allies in April 2017 by authorizing the payment of $700 million to Iran andKata’ibal-Hezbollah, the Iranian-backed Shia militia in Iraq, in exchange for the freedom of members of Qatar’s royal family taken captive in Iraq. In late May 2017, the Emir was reported by theQatar State News Agencyto have criticized the hostile rhetoric of the Gulf and the US toward Iran, leading to severe criticism throughout the rest of the Gulf and triggering the currentcrisis. Ofcourse this policycoulddisturb other ally countries with U.
S and Israel. The other fact is Qatar’s more democratic politic relations then others. Although,ruling by monarchy Qatar is the most introducer news and new ideology amongarabnationswith Al-Jazeera. By the way USA has armed forces in Qatar since getting independence from Britain. Just few days after Trump’s visit on 23th of may Qatar woke up with news of a hack attributing false statements to the emir of Qatar.
The fake news was aired on several UAE and Saudi-owned networks in the Gulf. This sparked a series of diplomatic breakdowns between the GCC countries. The latest developments include severing of diplomatic ties between three Gulf states and Qatar, an embargo imposed on Qatar, with air, sea and land borders shut down, and Qatari diplomats and residents expelled from those Gulf countries. Bahrain was the first to announce the severing of ties, it was followed shortly after by Saudi Arabia, the UAE and Egypt made their announcements. In addition, Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Bahrain and Egypt closed their airspace to Qatari aircraft, and said foreign airlines would have to seek permission for overflights to and from Qatar. In return for ending the restrictions, they had told the emirate to:Curb diplomatic ties with Iran and close its diplomatic missions Sever all ties to “terroristorganisations” and hand over “terrorist figures” Stop all funding for individuals ororganisationsdesignated as terrorists by Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Egypt, Bahrain, the United States and other countries Shut down Al Jazeera and other Qatar-funded news outlets Close a Turkish military base and halt joint military co-operation inside Qatar End interference in other sovereign countries’ internal affairs Pay reparations and compensation for loss of life caused by Qatar’s policies Align with other Arab countries militarily, politically, socially and economicallyBut Qatar doesn’t accept this prosecutions and crisis continue till nowadays.
It seems America worries to loose his allies and foreign energy reserves that’s why he attacked to Qatar. “Historically been a funder of terrorism at a very high level,” “I decided, along with Secretary of State Rex Tillerson, our great generals and military people, the time had come to call on Qatar to end its funding they have to end that funding and its extremist ideology Trump said during a press conference in the White House Rose Garden. Conclusion In a historically there are battles to get power till nowadays in the Middle East. After World War I Middle East was more interesting for superpowers. However, were divided different countries the roots are same allarabsin this region. The important mistake was becomeliderallarabnations and collect power under hand.
Somearabliderswere approached jealously, some ofthemnominated unity of arabworld. But at the end all of them arevictimseoflidership. Although, beingarabdidn’t provide their unity and they made ally with America which has only benefit from them. But U.
S power is also going limited. His failure in ran-Syriacoallitionis forcing to plan new games for energy power Reference A. MehmetKocaoglu, Petro-Strategy,(Istanbul: Harp Akademileri Basmevi, 1996) ZbigniewBrzezinski, The Grand Chessboard, American Primacy and Its Geostrategic Imperatives (Basic Books, A Member of the Perseus Books Group, New York, 1997) KirenAzizChaudhry, The Price of Wealth: Economies and Institutions in the Middle East, (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1997)Alan RichardsveJohnWaterbury,A Political Economy of the Middle East,(Washington DC: Westview Press, 1998) James A. Paul, Great Power Conflict over Iraqi Oil: the World War I Era’ Global Policy Forum, (October, 2002) ZbigniewBrzezinski, Strategic Vision America and the Crisis of Global Power(Basic Books, A Member of the Perseus Books Group, New York, 2012) VedatGurbuz, Oil, Oil policy Middle East; Global Policies Regional reflections and Iraq war