The Western Ghats or the Sahyadri constitute a mountain scope along the western side of India. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is one of the eight hottest hot spots of biological diverseness in the universe. It is sometimes called the Great Escarpment of India. The scope runs north to south along the western border of the Deccan Plateau. and separates the tableland from a narrow coastal field along the Arabian Sea. The scope starts near the boundary line of Gujarat and Maharashtra. South of the Tapti river. and runs about 1. 600 kilometer ( 990 myocardial infarction ) through the provinces of Maharashtra. Goa. Karnataka. Tamil Nadu and Kerala stoping at Kanyakumari. at the southern tip of India.Order now
These hills cover 160. 000 km2 ( 62. 000 sq myocardial infarction ) and organize the catchment country for complex riverine drainage systems that drain about 40 % of India. The Western Ghats block rainfall to the Deccan Plateau. The mean lift is about 1. 200 m ( 3. 900 foot ) . The country is one of the world’s 10 “Hottest biodiversity hotspots” and has over 5000 species of blooming workss. 139 mammal species. 508 bird species and 179 amphibious species ; it is likely that many undiscovered species live in the Western Ghats. At least 325 globally threatened species occur in the Western Ghats.
The Western Ghats are non true mountains. but are the faulted border of the Deccan Plateau. They are believed to hold been formed during the break-up of the ace continent of Gondwana some 150 million old ages ago. Geophysicists Barron and Harrison from the University of Miami advocate the theory that the west seashore of India came into being someplace about 100 to 80 Mya after it broke off from Madagascar. After the break-up. the western seashore of India would hold appeared as an disconnected drop some 1. 000 m ( 3. 300 foot ) in lift. Basalt is the prevailing stone found in the hills making a deepness of 3 kilometers ( 2 myocardial infarction ) . Other stone types found are charnockites. granite gneiss. khondalites. leptynites. metamorphous gneisses with degage happenings of crystalline limestone. Fe ore. dolerites and anorthosites. Residual laterite and bauxite ores are besides found in the southern hills.
A position of Anamudi. the highest extremum of western Ghats 2. 695 meters ( 8. 842 foot ) from Eravikulam National Park. Kerala. Hill ranges
The Western Ghats extend from the Satpura Range in the North. travel south past Maharashtra. Goa. through Karnataka and intoKerala and Tamil Nadu. Major spreads in the scope are the Goa Gap. between the Maharashtra and Karnataka subdivisions. and thePalghat Gap on the Tamil Nadu and Kerala boundary line between the Nilgiri Hills and the Anaimalai Hills.
The major hill scope get downing from the North is the Sahyadhri ( the benevolent mountains ) scope. This scope is home to many hill Stationss like Matheran. Lonavala-Khandala. Mahabaleshwar. Panchgani. Amboli Ghat. Kudremukh and Kodagu. The scope is called Sahyadri in northern Maharashtra. Karnataka and Sahya Parvatam in Kerala.
The Nilgiri Hills. besides known as the Nilagiri malai. are in northwesterly Tamil Nadu. The Nilgiri Hills are place to the hill station Ooty. The Bili giri rangana Betta sou’-east of Mysore in Karnataka. run into the Shevaroys ( Servarayan scope ) and Tirumala range farther E. associating the Western Ghats to the Eastern Ghats. In the South. the scope is or Nilgiris in Tamil Nadu.
South of the Palghat Gap are the Anaimalai Hills. in western Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Smaller scopes are farther south. including theCardamom Hills. In the southern portion of the scope is Anamudi extremum 2. 695 meters ( 8. 842 foot ) in Kerala the highest extremum in Western Ghats. Chembra Peak 2. 100 meters ( 6. 890 foot ) . Banasura Peak 2. 073 meters ( 6. 801 foot ) . Vellarimala 2. 200 meters ( 7. 218 foot ) and Agasthya mala 1. 868 meters ( 6. 129 foot ) are besides in Kerala. Doddabetta in the Nilgiri Hills is 2. 637 meters ( 8. 652 foot ) . Mullayanagiri is the highest extremum in Karnataka 1. 950 meters ( 6. 398 foot ) . The Western Ghats in Kerala and Tamil Nadu is home to many tea and java plantations.
The northern part of the narrow coastal field between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea is known as the Konkan Coast or merely Konkan. the cardinal part is called Kanara and the southern part is called Malabar part or the Malabar Coast. The foothill part E of the Ghats in Maharashtra is known as Desh. while the eastern foothills of the cardinal Karnataka province is known as Malenadu. The largest metropolis within the mountains is the metropolis of Pune ( Poona ) . in the Desh part on the eastern border of the scope.
The Biligirirangan Hills lies at the meeting of the Western and Eastern Ghats. The mountains intercept the rain-bearing western monsoon air currents. and are accordingly an country of high rainfall. peculiarly on their western side. The dense forests besides contribute to the precipitation of the country by moving as a substrate for condensation of moist lifting orographic air currents from the sea. and let go ofing much of the wet back into the air via transpiration. leting it to later condense and autumn once more as rain.
lakes and reservoirs
The Western Ghats have several manmade lakes and reservoirs. The good known lakes are the Ooty ( 2500 m height. 34. 0 hour angle ) in Nilgiris. and the Kodaikanal ( 2285 m. 26 hour angle ) and the Berijam in the Palani Hills. The Pookode lake of Wayanad in Kerala at Lakkadi is a beautiful scenic 1 with yachting and garden agreements. Most of the bigger lakes are situated in the province of Tamil Nadu. Two smaller lakes. the Devikulam ( 6. 0 hour angle ) and the Letchmi Elephant ( 2. 0 hour angle ) are in the Munnarrange. The bulk of watercourses run outing the Western Ghats and fall ining the Rivers Krishna and Kaveri carry H2O during monsoon months merely and have been dammed for hydroelectric and irrigation intents.
The major reservoirs are: Lonavala and Walwahn in Maharashtra ; V. V. Sagar. K. R. Sagar and Tungabhadra in the Malenadu country of Karnataka ; Mettur Dam. Upper Bhavani. Mukurthi. Parson’s Valley. Porthumund. Avalanche. Emerald. Pykara. Sandynulla. Karaiyar. Servalar. Kodaiyar. Manimuthar Dam and Glenmorgan in Tamil Nadu ; and Kundallay and Maddupatty in the High Range of Kerala. Of these the Lonavla. Walwahn. Upper Bhavani. Mukurthi. Parson’s Valley. Porthumund. Avalanche. Emerald. Pykara. Sandynulla. Glenmorgan. Kundally and Madupatty are of import for their commercial and sport piscaries for trout. mahseer and common carp.
The Western Ghats form one of the four water partings of India. feeding the perennial rivers of India. Important rivers include the Godavari. Krishna and Kaveri. These rivers flow to the E and run out out into the Bay of Bengal. The West fluxing rivers. that drain into the Arabian Sea. are fast-moving. owing to the short distance travelled and steeper gradient. Important rivers include the Mandovi and Zuari. Many of these rivers feed the backwaters of Kerala and Maharashtra. Rivers that flow due easts of the Ghats drain into the Bay of Bengal. These are relatively slower traveling and finally unify into larger rivers such as the Kaveri and Krishna. The larger feeders include the Tunga River. Bhadra river. Bhima River. Malaprabha River. Ghataprabha River. Hemavathi river. Kabini River. In add-on there are several smaller rivers such as theChittar River. Manimuthar River. Kallayi River. Kundali River. Pachaiyar River. Pennar River. Periyar and the Kallayi River.
Fast running rivers and steep inclines have provided sites for many big hydro-electric undertakings. There are about 50 major dikes along the length of the Western Ghats with the earliest undertaking up in 1900 near Khopoli in Maharashtra. Most noteworthy of these undertakings are the Koyna Hydroelectric Project in Maharashtra. the Parambikulam Dam in Kerala. and theLinganmakki Dam in Karnataka. The reservoir behind the Koyna Dam. the Shivajisagar Lake. has a length of 50 kilometers ( 31 myocardial infarction ) and deepness of 80 m ( 262 foot ) . It is the largest hydroelectric undertaking in Maharashtra. bring forthing 1. 920 MW of electric power. Another major Hydro Electric undertaking is Idukki dike in Kerala. This dike is one of the biggest in Asia and generates about 70 % of power for Kerala province.
Mullai Periyar dike near Thekkady is one of the oldest in the universe and a major tourer attractive forces in Kerala. Water from this dike is drawn to the huge coastal field of Tamil Nadu. organizing a delta and doing it rich in flora. During the monsoon season. legion watercourses fed by ceaseless rain drain off the mountain sides taking to legion and frequently dramatic waterfalls. Among the most good known is the Jog Falls. Kunchikal Falls. Sivasamudram Falls. andUnchalli Falls. The Jog Falls is the highest natural dip waterfall in South Asia and is listed among the 1001 natural admirations of the universe.
Talakaveri wildlife sanctuary is a critical water parting and the beginning of the river Kaveri. This part has dense evergreen and half-evergreen flora. with shola-grassland in countries of higher lift. The steep terrain of the country has resulted in scenic waterfalls along its many mountain watercourses. Sharavathi and Someshvara Wildlife sanctuaries in Shimoga territory are the beginning of the Tungabhadra River system. The Netravathi river has besides its beginning at western ghats of India fluxing due wests to fall in Arabian sea at Mangalore.
Climate in the Western Ghats varies with altitudinal step and distance from the equator. The clime is humid and tropical in the lower ranges tempered by the propinquity to the sea. Elevations of 1. 500 m ( 4. 921 foot ) and above in the North and 2. 000 m ( 6. 562 foot ) and above in the South have a more temperate clime. Average one-year temperature here are about 15 °C ( 60 °F ) . In some parts hoar is common. and temperatures touch the freezing point during the winter months. Average temperature scope from 20 °C ( 68 °F ) in the South to 24 °C ( 75 °F ) in the North. It has besides been observed that the coldest periods in the south western ghats coincide with the wettest. During the monsoon season between June and September. the unbroken Western Ghats concatenation Acts of the Apostless as a barrier to the wet loaded clouds.
The heavy. eastward-moving rain-bearing clouds are forced to lift and in the procedure sedimentation most of their rain on the windward side. Rainfall in this part averages 3. 000–4. 000 millimeter ( 120–160 in ) with localised extremes touching 9. 000 millimeter ( 350 in ) . The eastern part of the Western Ghats which lie in the rain shadow. have far less rainfall averaging about 1. 000 millimeter ( 40 in ) conveying the mean rainfall figure to 2. 500 millimeter ( 150 in ) . Datas from rainfall figures reveal that there is no relationship between the entire sum of rain received and the spread of the country. Some countries to the North in Maharashtra while having heavier rainfall are followed by long dry enchantments. while parts closer to the equator having less one-year rainfall. have rain enchantments enduring about the full twelvemonth.
The Western Ghats are place to four tropical and semitropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregions – the North Western Ghats moist deciduous woods. North Western Ghats montane rain woods. South Western Ghats moist deciduous woods. and South Western Ghats montane rain woods. The northern part of the scope is by and large drier than the southern part. and at lower lifts makes up the North Western Ghats moist deciduous woods ecoregion. with largely deciduous woods made up preponderantly of teak.
Above 1. 000 metres lift are the ice chest and wetter North Western Ghats montane rain woods. whose evergreen woods are characterised by trees of household Lauraceae. The evergreen Wayanad woods of Kerala mark the passage zone between the northern and southern ecologic parts of the Western Ghats. The southern ecologic parts are by and large wetter and more species-rich. At lower lifts are the South Western Ghats moist deciduous woods. with Cullenia the characteristic tree genus. accompanied by teak. dipterocarps. and other trees.
The moist forests passage to the desiccant South Deccan Plateau dry deciduous woods. which lie in its rain shadow to the E. Above 1. 000 metres are the South Western Ghats montane rain woods. besides ice chest and wetting agent than the environing lowland woods. and dominated by evergreen trees. although some montane grasslands and scrawny woods can be found at the highest lifts. The South Western Ghats montane rain woods are the most species-rich ecologic part in peninsular India ; 80 per centum of the blossoming works species of the full Western Ghats scope are found in this ecologic part.
Historically the Western Ghats were well-covered in dense woods that provided wild nutrients and natural home grounds for nativetribal people. Its unavailability made it hard for people from the fields to cultivate the land and build colonies. After the reaching of the British in the country. big wrappings of district were cleared for agricultural plantations and lumber. The wood in the Western Ghats has been badly disconnected due to human activities. particularly clear droping for tea. java. and teak plantations during 1860 to 1950. Speciess that are rare. endemic and habitat specializers are more adversely affected and be given to be lost faster than other species. Complex and species rich home grounds like the tropical rain forest are much more adversely affected than other home grounds. The country is ecologically sensitive to development and was declared an ecological hot spot in 1988 through the attempts of ecologist Norman Myers. Though this country covers hardly five per centum of India’s land. 27 % of all species of higher workss in India ( 4. 000 of 15. 000 species ) are found here.
About 1. 800 of these are endemic to the part. The scope is home to at least 84 amphibious species. 16 bird species. seven mammals. and 1. 600 blossoming workss which are non found elsewhere in the universe. The Government of India established many protected countries including 2 biosphere militias. 13 National Parkss to curtail human entree. several wildlife sanctuaries to protect specific endangered species and many Reserve Forests. which are all managed by the forest sections of their several province to continue some of the ecoregions still undeveloped. Many National Parks were ab initio Wildlife Sanctuaries. The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve consisting 5500 km? of the evergreen woods of Nagarahole. deciduous woods of Bandipur National Park and Nugu in Karnataka and bordering parts ofWayanad. Mudumalai National Park and Mukurthi National Park in the provinces of Kerala and Tamil Nadu forms the largest immediate protected country in the Western Ghats.
The Western Ghats is home to legion serene hill Stationss likeMunnar. Ponmudi and Waynad. The Silent Valley National Park in Kerala is among the last piece of lands of virgin tropical evergreen forest in India. Sing the Western Ghats. in November 2009. Minister of Environment and Forests. Jairam Ramesh said. “The Western Ghats has to be made an “ecologically sensitive zone” . It is every bit of import as the ecological system of the Himalayas for protection of the environment and clime of the state. The Cardinal authorities will non give countenance for excavation and hydroelectric undertakings proposed by the State Governments of Maharashtra. Karnataka and Goa that will destruct the Western Ghats eco-system. ’’ In a missive dated 20 June 2009. Mr. Ramesh said.
“The ( proposed ) 200-MW Gundia hydel undertaking of Karnataka Power Corporation in Hassan territory would submerge about 1. 900 estates ( 7. 7 km2 ) of thick wood in the already endangered Western Ghats along with all its zoology. This is something that both Karnataka and our state can ill-afford. ” “Power coevals should non go on at the cost of ecological security. ” The Expert Appraisal Committee appointed by Union Government besides said that the undertaking should non be taken up.
In August. 2011. the Western Ghats Ecology Expert Panel ( WGEEP ) designated the full Western Ghats as an Ecologically Sensitive Area ( ESA ) and. assigned three degrees of Ecological Sensitivity to its different parts.
•Kalakkad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve
•Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuary
•Neyyar Wildlife Sanctuary
•Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary
•Periyar Tiger Reserve
•Ranni Forest Division
•Konni Forest Division
•Achankovil Forest Division
•Srivilliputtur Wildlife Sanctuary
•Tirunelveli ( North ) Forest Division ( portion )
•Eravikulam National Park ( and proposed extension )
•Grass Hills National Park
•Karian Shola National Park
•Karian Shola ( portion of Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary )
•Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary
•Silent Valley National Park
•New Amarambalam Reserved Forest
•Mukurthi National Park
•Attapadi Reserved Forest
•Pushpagiri Wildlife Sanctuary
•Brahmagiri Wildlife Sanctuary
•Talacauvery Wildlife Sanctuary
•Padinalknad Reserved Forest
•Kerti Reserved Forest
•Aralam Wildlife Sanctuary
•Kudremukh National Park
•Someshwara Wildlife Sanctuary
•Someshwara Reserved Forest
•Agumbe Reserved Forest
•Balahalli Reserved Forest
•File: Kas Plateau
•Koyna Wildlife Sanctuary
•Chandoli National Park
•Radhanagari Wildlife Sanctuary
The Western Ghats are place to 1000s of carnal species including at least 325 globally threatened species. Many areendemic species. particularly in the amphibious and reptilian categories. Thirty two threatened species of mammals live in the Western Ghats. Of the 16 endemic mammals. 13 are threatened •Mammals- There are at least 139 mammal species. A critically endangered mammal of the Western Ghats is the nocturnal Malabar large-spotted civet. The arborical Lion-tailed macaque is endangered. Merely 2500 of this species are staying. The largest population of Lion tailed macacque is in Silent Valley National Park. Kudremukh National Park besides protects a feasible population. These hill ranges serve as of import wildlife corridors. leting seasonal migration of endangered Asiatic elephants. The Nilgiri Bio-sphere is place to the largest population of Asiatic Elephants and signifiers an of import Undertaking Elephant andProject Tiger modesty.
Brahmagiri and Pushpagiri wildlife sanctuaries are of import elephant home grounds. Karnataka’s Ghat countries hold over six thousand elephants ( as of 2004 ) and 10 per centum of India’s critically endangered tiger population. The largest population of India’s Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelams outside the Sundarbans is in the unbroken woods surrounding Karnataka. Tamil Nadu and Kerala. The largest Numberss and herds ofvulnerable gaur are found here with the Bandipur National Park and Nagarhole together keeping over five 1000s Gaur. To the West the woods of Kodagu hold ample populations of the endangered Nilgiri langur. Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary and undertaking tiger modesty in Chikmagalur has big populations of Indian barking deer. Many Asiatic elephant. gaur. sambur. vulnerable sloth bears. leopard. tiger and wild Sus scrofas dwell in the woods of Karnataka.
Bannerghatta National Park and Annekal reserve forest is an of import elephant corridor linking the woods of Tamil Nadu with those of Karnataka. Dandeli and Anshi national Parkss in Uttara Kannada territory are place to the black jaguar and normal assortment of leopards and important populations of Great Indian Hornbill. Bhimgad in Belgaumdistrict is a proposed wildlife sanctuary and is place to the endemic critically endangered Wroughton’s freetailed chiropteran. the Krishnapur caves near by are one of merely three topographic points in the state where the little-known Theobald’s grave chiropteran is found. Large Lesser False Vampire chiropterans are found in the Talevadi caves. •Reptiles- The serpent household Uropeltidae of the reptile category is about wholly restricted to this part.
•Amphibians- The amphibious vehicles of the Western Ghats are diverse and alone. with more than 80 % of the 179 amphibious species being endemic to the part. Most of the endemic species have their distribution in the rain forests of these mountains. The endangered Purple toad was discovered in 2003 to be a living dodo. This species of toad is most closely related to species found in the Seychelles. Four new species of Anurans belonging to the genus Rhacophorus. Polypedates. Philautus and Bufo have been described from the Western Ghats. •Fish – 102 species of fish are listed for the Western Ghats H2O organic structures. Western Ghats watercourses are home to several brightly coloured cosmetic fishes like Red line gunman shot. Red-tailed shot. Osteobrama bakeri. Gunther’s catfish and freshwater blowfish fish Tetraodon travancoricus. Carinotetraodon impersonator and Marine signifiers likeChelonodon patoca ( Buchanan-Hamilton. 1822 ) ; mahseers such as Malabar mahseer.
•Birds- There are at least 508 bird species. Most of Karnataka’s five hundred species of birds are from the Western Ghats part. Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary is located at the northern terminal of the Malabar scopes and the southern tip of the Sahyadri scopes and bird species from both scopes can be seen here. There are at least 16 species of birds endemic to the western Ghats including the endangered Rufous-breasted Laughingthrush. the vulnerable Nilgiri Wood-pigeon. White-bellied Shortwing and Broad-tailed Grassbird. the close threatened. Grey-breasted Laughingthrush. Black-and-rufous Flycatcher. Nilgiri Flycatcher. and Nilgiri Pipit and the least concernMalabar Parakeet. Malabar Grey Hornbill. White-bellied Treepie. Grey Bulbul. Rufous Babbler. Wynaad Laughingthrush. White-bellied Blue-flycatchers and the Crimson-backed Sunbird.
Insects- There are approximately 6. 000 insect species from Kerala entirely. Of 334 butterfly species recorded from the Western Ghats. 316 species have been reported from the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve. •Molluscs- Seasonal rainfall forms of the Western Ghats necessitate a period of quiescence for its land snails. ensuing in their high copiousness and diverseness including at least 258 species of univalves from 57 genera and 24 households.