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    Western Civ I Final Review

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    What institution held medieval society together after the fall of the Roman Empire?
    The Catholic Church
    Under feudalism, lords granted lands to vassals in exchange for what?
    Military service
    Peasants that were tied to the land were called what?
    What is the splitting of the Catholic and Orthodox churches called?
    The Great Schism
    What was a young person who trained with a master craftsman without pay called?
    An apprentice
    Any belief that went against the official teachings of the church was considered what?
    What document was signed by King John that limited the power of the English monarchy?
    The Magna Carta
    Renaissance means rebirth, birth of modern world, it spread into northern Europe.
    {NOT} the Renaissance began in France.
    What was the main goal of the Crusades?
    To win back the holy land.
    Humanism, means celebration of the individual, was a stimulation of the study of Greek and Roman literature and culture, and was supported by wealthy patrons.
    {NOT} the belief that human beings are naturally evil.
    Renaissance means what?
    Economic developments in the Renaissance included what?
    A revival in trade.
    According to Jacob Burckhardt, the Renaissance in Italy represented what?
    A distinct break from the Middle Ages and the true birth of the modern world.
    The Medici controlled the finances of the Italian city states of where?
    What was the commercial and military league set up off the north coast of Germany?
    Hanseatic League
    What were the two areas of Renaissance technological innovation?
    Mining & Metal working (which includes the manufacture of firearms).
    Where was the cultural center of European Renaissance?
    Castiglione’s The Courtier was what?
    A popular handbook laying out new skills in politics, the arts, and personal compartments expected of Renaissance aristocrats.
    The achievements of the Italian Renaissance were products of what?
    An elite movement involving small numbers of wealthy patrons, artists, & intellectuals.
    The aristocracy of the sixteenth century wanted to dominate society as it had done in the what?
    Middle Ages
    In most European countries of the Renaissance, what percent of the total population was made up of nobles?
    What were banquets during the Renaissance were used to what?
    Express wealth and power of aristocratic families
    The Third Estate of the fifteenth century was made up of what?
    Peasants, merchants, and artisans.
    Western Europe in the Renaissance saw a decline in what?
    Slavery in Renaissance Italy saw who?
    Slaves from African and eastern Mediterranean that were used mostly as courtly domestic servants & skilled workers.
    The reintroduction of slavery in the fourteenth century occurred largely as a result of what?
    The shortage of labor from the Black Death
    Which of the following statements best describes marriage in Renaissance Italy?
    Marriages were usually arranged to strengthen family alliances.
    Marriages in Renaissance Italy were what?
    An economic necessity of life involving complicated family negotiations.
    By the fifteenth century, Italy was dominated by what?
    Five major regional, independent powers.
    Who was perhaps the most famous of Italian ruling women?
    Isabella d’ Este
    Federigo da Montefeltro of Urbino was a fine example of what?
    A skilled, intelligent, independent Italian warrior prince.
    The Peace of Lodi in 1454 exemplifies what key Italian concept?
    A balance of power between multiple, competing territorial states.
    Machiavelli’s ideas as expressed in The Prince achieve a model for what?
    A modern secular concept of power politics.
    Italian Renaissance humanism in the early fifteenth century, above all else was based on what?
    The study of Greco-Roman classics.
    In the late fifteenth century, Italy became the battleground for who?
    France & Spain
    Neoplatonism in the mid fifteenth century Italy was what?
    Revived when Marsilio Ficino translated Plato’s works.
    Neoplatonism was based on what two primary ideas?
    A hierarchy of substances & a theory of spiritual love.
    The Corpus Hermeticum contained what?
    Writings of the occult as well as theological and philosophical speculations of great interest to humanist.
    Pico della Miandola’s orations on the Dignity of Man stated that what?
    Humans could be whatever they chose to be.
    What was a subject of interest to fifteenth century humanists?
    The Greek language
    The liberal education taught by Viltorino da Feltre contained what as its primary goal?
    The creation of well rounded, virtuous & ethical citizens.
    Liberal education in Renaissance Italy included all but what?
    Martial arts
    Humanism’s main effect of writing history was what?
    The secularization of historiography and explanation of change over time.
    Who plunged a leading role in perfecting the movable printer?
    Johannes Gutenberg
    The development of printing in the fifteen century ensured what?
    The literacy and new knowledge would spread rapidly in European society
    Italian artists in the fifteenth century began to what?
    Experiment in areas of perspective
    Which of the following groups of Italian artists dominated the High Renaissance?
    de Vinci, Raphael, & Michelangelo.
    What was the name of the Renaissance painter who achiever fame earlier in his career for his beautiful madonnas?
    Which of the followings is not true of Northern Renaissance artists?
    They valued the secular human form as the primary vehicle of expansion.
    Who must be counted among the greatest patrons of Renaissance music?
    The dukes of Burgandy
    The “new monarchs” of the fifteenth century in Europe were what?
    Often obsessed with the acquisition and expansion of power.
    The results of the Hundred Years War did what?
    Reinvigorated & strengthened the French monarchy, caused economic turmoil in England, & temporarily strengthened the nobility in England.
    Under Ferdinand & Isabella, Spain saw what?
    Muslim power vanish from the peninsula.
    All the following monarchs were successful in continuing the centralization of their “new monarchies” except who?
    Maximilian I of the Holy Roman Empire.
    The Hasburg dynasty ruled in what?
    Holy Roman Empire
    Who finally destroyed the Byzantine Empire in 1453?
    The Turks
    John Wycliffe condemned the Church for all of the following except for?
    That the pope should be given greater power to eliminate heresy.
    The Renaissance popes did all of the following except what?
    Attempt to return to true papacy to more humble times.
    The Renaissance papacy was what?
    Often seen as debauched especially under pope Alexander VI.
    The valley between the Tigris & Euphrates Rivers.
    The body of law in Hebrew scripture, contained in the Pentateuch (first five books of the Hebrew Bible).
    An ancient Greek city-state encompassing both an urban area and its surrounding countryside; a small autonomous political unit where all major political and social activities were carried out centrally.
    Literally “imitating the Greeks”; the era after the death of Alexander the Great when Greek culture spread into the Near East and blended with the culture of that region.
    In the Roman Republic, an official granted unlimited power to run the state for a short period of time, usually six months, during an emergency.
    The process by which Romans culture and institutions were spread to the provinces; often accomplished through the Roman army as colonies of veterans were established wherever the legions were stationed throughout an empire.
    A movement that began in early Christianity whose purpose was to create communal life dedicated to God as a moral example to the world around them.
    Nuclear Family
    A family group consisting only of a father, a mother, and one or more children.
    The ideal of civilized behavior that emerged among the nobility in the eleventh and twelfth centuries under the influence of the church; a code of ethics that knights were expected to uphold.
    In the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church, an indulgence is “a way to reduce the amount of punishment one has to undergo for sins” which may reduce either or both of the penance required after a sin has been forgiven, or after death, the time to be spent in Purgatory.
    In the Middle Ages, a military campaign in defense of Christendom.
    Black Death
    The outbreak of plague in the mid-fourteenth century that killed from 25 to 50 percent of Europe’s population.
    Third Estate
    One of the traditional tripartite divisions of European society based on heredity and quality rather than wealth or economic standing, first established in the Middle Ages and continuing in to the eighteenth century.
    Emphasis on and interest in the unique traits of each person.
    Civic Humanism
    An intellectual movement of the Italian Renaissance that saw Cicero, who was both an intellectual and a statesman, as the ideal and held that humanists should be involved in government and use their rhetorical training in service of the state.

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