1. Why did the Renaissance develop in Italy? What factors?historical, geographical, economic, social, political, etc. ?contributed to its development in Italy, rather than elsewhere in Europe? There are many factors as to why the Renaissance movement began in Italy rather than elsewhere in Europe. Nowhere else in Europe were the elements that enabled the Renaissance to flourish better blended than in Italy. Italy had a prime geographical location, politically-active citizenry, a strong humanist movement, and abundant wealth. All these ingredients contributed to the
Renaissance taking root in Italy before spreading to the rest of Europe. The Italian peninsula, positioned within the Mediterranean Sea, enabled the city-states and principalities to become major centers of trade and commerce. Venice, located on the northeastern coast of Italy, was known as the Queen of the Adriatic and had the busiest Italian maritime port (Soppy, 2009, p. 66). Even inland cities such as Rome and Florence were able to benefit from Italy’s natural features. Florence had a port fifty miles away at the mouth of the Aaron River, which flowed through the heart of city roving inland access to merchants (Soppy, 2009, p. 2). Italy’s prime geographical location led it to be the first port of call for goods and ideas. Italy also differed from the rest of Europe politically. Countries such as England, Spain, and France were ruled by monarchs while Italy (with a few exceptions) consisted of city-states where power was shared among prominent families. It was within these city-states that the dynamic political atmosphere could nurture the Renaissance movement (Cook, 2014). In Florence, the Medici family was able to dominate the city for much of the fifteenth entry.
The Medici family were patron to many artists, musicians, philosophers, and architects. Cosmic De’ Medici had a hand in erecting many of the structures in Florence, believing the rich should give back to their communities (Soppy, 2009, p. 53). Many prominent families throughout Italy commissioned public art to display their wealth and power. What is more, the vigorous humanist movement helped the Renaissance establish strong roots in Italy. According to Soppy (2009), humanism can be defined as a movement that encouraged the study of the form and content of lassie learning and that movement was the core of the Renaissance (p. 1). “Italian society was characterized by a revival of antiquity, specifically the classical world of Greece and Rome” (Krebs, 2009). Renaissance humanists were fascinated with the study of ancient Greece and Rome, and civic humanists played a significant role of putting their knowledge of the classics to practical use for their communities. Ultimately, Italy’s abundant wealth is what would stimulate the development of the Renaissance. During the fifteenth century, Europe depended on Italy for much of its commerce (Cook, 2014).
This enabled the Italians to take the lead in areas such as banking, trade, and manufacturing, and therefore became “the most urbanize and prosperous people of Europe” (Soppy, 2009, p. 48). Italians were able to use their wealth and prosperity to support the arts. Italy was fortunate to have several factors working to promote the growth of the Renaissance. Were it not for Italy’s favorable geography, unique political climate, progressive social movements, and healthy economy, the Renaissance may not have had the success and advancements that it enjoyed during the fourteenth and fifteenth century. . Compare and contrast the motives and actions of Martin Luther in the German states and King Henry VIII in England in bringing about religious change during the Reformation. How were they different? Did they share any similarities? In Europe, the sixteenth century was a time of tremendous change. The most revolutionary event was the Reformation. Martin Luther and King Henry VIII of England had different motives, but both brought about religious change during the Reformation. Martin Luther was born in the German states in 1483 to Hans and Margaret.
Hans Luther was a miner, and Martin grew up in a working-class household. Lather’s parent’s, determined for him to become a lawyer, enrolled him in the local school in 1492 (Soppy, 2009, p. 165). Luther attended the University of Revert in 1501 where he studied the typical liberal arts curriculum, receiving his Bachelor’s degree in 1502 and Master’s in 1 505 (History. Com Staff, 2009). One day, Lather’s whole life changed when he was nearly struck by lightning. Luther swore he would become a monk if he made it through the storm and days later joined the Augustine Hermit monastery.
At the age of thirty-four, Martin Luther became convinced he found the answer to the question that had troubled him for any years. Luther believed that faith in God, rather than good works, was the key to achieving grace. During the same period the Catholic Church was selling indulgences, instead of having people do good works, with the promise that it would shorten the amount of time they spent in purgatory (Soppy, 2009, p. 167). Because Luther believed God saved people through his gift of faith, he saw the sale of indulgences as a corrupt practice by the Catholic Church.
When Luther nailed the “Ninety-Five Theses” to the church door, he had hoped to start an academic debate (Soppy, 2009, p. 168). He had no idea they would spark the Reformation. King Henry VIII was born in 1491 at Greenwich Palace in England. He was the second son of King Henry VII and Elizabeth of York (BBC History, 2014). Henry VII was required to get a special papal dispensation from Pope Julius II in order for his son to be able to marry Catherine of Argon, the widow of Henrys older brother Arthur (Soppy, 2009, p. 229). King Henry VIII married Catherine and began his reign in 1509.
In 1527, after eighteen years of marriage, Henry wanted a divorce from Queen Catherine (Soppy, 2009, p. 229). She had only been able to bear him one surviving child, a daughter, ND he desperately wanted a male heir. Martin Luther and King Henry Vic’s motives for reform came from entirely different sources. Luther disagreed with the papacy over the doctrine that allowed the selling of indulgences. He also believed that salvation was achieved by faith alone. Coming from a working-class background, Luther did not want to see the congregation being taken advantage of by the clergy.
Henry VIII wanted to separate from the Catholic Church because he desired to marry Anne Bobble, who promised to bear him sons (Soppy, 2009, p. 231). King Henry asked Pope Clement VII to grant him an annulment. Pope Clement refused because he was unwilling to admit the original dispensation Pope Julius II had granted for their marriage was illegal (Soppy, 2009, p. 231). Henry split from the church to fulfill his matrimonial plans and to take the wealthy lands of all the English monasteries. Unlike Luther, King Henrys motives for reform were purely selfish.
Both Martin Luther and Henry VIII achieved separation from the Catholic Church. While Luther separated while trying to reform due to his dissatisfaction with corrupt church practices, Henry VIII separated purposefully for his selfish desires. Although they were very different men, Martin Luther and King Henry VIII were both influential in the Reformation movement, and their actions can still be felt today. 3. Analyze the aims, methods, and degree of success of the Catholic Reformation (Counter- Reformation) in the sixteenth century.
What did the Catholic Church do to reform itself and respond to the spread of Protestantism? In what ways did it both succeed and fail in achieving its goals? At the start of the sixteenth century, people such as John Calvin and Martin Luther began questioning the practices of the Catholic Church. By challenging the church doctrine with his “Ninety-Five Theses”, Luther sparked the Protestant Reformation. By the mid-sixteenth century, the papacy realized it needed to reform church practices and respond to the Protestant challenge.
The Counter-Reformation was a way for the Roman Catholic Church to re- establish itself. The aim of the Counter-Reformation in Europe was to end the Protestant Reformation and rebuild the power of the Catholic Church through reform, religious orders, and education. The Counter-Reformation was successful in saving the integrity of the Roman Catholic Church, but states where the government adopted Protestantism remained. In order for the pope to succeed in reforming the Catholic Church, he would need support. Pope Paul Ill called the Council of Trend in December of 1 545 (History Learning Site, 2014).
Although it took eighteen years to conclude, the Council of Trend proved to be the most important church council in a thousand years (Soppy, 2009, p. 264). The reform council was intended to examine doctrine and reform, and was responsible for the reaffirmation and clarification of major church doctrines. In order to please the Protestants, Charles V wanted abuses coked at in hopes it would bring them back to the church (History Learning Site, 2014). The council admitted to corrupt practices within the church and took stern measures to correct them.
New laws were put in place to combat pluralism, simony, nepotism, immorality, and ignorance (Soppy, 2009, p. 265). Priests were no longer allowed to avoid church services with the reform of absenteeism. Also, the selling of indulgences was banned. While the church had gone through many reform councils, the Council of Trend was unique in the fact that so many of its decrees were carried UT and actual change was taking place in the church (Soppy, 2009, p. 265). The Council of Trend helped to solve internal problems of the Catholic Church.
To improve the Catholic standing within the communities, a number of new religious orders started during the Counter-Reformation. While the founding of religious orders traditionally brought about renewal and reform for the Catholic Church, Pope Innocent Ill discouraged their establishment in 121 5 in order to gain greater control over the papacy (Soppy, 2009, p. 256). The first new order established was the Thinness. The Thinness were advocates for improvement of the Catholic Church and set an example of how good priests should live and work (History Learning Site, 2014).
The Ursine was an order for women that promoted the education of women and children. Even some older orders responded by modernizing themselves (History Learning Site, 2014). Education proved to be a prominent aid as well in the Catholic Reformation. Igniting Loyola founded the Society of Jesus in 1540. Loyola ensured the Jesuits were highly disciplined, and education was at the heart of the movement (History Learning Site, 2014). After many years of training, a Jesuit was considered prepared to carry out his work.
By Alloy’s death in 1556, there were thirty-five Jesuit colleges throughout Europe as a base for the Counter-Reformation and the society had grown to about one thousand members (Soppy, 2009, p. 260). In the sixteenth century, the Catholic Reformation began when the Roman Catholic Church was at risk of losing its religious control in Europe. The Counter-Reformation succeeded in reducing the spread of Protestantism in Europe and was able to renew the face of Catholicism by reforming and educating the clergy, and initiating new religious orders. 4.
While women were often not allowed public roles during the Renaissance and Reformation periods, there were some examples of powerful or influential women in prominent public and leadership roles. Choose three of the following and discuss the roles these women played in shaping the society and culture of their age: Queen Elizabeth l, Catherine Domenici, SST. Teresa of Avail, Christine De Pizza, Artemisia Gentiles. During the Renaissance and Reformation period, women were often not allowed to pursue public roles. Opportunities for women were severely restricted, and few had a chance to receive a proper education.
Fortunately, there are a few examples of powerful or influential women such as Queen Elizabeth l, Christine De Pizza, and Artemisia Gentiles, who played prominent roles in shaping the society and culture of their age. Queen Elizabeth I of England was the first daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Bobble. Elizabeth ascended the throne in 1558, and she ruled for nearly 45 years. Young Elizabeth acted swiftly, after taking the reins from her sister, to address the pressing issue of religion. At her first session in Parliament, Queen Elizabeth called for the passage of the Act of Supremacy, which re-established he Church of England (The Biography. Mom website, 2014). Elizabeth took a more moderate stance, hoping to appeal to both Protestants and Catholics. The Elizabethan settlement permitted the clergy to marry, but also continued the traditional Episcopal system (Soppy, 2009, p. 244). Her reign is sometimes known as the Golden Age because of Elizabethan support of the arts. According to Soppy (2009), the England of Queen Elizabeth I featured remarkable literary talents such as William Shakespeare, the dramatist Christopher Marlowe, and poets Edmund Spencer, Sir Philip Sidney and his sister Mary (p. 46). When Spain set its sights on England, the English Ana was able to defeat the infamous Spanish Armada in 1588 (The Biography. Com website, 2014). Elizabeth also sponsored new efforts for colonization of the New World. Queen Elizabeth I provided England with a long period of stability and consistency. Christine De Pizza was an influential writer who advocated women’s rights during the Northern Renaissance. As Soppy (2009) explains, few French writers had such a significant impact on the modern world as Christine De Pizza (p. 141).
Pizza was not only the first woman to write professionally, but she was also the first enemies to be published (Soppy, 2009, p. 141). Pizza began writing to support her family after her father and husband died. Her most important work, The Book of the City of Ladies, described a world in which women were capable of doing all the work necessary to run a city (Soppy, 2009, p. 143). The book was revolutionary and was written to combat the traditional ideas that people had about women’s nature. Christine De Pizza was an influential figure who proved women could be independent and have a voice in a man’s world.
Artemisia Gentiles was one of the most prominent female artists of her time. Gentiles was trained by the endowed master Carving, who influenced her use of light and shade to heighten emotions and her strong sense of composition (Soppy, 2009, p. 103). In 1611, one of her teachers and a friend of her father’s, Stagnation Tasks, raped seventeen-year-old Gentiles. Gentiles maintained during the seven-month trial, in which she was tortured with thumbscrews that Tasks was guilty of the crime (Soppy, 2009, p. 103).
This traumatic event also seems to have influenced the subject matter of her paintings. Gentiles clearly identified herself with Judith, a strong, biblical heroine (Soppy, 2009, p. 104). Artemisia Genteelness’s extraordinary work helped other women artists to enter a male-dominated field. While women faced many difficulties during the Renaissance and Reformation period, some were able to overcome the obstacles. Queen Elizabeth l, Christine De Pizza, and Artemisia Gentiles all overcame personal and societal struggles and played significant roles in influencing the society and culture of their age. . Within the context of the Italian Renaissance, what was humanism, and what role did humanism and humanists play in Renaissance society and culture? In what ways did Italian Renaissance humanism differ from the animus of Northern Europe? For centuries, mankind looked to religion and the Catholic Church for guidance and answers. In the fourteenth century, when a cultural movement known as the Renaissance began in Italy, the qualities of humanism became more prominent. Instead of seeking supernatural explanations, humanists were using scientific and rational analysis.
Within the context of the Italian Renaissance, humanism was a movement that celebrated the revival of classical study. Humanism played a pivotal role in the Italian Renaissance, influencing society and culture through art, architecture, and literature. Humanism had a profound effect on art during the Renaissance period. Painters and sculptors began to focus more on the beauty, especially of the male human body. Michelangelo David boldly glorifies the naked human body (Soppy, 2009, p. 111). David was no longer a small effeminate boy, but a giant muscular hero.
Paintings such as Michelangelo The Last Judgment also show a sharp contrast to the Middle Ages. “Medieval depictions of the last Judgment generally showed figures dressed according to their social rank with Christ, the Virgin, and the apostles enthroned in heaven (Soppy, 2009, p. 98). Michelangelo painting illustrates mostly undressed figures grouped together around Christ. Michelangelo even included a self-portrait as SST. Bartholomew, who was flayed alive (Soppy, 2009, p. 98). The Renaissance period also saw a rise in portraits.
In the Middle Ages, to commission a portrait of oneself was considered prideful and vain (Soppy, 2009, p. 99). With humanism shaping the Renaissance, this all changed and prominent individuals wanted to be amortized in paintings and sculptures. Just as the paintings and sculptures became more beautiful during the Renaissance, so did the architecture. The architect Leon Battista Alberta “called for the building of beautiful cities worthy of humiliatingly inclined men and women of virtue” (Soppy, 2009, p. 112).
Alberta felt that architecture should be a social art, and each building should be planned in relation to its social functions and setting (Soppy, 2009, p. 112). While architects still used and modified classical models, they felt free to make exciting innovations (Soppy, 2009, p. 87). Architecture of the Renaissance boldly departed from medieval styles and conventions. Likewise, literature written during the Italian Renaissance was beginning to change. Writers such as Niccole Machiavelli attempted to understand human nature. While medieval political theorists were under the agreement that politics was a branch of ethics.
Niccole Machiavelli in his political book The Prince argues that since people are basically bad, rulers may have to behave inappropriately as well (Soppy, 2009, p. 81). In addition to Latin, which was the language of the Church, humanist writers began to use the vernacular. Italian Renaissance humanism differed from the humanist movement that developed in Northern Europe. While both shared a revival of classical learning, rather humanists were driven by religious ideals. Northern humanists placed more of an emphasis on man being the highest of God’s creatures (Nickels, 2000).