Beliefs based on a literal interpretation of the Bible are called?
the spirit of American Independence
Ku Klux Klan members associated their Protestant religion with what?
Which segment of society who were more likely to adopt the dress and manner exhibited by “flappers.”?
Cause: Rise of the Auto
In the 1920s the public’s devotion to movie stars was matched by Americans’ idealization of those who excelled in ?
Radio broke down barriers that
had once separated country people from city dwellers.
What is one way in which radio helped to create a large common culture in America?
because flappers were more interested in their
own pleasure than in women’s causes.
Women in many parts of the United States disliked flappers- why?
Academic freedom and science
The Scopes trial pitted religious beliefs against what?
the most controversial of Darwin’s ideas is known as ?
William Jennings Bryan
The prosecuting attorney in the Scopes trial was?
because a higher court overturned Scopes’s
conviction on a technicality.
Although Clarence Darrow had hoped to appeal the Scopes decision and test the constitutionality of the Tennessee law
that banned the teaching of evolution, he never got the chance -why?
July 21, 1925: Scopes ‘Monkey Trial’ Ends With Guilty Verdict. 1925: John Scopes, an unassuming high school
biology teacher and part-time football coach, is found guilty of teaching evolution in schools, in violation of Tennessee
The Tennessee Supreme Court rules that the Butler law is constitutional. However, it overturns Scopes’ verdict on
a technicality, ruling that his fine should have been set by the jury hearing the case instead of by Judge Raulston.
explain the monkey trials
The scopes trial
If you saw a photo of young women posing with toy monkeys….what news story of 1925 were they probably involved
In a decade full of firsts, the first woman to fly across the Atlantic was ?
which amendment gave full voting rights to women.
result 1 is ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment result 2 is more opportunities for women
. Background—rapid cultural changes
to end discrimination against and mistreatment of African Americans
throughout the United States.
what was the main goal of the NAACP?
moved from the south to the north
In the Great Migration, African Americans did what?
the unofficial capital of African American culture and activism in the United States in the 1920s was ?
Harlem Renaissance poet – dealt with issues of African American cultural heritage.–>
shortage of jobs
When African American soldiers returned from serving in World War I, they found what?
The importance of defiance in the face of white prejudice
A common theme in the work of Claude McKay, Langston Hughes, and other writers active during the Harlem
Renaissance was what?
F Scott Fitzgerald
The writing of whom helped create the image of the flapper of the 1920s?
Blended several different musical forms from the deep South
A wholly original form of American music, jazz —did what?
F Scott Fitzgerald
Writing about flappers and tycoons, which author dubbed the 1920s “The Jazz Age”?
The grapes of wrath
John Steinbeck wrote this novel about tenant farmers during the Great Depression.
the prevention by law of the manufacture, transportation, sale, use of alcohol, especially in the US between 1920 and
1933. repealed the passage of amendment…
citizens to get around the consequences of Prohibition
speakeasies allowed what?
places for the illegal sale (clubs, stores, etc) and consumption of alcoholic drinks, as during Prohibition
rise in organized crime
prohibition led to what?
refers to any style of homemade spirit made in amateur conditions. The term first appeared in 1920, in
the prohibition-era United States, in reference to the poor-quality alcohol that was being made.—gin was one of
many…made in the home often, in bathtubs, filled in bottles (often bath oils bottles) right at the tub.
To make, sell, or transport (alcoholic liquor) for sale illegally.—the core of the growth of organized
crime that emerged during Prohibition. (today- any product that its produced illegally)
the consequences of failing to comply with the 18th Amendment.
speakeasies allowed citizens to get around what?
During Prohibition, the largest industry in Detroit, Michigan was?
Prohibitionists argued that banning alcohol would help maintain discipline among U.S. troops fighting in Word War I.
why were people in favor of restricting alcohol use in 1917
birth of gangsters
Distribution of illegal liquor became the foundation for vast criminal empires
uneven distribution of wealth
Which of the following signaled economic weakness in the 1920s?
This president oversaw American’s food production during World War I and later directed relief efforts in
Europe. He also served as the secretary of commerce.—President when the Great Depression began???
The boom economy of the “Roaring Twenties” did not apply to whom?
Benefits from employers kept workers
satisfied, so they felt little need to join trade unions.
Why were the years 1923-1929 bad times for organized labor?
Effect: Farm prices sank
Cause: Unemployment and poverty Cause : decreased demand for food
Reason 1: Easy credit Reason 2 stock market collapse:
Action: Buying on margin Action: Bank failures leads to: Great Depression
What led to the Great Depression?
buying on margin
what is borrowing money from a broker to purchase stock. You can think of it as a loan from your
brokerage. Margin trading allows you to buy more stock than you’d be able to normally. To trade on margin, you
need a margin account.
to make it more difficult and more expensive to offer margin loans to investors
Toward the end of the 1920s what was the main goal of the Federal Reserve’s policies with regard to buying on
The Federal Reserve System, often referred to as the Federal Reserve or simply “the
Fed,” is the central bank of the United States. It was created by the Congress to provide the nation with a safer, more
flexible, and more stable monetary and financial system. The Federal Reserve was created on December 23, 1913,
when President Woodrow Wilson signed the Federal Reserve Act into law. Today, the Federal Reserve’s
responsibilities fall into four general areas. The European Union (EU) would use the Federal Reserve System as a
model for its own European Central Bank.
• Conducting the nation’s monetary policy by influencing money and credit conditions in the economy in pursuit of
full employment and stable prices.
• Supervising and regulating banks and other important financial institutions to ensure the safety and soundness of
the nation’s banking and financial system and to protect the credit rights of consumers.
• Maintaining the stability of the financial system and containing systemic risk that may arise in financial markets.
• Providing certain financial services to the U.S. government, U.S. financial institutions, and foreign official
institutions, and playing a major role in operating and overseeing the nation’s payments systems.
explain the federal reserve act?
He wanted to stop the run on
banks that threatened even the healthiest financial institutions.
Why did President Roosevelt declare a “bank holiday” on his second day in office?
If the stock price dropped,
brokers could force investors to repay their loans.
Why was buying on margin riskier than other ways of investing in the stock market?
As stock prices rose
and credit eased, even Americans of modest means became investors.
How did Americans’ behavior in regard to the stock market change in the early and mid 1920s?
that sales were lagging and investors were pulling out of the stock market.
In the months before the stock market crash, people who kept up with news in the financial world realized what ?
the economy by selling off their stocks
On October 24, 1929, investors responded to concerns about ?
he believed the economy would soon recover
President Hoover downplayed the effects of the crash -why?
gnp = gross national product
. The total value of all goods and services produced in a nation is called the ?
remained low, averaging about 5%
During the boom years of the 1920s overall unemployment across the nation ?
recessions vs depressions
Generally, rising unemployment is a classic sign of both recessions and depressions. As
consumers cut their spending, businesses cut payrolls in order to cope with falling earnings. The difference between
the two is that the unemployment rate in a recession is less severe than in a depression. Double digit (10% and above
is a red flag that the economy is in extreme trouble…and the length of time and the rising unemployment are just a
couple of factors used in studying these economic downturns)
protect themselves by passing high tariffs
In the aftermath of the crash, industrialized nations around the world took measures to do what ?
Loose-knit communities of rustic shacks and tents were called?
Americans knew they were in a Hooverville when they saw what?
begged, became hoboes, or went without basic needs
In the earliest days of the Great Depression, most families who lost jobs did what to survive?
People who hopped trains to look for work were known as
created by private business and the federal government working together
ashamed and angry
How did many of the unemployed feel about receiving handouts during the Great Depression?
the dust bowl
term that describes the devastation of the Great Plains by drought
stripped off the topsoil and blew it away
How did dust storms make it difficult to farm in the Great Plains?
In the fall of 1930 more than 6,000 unemployed workers sold what on the streets of New York City?
how desperate the American people were
during the Great Depression, President Hoover came under attack because many Americans believed that he did not fully grasp or care about
Photographer Dorothea Lange’s most famous subjects in the 1930s were
A group of government programs and policies established under President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the
1930s; the New Deal was designed to improve conditions for persons suffering in the Great Depression.
relief, recovery, and reforms
What were the three main goals of the New Deal?
Government should play as little a role in the
affairs of business as possible.
What was Hoover’s philosophy about the proper role of government?
smoot-hawley tariff of 1930
signed into law by U.S. President Herbert Hoover – 1930 were duties (taxes) placed on
over 20,000 imported goods. It’s political intent was to preserve American jobs, particularly in the agricultural sector, by
discouraging foreign imports. sponsored by Senator Reed Smoot and Representative Willis C. Hawley – raised U.S. tariffs
on imports to record levels.
European nations responded with tariffs of their own
Why did the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act of 1930 backfire?
In 1937 the nation experienced another sudden and alarming drop in the
SEC – Securities exchange commission
What entity helped restore public confidence in the safety of the nation’s banks?
the public regain faith in the stock market
The Securities and Exchange Commission helped
emergency banking act
Who gave government officials the power to examine each bank, determine its soundness, take steps to correct
problems, and, if necessary, close it?
overly bureaucratic and
creating a planned economy.
During the election of 1936 Republicans attacked President Roosevelt’s New Deal for being what
fair labor standards act
last major New Deal law was
When Franklin D. Roosevelt became president, he named whom to be his secretary of labor—the first woman ever to
serve in the cabinet?
civil works administration (CWA)
The New Deal program that provided public works jobs for many of those needing relief was called?
to increase the public’s confidence
What was one basic purpose shared by the Emergency Banking Act, the Glass-Steagal Act, and President Roosevelt’s
civilian conservation corps
what was formed to address the problem of unemployment among young men
to raise demand and drive up prices
During the Hundred Days, why was a program approved to pay farmers not to grow crops?
Effect- Conservatives and liberals criticize President Roosevelt.
Cause – New Deal programs are enacted.
recognizing the tribe as the key unit of social
organization in Native American society.
The Indian Reorganization Act reversed previous policies by?
Roosevelt believed that in times of
crisis, it was acceptable for government to aid people directly.
How did President Roosevelt’s philosophy differ from Herbert Hoover’s? a.
She gathered information for President Roosevelt,
traveled, wrote, and attacked social problems
How did Eleanor Roosevelt transform the role of First Lady?
Banks reopened with government assurances that
they were on sound financial footing.
What was the most important result of the Emergency Banking Act?
the supreme court
In 1935 which body struck significant blows to the New Deal’s attempts to bring change to the economy?
Which New Deal agency became a government watchdog over the stock market?
funded by WPA
What do the celebrated artists Jackson Pollock, Eudora Welty, and Ralph Ellison have in common?
Movies provided an escape from the constant economic troubles of the nation.
What reason best explains why nearly 80 million Americans spent money to go the movies each week during the
Effect- African Americans left the
Cause – President Roosevelt appointed African Americans to key positions.
The National Industrial Recovery Act
guaranteed workers the right to form unions.
How did the New Deal change the relationship between business and labor?
African Americans and women
The leadership roles of Mary McCleod Bethune and Frances Perkins showed that opportunities were increasing for
They offered some relief, but the
pay was too low for recipients to live on comfortably.
Which of the statements below best describes the relief programs of the New Deal?
his attempt to pack the Supreme Court with judges friendly to his policies
In 1937, what misstep caused President Roosevelt to lose the support of some within his own party and that of many in
the general public?
explained how deficit spending
could stimulate the economy.
President Roosevelt embraced the theories of John Maynard Keynes because Keynes?
The New Deal offered a more active and constructive role for government.
What was one effect of the New Deal?