The intent of this study is to explicate how air brakes in trains work and why they are at that place. Throughout this study there is information on the map of the Air Brake. the history and development of the brake. The constituent stuffs used in the brake.
the environmental considerations of the brake. its safety characteristics and societal deductions. The Air Brake was invented in 1869 by a adult male named George Westinghouse. It was originally designed for trains but Westinghouse so went on to develop the brake for trucks and some autos. The air brake is designed to be used as a failsafe in instance the primary brakes fail. nevertheless it can besides be used in utmost conditions to command the vehicle e.Order now
g. really steep hills. The air brake is a comparatively simple yet effectual system which is still in usage to this twenty-four hours. RecognitionsThe writer would wish to admit the aid of his instructor ————for his aid in the readying of this study. The writer would besides wish to admit Dr.
Bob Wheway for his first-class usher to composing an technology study. Table of ContentssTitle PageIAbstractIAcknowledgementsIIList of Figures- 1 –Introduction- 2 –Main Sections- 3 –Historical Development- 3 –Innovation Function- 3 –Component Materials- 5 –Environmental Considerations- 6 –Social Implications- 7 –Future Considerations- 7 –Safety Considerations- 8 –Conclusion- 9 –References- 9 –List of FiguresFigure 1 – A modern twenty-four hours air brake exploded diagram. Page 4 Figure 2 – a ternary valve system invented by George Westinghouse. Page 5IntroductionThis study focuses on How Train Air Brakes work. the stuffs they are made from and the history of Air Brakes in Trains Train Air Brakes fundamentally work on the principal of air force per unit area. The train driver pulls a lever which activates a pipe of air normally from 65-90psi.
This pipe of air tallies along all of the passenger cars of the train. When applied the air at the same time starts to pump the brake cylinder which activates the brake blocks. efficaciously halting the train. The author’s method of attack is to find how the breakage system works by researching the Breaking System and sketching its map and history. The range of this study is limited to a Year 11 High School Student.
The stuffs used in this braking system include: Cast Fe ( brake shoe ) . Stainless Steel ( pipes which contain high pressured air ) . High Carbon Steel/stainless steel ( wheel ) . Main SectionsHistorical DevelopmentThe Air Brake was invented in 1869 by George Westinghouse. Before Westinghouse invented the air brake there were people on each passenger car of the train called brakemen.
When person blew a whistle all of the brakemenwould at the same time use their ain brake or each passenger car. There was an earlier theoretical account of air brake called the direct air brake. but Westinghouse made the most of import find of an innovation called the three-base hit valve. This ternary valve and an subsidiary reservoir made the braking much more antiphonal and safe. Invention FunctionThe theory behind Train Air Braking systems is that they will halt a train faster and more expeditiously than any other method.
Basically when the driver of the train wants to halt he activates the brake valve. This brake valve activates the chief reservoir which fills the Brake pipe with air. normally between 65-90psi. This pressured air so gets pumped into the three-base hit valve which equally distributes the flow of air to the brake cylinder which activates the brake blocks and efficaciously stops the train. The diagram below summarises the basic rule of an air brake. Figure 1 – A modern twenty-four hours air brake exploded diagram.
Image taken from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. railway-technical. com/air-brakes. shtml It is of import that the air force per unit area is distributed equally throughout the train so that each passenger car breaks with the same force.
It is the three-base hit valve which is responsible for guaranting that the air force per unit area is the same throughout the brake pipe. A ternary valve cross subdivision is shown below. Figure 1 – a ternary valve system invented by George Westinghouse. Image taken from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.
sciencephoto. com/image/438296/530wm/C0115872-Westinghouse_Quick-action_triple_valve-SPL. jpgComponent MaterialsThe stuffs used in this braking system include: Cast Fe ( brake shoe ) . Stainless Steel ( pipes which contain high pressured air ) and ( Brake Cylinder ) . High Carbon Steel ( wheel ) .
Semi-metals ( Brake Pad ) . The stuffs used in the braking system are wholly suited to their intent within the braking system as they have the belongingss require for each portion. The braking shoe is made from dramatis personae Fe because it is really difficult and lasting. This makes it effectual as a braking shoe. The air pipes are made from unstained steel.
Stainless steel is a good overall stuff and it is lasting and is able to defy the force per unit area of the air while still being inexpensive. Its advantage is that it won’t rust. Stainless steel is besides used in the brake cylinders for these similar grounds. The wheels are made of high C steel/stainless steel so they are lasting and difficult.
The brake block is made out of a semi metal ( it varies depending on trains ) this is used because it is effectual in change overing kinetic energy into heat energy. One ground that air is used alternatively of a hydraulic fluid is that when the trains passenger cars have to be decoupled the hydraulic fluid would hold to be emptied out of the brake pipe. But by utilizing air alternatively of hydraulic fluid. you can uncouple the train without holding to empty the brake pipe every clip you want to alter passenger cars. There are other alternate stuffs for the system such as brass. gum elastic and ceramics.
But the most commonly 1s used are as shown above this is besides due do environmental considerations. Environmental ConsiderationsAn environmental consideration installed on trains is regenerative braking. Regenerative breakage means that instead than the engine of the train being stopped while the train is interrupting it stays on and puts power back into the grid system of trains. This means that trains use less electricity.
Social DeductionsAir brakes are really good as they create small to no noise when braking. This is a good societal deduction as it means that railroads can now be built closer to places without noise ailments. It besides means that trains go more appealing to be on as people can speak without holding to shout over the sound of the train. These factors make public conveyance more appealing to the populace which could ensue in more people catching trains than driving to work to assist the environment. Future ConsiderationsThere are no future considerations for Air Brakes on trains because new trains such as the magnetic train don’t need Air Brakes to run. So there is no demand to upgrade the braking system.
instead merely upgrade the whole web of trains. However if trains were to increase in size there is talk of utilizing stronger stuffs than dramatis personae Fe in the brake blocks. Another thought is to Coat the dramatis personae Fe with another stuff that will make more clash between the wheels and the brake block. such as Teflon fibers. Safety ConsiderationsThe air brake is a comparatively fail safe system where non much can travel incorrect but there are methods in topographic point to protect the train if something fails.
This includes a release valve in instance the air force per unit area builds up excessively much in one portion of the train. The air brake can besides be used as a safety consideration in instance the driver needs to brake difficult. The brake block can lock on the wheels which will do the train skid to a arrest. This is merely used in exigency state of affairss though. DecisionThe Air Brake has existed for more than a century and yet there has been small alteration and no better system to brake electric trains invented to this twenty-four hours. This system of braking has been rather effectual in its safety characteristics as it has saved lives.
All of the stuffs used in the fabrication procedure for train brakes are used because of their specific belongingss. Each of these stuffs helps the brake to execute its intended map. This system of braking has proven to be effectual in the yesteryear and the present and still will be in the hereafter. Mentions1. hypertext transfer protocol: //auto.
howstuffworks. com/auto-parts/brakes/brake-types/air-brake1. htm 2. hypertext transfer protocol: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Railway_air_brake3.
hypertext transfer protocol: //www. alibaba. com/showroom/train-brake-pad. hypertext markup language4. hypertext transfer protocol: //www. brakecylinder.
com/BrakeFAQ. htm5. hypertext transfer protocol: //www. railway-technical. com/air-brakes. shtml6.
hypertext transfer protocol: //www. sciencephoto. com7. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.
sdrm. org/faqs/brakes. hypertext markup language