Its supporters and practitioners were united not so much by a style rather than the common goal- a desire to break down the hierarchy of the arts and to revive traditional handicrafts and cake art that could be affordable to all. The leading exponent and propagandist of the movement was the designer, painter, and social reformer William Morris. He developed the view that art should be both beautiful and functional.
His ideal, the pure and simple beauty of modern craftsmanship was further strengthened by his friendships with the painters Edward Burner-Jones and Dante Gabriel Rosettes who also looked to the middle ages tort aesthetic guidance Yet, while the Arts and Crafts movement was in large part a reaction to industrialization, if looked at on the whole, it was neither anti-industrial nor anti-modern. Some of the European dictions believed that machines were in fact necessary, but they should only be used to relieve the tedium of mundane, repetitive tasks.Order now
At the same time, some Arts and Crafts leaders felt that objects should also be affordable. The conflict between quality production and ‘demo’ design, and the attempt to reconcile the two, dominated design debate at the turn of the twentieth century Though the spontaneous personality of the designer became more central than the historical “style” of a design, certain tendencies stood out: reformist neo-gothic influences, rustic ND “cottager” surfaces, repeating designs, vertical and elongated forms.
In order to express the beauty inherent in craft, some products were deliberately left slightly unfinished, resulting in a certain rustic and robust effect. There were also socialist undertones to this movement, in that another primary aim was for craftspeople to derive satisfaction from what they did. This satisfaction, the proponents of this movement felt, was totally denied in the industrialized processes inherent in compartmentalized machine production. In the United States, the Arts and Crafts Movement took on a distinctively more regions flavor.
While the European moment tried to recreate the virtuous world of craft labor that was being destroyed by industrialization, Americans tried to establish a new source of virtue to replace heroic craft production: the tasteful middle-class home. They thought that the simple but refined aesthetics tot Arts and Crafts decorative arts would ennoble the new experience tot industrial consumerism, making individuals more rational and society more harmonious. In short, the American Arts and Crafts Movement was the aesthetic counterpart of its contemporary political movement: Progressivism.
Art Nouveau, 1890-1914, explores a new style in the visual arts and architecture that developed in Europe and North America at the end of the nineteenth century The exhibition is divided into three sections: the first focuses on the 1900 World’s Fair in Paris, verse Art Nouveau was established as the first new decorative style Of the twentieth century; the second examines the sources that influenced the style; and the third looks at its development and fruition in major cities in Europe and North America.
At its height exactly one hundred years ago, Art Nouveau was a concerted attempt to create an international style based on decoration. It was developed y a brilliant and energetic generation of artists and designers, who sought to fashion an art form appropriate to the modern age, During this extraordinary time, urban life as we now understand it was established. Old customs, habits, and artistic styles sat alongside new, combining a wide range of contradictory images and ideas.
Many artists, designers, and architects were excited by new technologies and lifestyles, while others retreated into the past, embracing the spirit world, fantasy, and myth. In design Art Nouveau was characterized by writhing plant forms and an opposition to the historicism which had plagued the 19th century. There was a tension implicit throughout the movement between the decorative and the modern which can be seen in the work of individual designers as well as in the chronology of the whole.
Its emphasis on decoration and artistic unity links the movement to contemporary Symbolist ideas in art, as seen in the work of the Vienna Secessionists, but the movement avgas also associated with Arts and Crafts ideas and, as such, Art Nouveau forms a bridge between Morris and Groping (recognized by Vesper in his book, Pioneers of the Modern Movement, 1936). In Britain the style was exemplified by the architecture Of Rennin Mackintosh, ND the design work of the Macdonald sisters.
The lingering impact of Morris in England slowed down the progress of the new style in design although Muckraked. Godwin, Townsend and even Voices were influenced towards Art Nouveau- It was in illustration that the ideas were most keenly felt, through the new periodicals and presses – the Yellow Book. The Studio, the Savoy, the Hobby Horse and though the work of Beardsley, Rickets and Selwyn Image. In France, despite Gummier’5 famous glass and iron Metro designs, the movement was best expressed in the applied arts, especially the glassware of Illiquid (1860-1945) and
Gale (1846-1904). In Belgium, the style was promoted through the Society des Vents (Less Vying) established in 1884, and including Ensure as well as the more characteristically Art Nouveau architects Worth and Van De Veldt in its members. In Spain the style was concentrated in the eccentric hands of Gaud in Barcelona. In Vienna, architects like Wagner, Hoffmann and Albrecht, and artists such as Slim gathered to promote the style through the Secessionist magazine Ever Sacrum.
In Germany, the movement split between the decorative tendencies of Otto Iceman (1865-1902) and the Pan magazine, and the streamlined design of Barrens. In America architects like Sullivan and Wright were influenced by European ideas but conceived Art Nouveau in different terms, whilst designers like Tiffany enthusiastically embraced the movement. Jewelry of the Art Nouveau period revalidated the jeweler’s art, with nature as the principal source of inspiration, complemented by new levels Of virtuosity in enameling and the introduction of new materials, such as opals and semi-precious stones.
The widespread interest in Japanese art, and the more specialized enthusiasm for Japanese metalworking skills, fostered new themes and approaches to ornament. For the previous two centuries, the emphasis in fine jewelry had been on gemstones, particularly on the diamond, and the jeweler or goldsmith had been principally concerned with providing settings for their advantage. With Art Nouveau, a different type of jewelry emerged, motivated by the artist-designer rather than the jeweler as setter of precious stones.
The jeweler’s of Paris and Brussels defined Art Nouveau in jewelry, and in these cities it achieved the most renown. Contemporary French critics were united in acknowledging that jewelry was undergoing a radical transformation, and that the French designer-jeweler- lassoer Rene© Illiquid was at its heart. Illiquid glorified nature in jewelry, extending the repertoire to include new aspects of nature ? dragonflies or grasses ? inspired by his encounter with Japanese art.
The jeweler’s were keen to establish the new style in a noble tradition, and for this they looked back to the Renaissance, with its jewels of sculpted and enameled gold, and its acceptance of jeweler’s as artists rather than craftsmen. In most of the enameled work of the period precious Stones receded. Diamonds were usually given subsidiary roles, used alongside less familiar materials such as molded glass, horn and ivory.