During the Spanish colonisation in the Philippines.
the authorities was composed of two subdivisions. the executive and the judicial. There was no legislative subdivision on that clip since the Torahs of the islands were coming from Spain. The lone Torahs created in the Philippines are those who were ordered by the Governor General. The authorities on that clip was lead by the Governor General.
He was considered as the representative of Spain and the King himself. He is the highest officer in the island and responsible for implementing Torahs from the female parent state. He besides has the power to name or alleviate officer in the authorities or priest in the parish. except with those personally appointed by the male monarch of Spain. The states in the island were called as “Encomienda” and were governed by the “Encomienderos” .Order now
subsequently they were replaced by the “Alcalde Mayor” “Alcalde Mayor” had both the executive and judicial power. He had besides given the right to roll up revenue enhancements. The “Alcalde Mayor” was besides allowed to set up a concern because of its limited wage. In 1886. their executive power was abolished but their judicial powers remain.
Small towns were governed by the “gobernadorcillo” . Under his authorization were one constabulary head and the lower authorities employees from which he had legal power. “Gobernadorcillo” were elected by the married people but subsequently a “gobernadorcillo” was chosen by those surpassing in the place as his replacing. The metropolis was governed by two city managers. 12 councilors and a constabulary head.
a secretary and other employees. The metropolis is called as “Ayuntamiento” . The “Encomienda” system was implemented. It is a system from which the male monarch has the right to reassign the authorization of a peculiar land to any Spanish person or establishment.
Those single who posses the right of “encomienda” was called as “Encomiendero” . An “Encomiendero” has authorization to roll up revenue enhancements from the people in his legal power. He besides has the responsibility to care and look for the benefits of those citizens. Unfortunately.
the “encomienda” system was misused by some “encomienderos” . A batch of them use the “encomienda” for their ain involvement. They tend to mistreat their power. roll uping revenue enhancements more than the existent revenue enhancement value. The “encomiendero’s” abuse their powers which sometimes made people rebellions against them.
The “encomienda” system created hinderances for the economic development of the multitudes. This doing the elect richer and doing the economic state of affairs of the bulk under developed. Although the “encomienda” system is designed for administration. its execution gives negative effects to the people from which the “encomienderos” abuse their power against the people. to whom they are bound to regulate.
The authorities during the American governmentAfter the Spaniards capitulated to them in the Battle of Manila on August 13. 1898. the winning Americans established the Military Government on August 14. This authorities which was run by military generals appointed by the American president exercised all powers of the authorities until the war was declared by the Americans to hold ended until July 1901.
following the gaining control of President Emilio Aguinaldo. On July 4. 1901. upon the recommendation of the Second Philippine Commission headed by William Taft.
the American governments established the civil authorities that took over the maps of the military authorities. The president of the Filipino Commission became civil governor in countries already pacified under the American military regulation. The Civil Governor ( the rubric was subsequently changed to Governor-General in 1905 ) besides exercised legislative powers while staying as president of the Filipino Commission. the lawmaking organic structure of the authorities up to 1907. Upon the creative activity of the Philippine Assembly that served as the lower house. the Filipino Commission became the upper house of the legislative subdivision from 1907 to 1916.
The first free national elections in the Philippines were held for the members of the Philippine Assembly who were all Filipinos where Sergio Osmena served as Speaker of the Assembly. With the transition of the Spooner Amendment in 1916. the Filipino Commission and Philippine Assembly gave manner to an all Filipino Legislature. The Filipino Legislature had two houses – the Senate and the House of Representatives.
Manuel Quezon was elected President of the Senate and Osmena once more became Speaker of the House. Despite the turning engagement of the civil authorities there were still restrictions. The American governor-general was still the power behind the authorities and. together with the American president could blackball any jurisprudence passed by the Filipino Legislature.
The U. S. Congress regulated Philippine trade and the American Supreme Court could overturn the determinations of the Philippine Supreme Court. Pursuant to the commissariats of the Tydings-McDuffie Law passed by the U.
S. Congress. the Commonwealth Government was established to win American Insular Government in the Philippines. Following the first national elections under the 1935 Constitution.
the Commonwealth Government was inaugurated on November 15. 1935. with Quezon as president and Osmena as frailty president. The Commonwealth Government was a ten-year transitory authorities which gave Filipinos a opportunity to turn out to the Americans their capableness preparedness in managing their ain authorities. If proven capable the independency of the Philippines would be proclaimed upon the termination of the said period. The Commonwealth was a semi-independent or independent authorities of the Filipinos under American tuition.
It was republican in signifier under the presidential type. The legislative power was vested in a bicameral Congress that was divided into the Senate and the House of Representatives. It had its ain system of judicial tribunals with the Supreme Court on top of the ladder. When the Second World War broke out. the Commonwealth Government became a government-in-exile administrating the personal businesss of the Philippines across the ocean from the United States.
The Commonwealth functionaries. headed by President Quezon. had to fly at that place to the Nipponese business of the state. The Nipponese businessThe Nipponese military governments instantly began forming a new authorities construction in the Philippines. Although the Japanese had promised independency for the islands after business.
they ab initio organized a Council of State through which they directed civil personal businesss until October 1943. when they declared the Philippines an independent democracy. Most of the Philippine elite. with a few noteworthy exclusions. served under the Japanese. Filipino coaction in Japanese-sponsored political establishments – which subsequently became a major domestic political issue-was motivated by several considerations.
Among them was the attempt to protect the people from the abrasiveness of Nipponese regulation ( an attempt that Quezon himself had advocated ) . protection of household and personal involvements. and a belief that Filipino patriotism would be advanced by solidarity with fellow Asians. Many collaborated to go through information to the Allies.
The Japanese-sponsored democracy headed by President Jose P. Laurel proved to be unpopular. Nipponese business of the Philippines was opposed by progressively effectual resistance and guerilla activity that finally reached large-scale proportions. Postwar probes showed that about 260.
000 people were in guerilla organisations and that members of the anti-Japanese resistance were even more legion. Their effectivity was such that by the terminal of the war. Japan controlled merely 12 of the 48 states. One major opposition group in the Central Luzon country was furnished by the Huks. Hukbalahap ( Hukbo ng Bayan Laban sa Hapon ) .
or the People’s Anti-Japanese Army organized in early 1942 under the leading of Luis Taruc. a communist party member since 1939. The Huks armed some 30. 000 people and extended their control over much of Luzon.
Other guerrilla units were attached to the SWPA. and were active throughout the archipelago. End of the Nipponese businessOn October 20. 1944.
MacArthur’s Allied Forces landed on the island of Leyte accompanied by Osmena. who had succeeded to the commonwealth presidential term upon the decease of Quezon on August 1. 1944. Landings so followed on the island of Mindoro and around the Lingayen Gulf on the west side of Luzon. and the push toward Manila was initiated.
The Commonwealth of the Philippines was restored. Contending was ferocious. peculiarly in the mountains of northern Luzon. where Nipponese military personnels had retreated. and in Manila. where they put up a last-ditch opposition.
The Philippine Commonwealth military personnels and the recognized guerilla combatant units rose up everyplace for the concluding offense. Contending continued until Japan’s formal resignation on September 2. 1945. The Philippines had suffered great loss of life and enormous physical devastation by the clip the war was over. An estimated 1 million Filipinos had been killed. a big proportion during the concluding months of the war.
and Manila was extensively damaged. First Philippine RepublicDate| Milestone|21 January 1899| The Malolos Constitution was ratified during a general assembly of Congress. and the first Council of Government of the First Philippine Republic was created. From January 21. 1899 to May 7.
1899. with Apolinario Mabini as President of the Cabinet ( i. e. Prime Minister ) . Gracio Gonzaga served as the Secretary of Public Welfare.
which included the transit and communications portfolio. | 07 May 1899 to 13 November 1899| When Mabini was replaced by Pedro Paterno as President of the Cabinet. among the seven sections set up was the Communicaciones Y Obras PublicasA? ( i. e.
the Communications and Public Works Department ) . Maximo Paterno was appointed as Secretary of Public Works and Communications. Since so. Public Works. Transportation. and Communications have been grouped into one section.
| Independent Philippines and the Third Republic ( 1946-1972 )In April 1946. elections were held. Despite the fact that the Democratic Alliance won the election. they were non allowed to take their seats under the stalking-horse that force had been used to pull strings the elections. The United States withdrew its sovereignty over the Philippines on July 4.
1946. as scheduled. Manuel Roxas ( Liberal Party ) . holding been inaugurated every bit President as scheduled. on July 4.
1946 before the granting of independency. strengthened political and economic ties with the United States in the controversial Philippine-US Trade Act. In Mar. .
1947. the Philippines and the United States signed a military aid treaty ( since renewed ) which allowed the US to take part every bit in the development of the country’s natural resources—and rented sites for 23 military bases to the US for 99 old ages ( a later understanding reduced the period to 25 old ages get downing 1967 ) . These bases would subsequently be used to establish operations in the countries of Korea. China. Vietnam.
and Indonesia. During the Roxas disposal. a general amnesty was granted for those who had worked together with the Nipponese piece at the same clip the Huks were declared illegal. His disposal ended prematurely when he died of bosom onslaught April 15. 1948 while at the US Air Force Base in Pampanga. Vice President Elpidio Quirino ( Liberal Party.
henceforth referred to as LP ) was sworn in as President after the decease of Roxas in April 1948. He ran for election in November 1949 against Jose P. Laurel ( Nacionalista Party. henceforth referred to as NP ) and won his ain four-year term. During this clip.
the CIA under the leading of Lt. Col. Edward G. Lansdale was engaged in paramilitary and psychological warfare operations with the end to keep backthe Huk Movement. Among the steps which were undertaken were psyops-campaigns which demoralized the superstitious notion of many Filipinos and Acts of the Apostless of force by authorities soldiers which were disguised as Huks.
By 1950. the U. S. had provided the Filipino military with supplies and equipment deserving $ 200 million dollars.
The immense undertaking of retracing the war-worn state was complicated by the activities in cardinal Luzon of the Communist-dominated Hukbalahap guerillas ( Huks ) . who resorted to panic and force in their attempts to achieve land reform and derive political power. They were eventually brought under control ( 1954 ) after a dynamic onslaught introduced by the curate of national defence. Ramon Magsaysay. By that clip Magsaysay was president of the state. holding defeated Quirino in Nov.
. 1953. His run was massively supported by the CIA. both financially and through practical aid in discrediting his political enemies. He had promised sweeping economic alterations.
and he did do advancement in land reform. opening new colonies outside crowded Luzon Island. His decease in an aeroplane clang in Mar. . 1957.
was a serious blow to national morale. Vice President Carlos P. Garcia succeeded him and won a full term as president in the elections of Nov. . 1957.
In foreign personal businesss. the Philippines preserved a steadfast anti-Communist policy and joined the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization in 1954. There were troubles with the United States over American military installings in the islands. and. in malice of formal acknowledgment ( 1956 ) of full Philippine sovereignty over these bases. tensenesss increased until some of the bases were dismantled ( 1959 ) and the 99-year rental period was reduced.
The United States rejected Philippine fiscal claims and jutting trade alterations. Filipino resistance to Garcia on issues of authorities corruptness and anti-Americanism led. in June. 1959. to the brotherhood of the Liberal and Progressive parties.
led by Vice President Diosdado Macapagal. the Liberal party leader. who succeeded Garcia as president in the 1961 elections. Macapagal’s disposal was marked by attempts to battle the climb rise that had plagued the democracy since its birth ; by attempted confederations with adjacent states ; and by a territorial statement with Britain over North Borneo ( subsequently Sabah ) . which Macapagal claimed had been leased and non sold to the British North Borneo Company in 1878.