The world came to existence as a result of communication, therefore everything in it must definitely communication. hence a society can not exist without communication, in other words, communication must take place before a given geaographical area can grow to become a society. Not wistanding we must know a society is and what communication is all about. A society may be described as a group of people who have lived togethter, sharing common values and general interest long enough to be considered by others and themselves as a unit. Analysing the definition of society above, you would see that for this group of people to have been regarded as a group, they must have communicated, it is inevitable for this group of people to share common values and general interest without communicating.Order now
What is this almighty communication?
Communication they say is the soul of life. human life depend opn communication. we communicate to live and live to communicate, the day we stop to communicate is the day we give up the ghost. un like other animals which are structured or made in such a way as to survive in a particular environment. in other words man was not created with special features to enable him survive in a particular environment, yet man survive virtually in all environment, thanks to communication.
Comunication has made it possible for man to survive in all environment, everything about him is communication and throughout his life he communicates. but what exactly is this all important communication?
Communication has been variously defined, some of the definitions includes Transmissions of information, that is the passage of information from Mr A to Mr B through a channel. Passing of message fron one place to another.
There are various needs for communication in a society, these include A society cannot exist without communication and for as long as we have more than one creature in a given geographical area, there is bound to be communication. furthermore, even in a geographical area where we have one one person, which is arguably impossible, he is bound to communicate within himself and with his environment. this lead us the classifications of communication that exist in a society and imagining how it will be without them.
TYPES OF COMMUNICATION:
1. HUMAN COMMUNICAT ION
This type of communication takes place among human beings. With reference to rural communities in Nigeria, i am going to explain the following types of commuincation. NOTE: The types of communication below should not be categoried as right or wrong but as helping to achieve understanding of the interesting and intriguing subjects of communication
Instrumental communication comprises of various devices in rural areas and urban areas which serves as accompaniment in music, song and dance as well as dissemination of messages. In other words you have to make use of an instrument to communicate. Instrumental modes of communication produce sounds that signify or symbolises a communication event within the context of a specific setting community. wooden drum, woodlock, bell, xylophone,pot drum, deer horn, hand shakers whistle, skin drum are some of the instruments used in different communities in Nigeria to communicate in various ways. imagine the communities that make use of the above mentioned instruments not being able to communicate with them, what will happen to the numerous messages that will never be passed or communication with the communities and beyond. really we cannot do without communication.
This is a type of communication that engages component of demostration communication mode to serve various very useful purposes in terms of sensitising audience and community memebers to different messages. This form of communication basically involves music and dance. imagine a party without music, a festival with dance, even a military parade without music? This simply show s the extent at which we cannot exist without communication.
Icons are generally regarded as standing for or representing something else. it standsto reason that iconographic communication comprises elements which communicate or pass across messages. however based on a society”s peculiar history, experience and circumstance, elements, symbols and icons do not uniformly communicate same message. iconographic communication, in a symbolic relation, the medium is able to suggest reality because not through any necessary or inherent connection but through customs and habituation, the symbol arouses responses very similar to those evoked by reality itself.
Based on established ways of doing things, the elements of this mode of communicate understood by the community. for instance,an illiterate who has been living in a village and now comes to the city of Abuja for the first time, and he sees a traffic light. first, he would not know its a traffic light, and second he wouldnt know how it communicates, but any average city resident know what a traffic light and how it communicate. the larger part of iconographic communication is prominent in the rural communites. Amongst the yorubas, when oay someone a visit and he offers you water in means you are welcome, and if its otherwise it simply means you are not welcome.
EXTRA MUDANE COMMUNICATION
This is a form of communication between man and the spirit world. this communication embraces supernatural beings-ancestors, spirits, gods and the supreme GOD. it also involve processes, elements or abilities that are superhuman as in witchcraft, reincartation etc it is clear from the forgoing thay extra- muydane communication is quite a complex endeavour. it may involve intra-personal processes, physical revelation, magical other-worldly verbalizations, spiritual tranmigration and it may convey elements of cultural celebration, dedication and concecration. a very good example is the Osun festival. while one of the most common example if this mode of communication is masquerade. where man assume the spirit world wearing a mask.
This is the most common mode of communication and one of the oldest. it all began with adam and eve in th garden of eden. its a type of communication that takes place between two perosn or more but not a crowd. it takes place in almost every of our daily endeavours. this is a fomr of communicationthat is bound on humans. it takes place at home, at work, in the office, mosque, church, market every where as long as there are more than one person in the given geographical area.
this is a kind of communication that takes place oneself.it can also be said to a communication between the body and soul.
CLASSIFICATION OF HUMAN COMMUNICATION
VERBAL COMMUNICATION: this is a kind of communication that takes place in written or spoken forms. in other words, its a form a communication that take place with the aid of writing and speaking. every communication that is spoken ir written falls under this category.
NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION: this kind of communication is direct opposite of verbal communication. they are communication that are not done in proper language. they include
i paralinguistic- these are spoken signs like hissing, yawning, laughing and weeping. they are called paralinguistic because they are spoken but they are not proper lanuguage.
ii Kinesics- this is also known as body language. we communicate with practically every part of our body.
iii Chronemics- this is about using time to communicate.
iv Proxemics- this is about communicating with space and distance.
v Signals- it involves using certain devices and objects to communicate, throught those devices and objects we are able to derive meaning.
vi Signs-this include drawings, pictures, and at times road signs.
vii Icon- This may be described as a group of interactive symbols e.g. asorock, white house- power, red rose- love.
2. ANIMAL COMMUNCATION: Animals are part of the creature that makes up our environment and they also communicate as human beings do. hence this type of communication can be defined as a communication between and among animals.
3. MACHINE COMMUNICATION: This form of communication takes place within and between machine. e.g. the computer central processing unitCPU have to communicate with the monitor and also liase with the keyboard and mouse for any meaningful communication to take place. the computer will have to convert human language into machine language. however it should be pointed out that machine may not be able to communication without instruction from man. in other words, for machine communication to take place man will have to give instructions or directives to the machine.
4. MAN-ANIMAL COMMUNICATION: from time in memorial, man has been known to communicate with animals in a number of ways. in facton some occassion, especially pets such as dogs, cats, monkeys, parrot have been known to be man”s best friend and they”ve saved and helped man in vaious ways.this is basically a communication between man and animals especially domestic animals.
5. HUIMAN-MACHINE COMMUNICATION: This type of communicationtakes place when man instruct a machine to perform one funtion or the other. when you type on a computer you are instructing the machine.
FUNCTIONS OF COMMUNICATION IN A SOCIETY
Communication is essential for human existence and development, without it, it has been argued that man may not have been able to survive. in its present form communication performs several funtions to the society. These include
FACILITATION OF TRANSACTION: with the aid of communication we are able to transact different kind of business. the word business is used in a general sense to mean any kind of exchange between tewo or more people.
Another inportant function is RELATIONSHIP BUILDING. in life we live to build relation at home, at work, in school and other places. for us to enter into any relatinoship, for us to maintain any relationship we need to communicate. communication also performs INFORMATION FUNCTION. communication help keep us informed about happenings around uus and also keeps us posted about happenings in other places. In addition, communication also perform EDUCATION FUNCTION. without communication it is doubtful if there could be education. communication is the foundation upon which educational activities are built. in fact education has been describes as a communicative event. a communbicative event is an event which has its essence in communication.
TRANSMISSION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE from one geberation to another. with the aid of communication, society is able to transmit its cultural values, norms and tradition from present generation to dcoming generations.
DISPUTE RESOLUTION is another function that communication performs, research has proven that most dispute/crisis are caused by communication breakdown, if that is the case then it will take effective communication to resolve or settle the dispute/ crisis.
Communication performs ENTERTAINMENT FUNCTION. music which is an essential part of entertainment is a communication tool.
Communication performs ECONOMIC/COMMERCE FUNCTION. with the aid of advertising which is a communication tool, manufacturers are able to produce on a large scale, they do not have to worry about how to get the consumers informed since advertising has effectively taken care of that.
CORRELATION is another function performed by communication in a society. throught this functioncommunication helps to interpret and put issues, events, occurenes etc in proper perspective for us to understand. 1001 events occur daily in rapid succession dat without communication it will be humanly impossble to follow those events let alone understanding them.
Man communicates from his day of birth till his death. everyhting he does he communicates.where ever he is he communicates, whether at work, at home , in the office in the toilet any where that he may fine him self, he communicates. even after death it is believed, especially be africans that man still communicate in the spiritual realm.
Since we live to communicate and we communicate to live, our life is therefore communication, hence there is no life without communication and a society can never come to be without life.