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    Selected Readings in Computer-Mediated Communicati Essay

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    on, Communication ThThis is a selected listing of items related to Computer-MediatedCommunication, the Internet, and network information infrastructure anduse. These items were on my qualifying exam reading list for the doctoral program in Communication and Rhetoric at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.

    I took these exams in September, 1993. The first sections describe what the articles and books are about. Following these sections is the full bibliography. Comments are welcome. This file’s URL http://www.

    december. com/john/papers/cmcbib93. txt——————————————————————————–Contents1 Explaining Computer-Mediated Communication 1. 1 Meta-theories 1. 2 Conceptualizations of Computing 1.

    3 Theories, Models, Typologies and Propositions 1. 4 Innovation Diffusion/Media Choice and Adoption/Critical Mass 1. 4. 1 Critical Mass Theory 1.

    5 Information/Media Richness 1. 6 Social/Psychological Factors 1. 7 Social Presence Model 1. 8 Reduced Social Cues (RSC) Approach 1.

    9 Social Identity Theory and De-individuation Processes (SIDE) Model 1. 10 Social Information/Influence/Context Model 1. 11 Language Aspects/Rhetorical 1. 12 Media Characteristics / Media Evolution2 Studies and Applications of Computer-Mediated Communication 2. 1 Studies 2. 1.

    1 Comparing CMC with FTF2. 1. 2 Socioemotional Content in CMC 2. 2 Computer-Mediated Scholarship/Education 2. 3 CMC Infrastructure2. 3.

    1 Forums and Tools2. 3. 2 Networks3 Organizational Communication 3. 1 Theory3.

    1. 1 Structure/Functions of Organizations 3. 1. 2 Human Relations3. 1. 3 Communication as Process of Organization 3.

    1. 4 Adaptive Structuration Theory3. 1. 5 Organizations as Cultures 3. 1. 6 Network Analysis 3.

    2 Studies of Organizations 3. 3 Technology/Communication in Organizations 3. 4 Organizational CMC 3. 5 CSCW3.

    5. 1 GDSS Bibliography——————————————————————————–1Explaining Computer-Mediated Communication1. 1Meta-theories* Rice (1992) recursively summarizes material from CMC reviews. Mainpoint: “Even a general awareness of the diversity of these contexts, muchless the numerous studies associated with the various contexts, shouldobviate the easy and ill-formed introduction found in many CMC studies,that ‘there is little theoretical or empirical research in this area. ‘ “* Rice (1989a) asserts that we need to integrate CMC research aroundfour themes: stakeholders, goals, domains, and tools. Main point: p.

    436Integrate CMC research across disciplines/tech/research processes viastakeholders, goals, analytical domain, and tools. 1. 2Conceptualizations of Computing* Mowshowitz (1981) describes five positions underlyingconceptualizations of computing: technicism, progressive individualism,elitism, pluralism, radical criticism. * Hirschheim (1985) describes underlying epistemological and ontologicalstances in office automation research. * Turkle (1982) talks about how we project our ideas onto computers.

    1. 3Theories, Models, Typologies and Propositions* Burge (1992) presents a detailed bibliography for current literature indistance education and CMC. * Rice (1992) recursively summarizes material from CMC reviews. Mainpoint: “Even a general awareness of the diversity of these contexts, muchless the numerous studies associated with the various contexts, shouldobviate the easy and ill-formed introduction found in many CMC studies,that ‘there is little theoretical or empirical research in this area. ‘ “* Hacker and Monge (1988) describes theory ofcommunication/information models and designs of CMC systems.

    * Johnston (1989) comments on Rice’s article on issues and concepts inresearch on CMC. * McCreary (1990) describes three behavior models for CMC. * Rice and Boan (1985) describes journals about CMC. * Culnan and Markus (1987) describes media use factors. Main point:CMC is low in social presence (no noverbal); therefore, it is task-orientedand impersonal.

    * Bowers (1992) claims artifacts have politics by analyzing formalisms ofdesign or implementation. Main point: “If we are to take computertechnology seriously, we will have to abandon innocent humanism infavor of a cyber politics. “* Cathcart and Gumpert (1983) talk about mediated interpersonalcommunication. * Feenberg (1986) presents an operating manual for computerconferencing. * Ghani (1988) describes flow theory in CMC. * Kuehn (1990) asserts that play theory explains CMC as “communicationplay” when communicators can alter interaction and achieve goals.

    1. 4Innovation Diffusion/Media Choice and Adoption/Critical Mass* Rogers (1983) describes the diffusion of innovations. * Rogers (1986) describes impacts of innovations. * Grantham and Vaske (1985) summarizes factors affectingdiffusion/adoption of the technology. * Leonard-Barton (1988) describes role of implementation process ininnovation diffusion.

    * Markus (1987) describes diffusion and adoption of interactive mediasystems in terms of critical mass. * Markus (1990) describes critical mass theory for interactive media,which directs attention away from the individual to the community levelof analysis. * Miles (1992) reviews issues of applying CMC to publishing andinterpersonal communication on national scales (Britain, France). * Thompson (1975) describes idea of “electronic hallway” as facilitatinggroup formation and operation.

    * Turoff (1989)* Korzenny (1978) presents a theory for electronic closeness inorganizations. * Alexander, Penley, and Jernigan (1991) explores the effects ofdifferences in how managers choose media. * Ebadi and Utterback (1984) describes how communication affectstechnology use. 1. 4.

    1 Critical Mass TheoryA threshold model that explains how use develops in a community. * Markus (1987) describes diffusion and adoption of interactive mediasystems in terms of critical mass. * Markus (1990) describes critical mass theory for interactive media,which directs attention away from the individual to the community levelof analysis. * Oliver, Marwell, and Teixeira (1985) explains critical mass theory.

    * Valente (1991) describes thresholds for critical mass in innovationdiffusion. 1. 5Information/Media RichnessReduce ambiguity through media selection. * Daft and Macintosh (1981)describes information richness theory in organizations.

    * Daft and Lengel (1984) applies media richness theory to organizations. Main point: p. 194 “organizational success is based on the organization’sability to process information of appropriate richness to reduceuncertainty and clarify ambiguity. “* Daft and Lengel (1986) describes theory of media richness used inorganizations.

    * Daft, Lengel, and Trevino (1987) uses media richness model applied tomessage equivocality and media selection. * Trevino, Daft, and Lengel (1990) describes the use of symbolicinteractionism to understand managers’ media choices in terms of messageequivocality, contextual determinants, and media symbolism. * Trevino, Lengel, Bodensteiner, Gerloff, and Muir (1990) p. 176 “Thisarticle proposes a new thesis about the role of individual differences inmanagers’ media choice behavior.

    ” Main point: Media preferences operatewhen equivocality is low; in high equivocality situations, there is animperative to use rich media. * Trevino, Lengel, and Daft (1987) describes media richness theory inorganizations. * Rice and Shook (1990a) explores job categories and organizational levelsand communication channels, including email. * Lengel and Daft (1988) gives guidelines for managers selecting media. * Duncan (1972) explains characteristics of an organization versusperceived environmental uncertainty1. 6Social/Psychological Factors* Kiesler, Siegel, and McGuire (1984) describes social and psychologicalaffects of CMC.

    * Boshier (1990) discusses social/psychological factors in electronicnetworking, focusing on email role in adult education, identifying researchand theory. Main point: Electronic networks can help adult educationand lifelong learning because they help increase interaction, provide forequal opportunity, and create a noncoercive, nonhierarchical, reciprocalenvironment. * Cathcart and Gumpert (1985) communicating through computer createsinterpersonal communication dyad (user & computer). * Kling and Gerson (1977) explores social context features of CMCaffecting communities of users.

    * McGuire (1983) describes contextualism as a counterpoint toempiricism. * Short, Williams, and Christie (1976) describes social presence theory foranalyzing mediated communication. Main point: p. 65 “We hypothesizethat communications media vary in their degree of Social Presence, andthat these variations are important in determining the way individualsinteract. “1.

    7Social Presence Model* Short, Williams, and Christie (1976) describes social presence theory foranalyzing mediated communication. Main point: p. 65 “We hypothesizethat communications media vary in their degree of Social Presence, andthat these variations are important in determining the way individualsinteract. “* Bales (1950)* Short (1974) compared FTF, sound only, and CCTV communication totest social presence hypothesis about persuasion.

    * Johansen (1977) uses social presence model to examine social aspects ofteleconferencing. 1. 8Reduced Social Cues (RSC) ApproachBasic Thesis: CMC features (reduced social/context cues) lead topsychological states (reduced impact of social norms and constraints)which undermine social, normative influences leading to deregulatedbehavior. * Kiesler (1986) describes how the social effects of computersmay be greater and more important than you imagine. Main point: p.

    46 Computers have social effects, cut down hierarchies, cut across normsand organization boundaries. * McGuire, Kiesler, and Siegel (1987) explores influence of groupcommunication and group decision processes on group decisions. * Siegel, Dubrovsky, Kiesler, and McGuire (1986)* Sproull and Kiesler (1986) analyzes e-mail use and characteristics in anorganization. * Siegel, Dubrovsky, Kiesler, and McGuire (1986)* Rutter (1987) describes “cueless model” for communicating bytelephone. * Morley and Stephenson (1977) discuss bargaining, test out cuelessmodel. * DeSanctis and Gallupe (1987) apply cuelessness to study of GDSS.

    1. 9Social Identity Theory and De-individuation Processes (SIDE) Model* Spears and Lea (1992) explores the social/psychological dimensions ofCMC: email and CC vs. FTF via Social Identity Theory andDe-individuation Processes (SIDE) Model. * Spears, Lea, and Lee (1990)* Diener (1980) discusses de-individuation in groups. * Festinger, Pepitone, and Newcomb (1952) describes de-individuation ina group. * Lea and Spears (1991a)* Lea and Spears (1991b)1.

    10Social Information/Influence/Context ModelMedia perceptions and use are socially constructed. * Fulk, Schmitz, andSteinfield (1990) proposes a model for technology use which is based onsocial context effects: social influence model of media use. Main point: p. 121 Basic assumption of social influence model of media use: mediaperceptions are subjective/social constructed.

    * Fulk, Schmitz, and Schwartz (1992) develop CMC context themes andpropose a perspective on social context and context-behavior relations. * Fulk, Steinfield, Schmitz, and Power (1987) explores social informationprocessing as a model for media use. * Bem (1972) describes attribution theory. * Chesebro (1985) describes CMC used in interpersonal contexts bystudying a BBS. * Feenberg and Bellman (1990) social factors model posits that distinctiveorganizational features guide the design of CC systems.

    * Feenberg (1989) asserts that types and use of CMC systems must bebased on the sociology of the group. * Feenberg (1992) traces the success of the French Teletel (Minitel)videotex system in France. * Gattiker (1992c) suggest directions for future research intechnology-mediated communication. * Georgoudi and Rosnow (1985) describes contextualism from theperspective of the nature of context (as opposed from mechanisticassumptions). Main point: Contextualism is marked by recognizingcommunication as a process embedded in a constantly changing, cultural,cognitive, and social context. * Hellerstein (1986) presents study of social uses of CMC atUMass-Amherst; CMC mediates and facilitates social life.

    * Schmitz and Fulk (1991) describes media richness, social influencetheory applied to organizations. * Matheson (1991) examines the extent to which social perceptions inCMC are influenced by social information availability and based oninternalized social expectations. * Salancik and Pfeffer (1978) describes social information processingtheory. * Smilowitz, Compton, and Flint (1988) CMC changes the way peopleinteract, accomplish comm. tasks.

    * Lea (1992) introduces book on contextual influences on CMC. * Martin, O’Shea, Fung, and Spears (1992) surveys ‘flaming’ phenomenonin CMC. * Bandura (1986) describes social learning theory. * Montes (1992) questions social presence theory, suggests interaction tobe creator of context. * Perry (1988) discusses use of contextualist approach to media effects. * Thomas and Griffin (19XX) reviews literature on social informationprocessing model.

    * Tushman and Nadler (1978) puts forth an information processing modelfor organizations. 1. 11Language Aspects/Rhetorical* Baron (1984) describes CMC as a force in language culture. * Ferrara, Brunner, and Whittemore (1991) describes interactive writtendiscourse (IWD, the written language occurring in simultaneousterminal-to-terminal typed dialogues. )* Finnegan (1988) describes how literacy and orality are affected bycommunication technology. * Lakoff (1982) Oral is becoming more valued than literacy, writingimitates oral.

    * Murray (1991) describes the composing process for computerconversation. * Ochs (1989) explores language use and culture. * Ong (1977) Technology changed culture and thought. * Ong (1982) Thought and expressed changed in the shift from orality toliteracy. * Shank (1993) argues network communication is not oral or written butsemiotic. * December (1993a) compares net discourse in USENET newsgroup withcharacteristics of orality as defined by Walter J.

    Ong. Main point: Thediscourse on the Internet brings back pre-literate characteristics; it is atertiary form of orality (the first two being, pre-literature culture andwidespread radio and tv broadcasting). * Shaver (1990) describes measures of reliability and validity of attitudemeasures of writing with a computer. * Spitzer (1986) describes writing style in computer conferences. * Tannen (1982) Oral/literate continuum = focus: involvement & contextv. content.

    * Thompson (1988) describes how interactive networking can be used forspeech, writing, and composition. * Black, Levin, Mehan, and Quinn (1983) describes real and non-real timediscourse. * December (1994) discusses and analyzes the strategies communicatorscan use to exchange information on global computer networks. Mainpoint: The communicator’s task in creating and structuring informationhas always included considerations of purpose and audience. Incommunicating over networks, however, the communicator’s task includesconsiderations of the nature of the medium_distribution, access,information-sharing practices, and social context.

    1. 12Media Characteristics / Media Evolution* Fowler and Wackerbarth (1980) studies audio teleconferencing incomparison with FTF conferencing. * Innis (1972) explores roles of media as used by different civilizations. Main point: Media use and forms (bias and emphasis) contribute tocivilization and political structures of societies. * Harnad (1991) asserts that the fourth cognitive revolution is electroniccommunication. * Havelock (1986) traces how writing transformed Greek culture fromorality to literacy.

    * Levinson (1986) describes McLuhan’s ideas with regard to computerconferencing. * Levinson (1990) sees CMC as an ongoing evolution of media: speech,writing, printing, telecommunications. * McLuhan and Powers (1989) describes the idea of the global villagetransforming life and media. * McLuhan (1964) explores the extensions of people through media. Mainpoint: Media’s characteristics create and operate in a social and historicalcontext; electric technologies create an emphasis on effect and totalinvolvement.

    * McLuhan (1965) Technology revises the linearism of print. Main point:”The Gutenberg Galaxy is intended to trace the ways in which the formsof experience and of mental outlook and expression have been modified,first by the phonetic alphabet and then by printing. “* McLuhan and Fiore (1967) asserts that media extends consciousness. Main point: p. 26 “All media work us over completely. They are sopervasive in their personal, political, economic, aesthetic, psychological,moral, ethical, and social consequences that they leave no part of usuntouched, unaffected, unaltered.

    The medium is the massage. Anyunderstanding of social and cultural change is impossible without aknowledge of the way media work as environments. “* Rice and Associates (1984) summarizes research dealing with computersand communication. * Schement and Lievrouw (1987) describes assumptions of informationsociety research. * Smith (1980) traces development and transformation of newspapermarkets and audiences. * Stewart (1992) describes a study of voice mail (VM) revealing innovationreasons.

    Main point: Need to have user involvement in development,prototype, selection, planning, and implementation of an innovation. * Thomas and Miles (1989) describes the development of telematics in theUnited Kingdom. * Vallee (1982) presents perspectives on the network revolution. * Williams and Rice (1983) talk about personal relationships in CMC. 2Studies and Applications of Computer-Mediated Communication2. 1Studies* Komsky (1991) p.

    310 “examines factors that differentiate amongfrequent and occasional users of electronic mail, for the purpose ofdeveloping a profile of users to help organizations develop strategies forincreasing system usage. “* Hiltz and Turoff (1978) surveys effects of CMC on people. * Hiltz and Turoff (1993) surveys effects of CMC on people, revisededition of 1978 edition. * Chesebro and Bonsall (1989) describes computerized communication aswidespread, altering human communication patterns and culture. * Dennis, Nunamaker, and Vogel (1990) compares laboratory and fieldresearch in the study of electronic meetings.

    * Steinfield (1986a)* Adkins (1991) shows that recipients of email messages did not perceivethe sender as self-absorbed (egocentric-like). * Adrianson and Hjelmquist (1988) reports questionnaire study of COMsystem showing how COM system showed spontaneity, aggression; judgedefficient as a tool for sending and receiving simple messages. * Adrianson and Hjelmquist (1991) reports study which shows FTFcommunication induced more conformity and opinion change than CMC. * Anderson and Jay (1985) uses network analysis to examine the adoptionof a computerized information system by physicians. * Beals (1990) studied transcripts of computer conferences on BeginningTeacher Computer Network (BTCN). * Bresler (1990) found significant differences between males and femalesin a high school electronic communication.

    * Finholt, Sproull, and Kiesler (1990) examines use of electronic mail instudent work groups, where groups had similar tasks but used email todifferent degrees. The paper speculates on the larger organizationalimplications. * Gerola and Gomory (1984) studied engineer’s use of networks, found noimprovement in work. * Grint (1989) explores issues in CMC participation: fear of publicridicule, status, gender, technical expertise. * Guallupe and McKeen (1990) investigates use of decision supportsystems for face-to-face versus remote meetings.

    * Hartman, Neuwirth, and Kiesler (1991) describes patterns of socialinteraction and network technology effects on learning to write. * Hiemstra (1982) describes teleconferencing and organizational culture. * Hiltz and Johnson (1989) measures acceptance of CMC systems interms of use, subjective satisfaction, and benefits. Main point: “Thefindings suggest that future studies of CMCS’s in particular, and perhapscomputer-based information systems in general, should not assume thatusage alone or subjective satisfaction alone are adequate measures ofsuccessful implementation. “* Hiltz and Johnson (1990) Measures user satisfaction with CMCs. * Hiltz and Turoff (1981) explores behavior of users in CMC systems.

    * Hiltz and Turoff (1985) describes how to structure CMC systems toavoid information overload. * Hiltz, Turoff, and Johson (1981) describes the effects of task andindividual attributes on consensus in computer conferences. * Hiltz (1989) measures acceptance of CMC systems. * Johansen, Vallee, and Spangler (1979) presents how electronic meetingscan extend communication. * Kerr and Hiltz. (1982) analyzes CMC systems’ acceptance and affects.

    * Kiesler, Obrosky, and Pratto (1987) describes the effects (attentional,social contact, belief) of computer use. * Kiesler and Sproull (1987a) describes social effects of computer use:more interaction, broader social* Kiesler and Sproull (1987b) describes computing as a combination ofsocial+cultural+tech and its effects indirect, unpredictable. * Kiesler and Sproull (1987c)* Kiesler, Zubrow, Moses, and Geller (1985) findings show that CMC,”rather than provoking emotionality per se, elicits asocial or unregulatedbehavior. “* Lea (1991) presents results that “suggest that the group of usersconstrued CMC mainly in terms of its attributes as a medium forconversation and social interaction.

    “* Lerch (1988)* Mabrito (1991) describes email for peer response and compares high-and low-apprensive writers. * Mason (1989) presents findings showing CMC is marginally beneficialfor some students but very valuable for others in getting information andmaintaining contact. * Matheson (1992) examines the social psychological impacts of CMC onwomen. * Matheson and Zanna (1988) describes impact of CMC on self-awareness. * McCreary (1989) describes how users experienced positive contributionof CMC, but not unequivocal. * Rafaeli (1986) explores, through surveys and content analysis, BBS use.

    * Rice (1982) describes a longitudinal study of group roles and systemstructure for a computer conferencing system. * Rice (1988) uses network approach to gether data from communicationsystem networks. * Rice and Borgman (1983) discusses issues in collecting data from CMCsystems. * Rice and Case (1983) describes use and utility of computer-basedmessaging in a university. * Riedl (1989) discusses patterns in computer-mediated discussions.

    * Riel and Levin (1990) describes success and failures in forming electroniccommunities, suggests a set of guidelines for creating online communities. * Rojo (1991) describes patterns of CMC usage and explores ways todescribe users; explores dynamics of online communication. * Safyeni, Lee, and MacGregor (1988)* Shamp (1991) discusses perception of CMC partners. * Smeltzer (1992) evaluated electronic messages for structure, length,complexity, and readability.

    * Smolensky, Carmody, and Halcomb (1990) shows how task type, groupstructure, and extroversion affected uninhibited speech in CMC. * Steinfield (1986b) concludes that email use is best predicted byinfrastructure, positive orientation, and need. * Thorn and Connolly (1987) explains why people contribute to a publicdatabase. * Trevino and Webster (1992) discusses flow in CMC, focusing on emailand voice mail.

    * Turoff and Hiltz (1988)* Vallee, Johansen, obert Randolph, and Hastings (1974) describes socialeffects of group communication via computers. * Vallee (1984) describes computer messaging systems. * Weedman (1991)* Wilkins (1991)* Williams (1977) describes different models for communication, includingrational choice/media use models. * Zimmerman (1987) analyzed disturbed adolescents’ communicationpatterns; CMC was positively expressive of feelings and interpersonalissues and diminished gender differences.

    * Boshier (1990) discusses social/psychological factors in electronicnetworking, focusing on email role in adult education, identifying researchand theory. Main point: Electronic networks can help adult educationand lifelong learning because they help increase interaction, provide forequal opportunity, and create a noncoercive, nonhierarchical, reciprocalenvironment. * Markoff (1993) describes Internet Talk Radio, a broadcast show on theInternet, available in the U. S.

    , Europe, and Japan. Main point: TheInternet is large and growing fast and using new media: a broadcastsound show has started. * Coombs (1993) reflection on experiences using CMC in teaching. * Archee (1993) reports on using computer conferencing to teach smallgroup communication and writing/rhetoric. * Day (1993) describes computer-mediated software design (CASE).

    * Loperfido (1993) studies how the introduction of an email system affectsways in which employees in an organization communicate. * Herring (1993) explores computer discussion lists for occurrence ofgender differences in participation. Main point: While CMC promisesequal participation, domination by males was observed in discussion lists. * Olaniran (1993) “investigates how perceived computer mediatedcommunication (CMC) system attributes and individual characteristics(e. g.

    , gender) affect users’ perception of five communication outcomevariables (user satisfaction, decision confidence, immediacy, effectiveness,and ease of use of the system) across three CMC systems. “* Phillips and Eisenberg (1993) studies email use in a research institution. * Shedletsky (1993) explores the use of computer-mediatedcommunication (CMC) to augment seminar participation and activethinking in a college seminar. 2. 1. 1 Comparing CMC with FTF* Adrianson and Hjelmquist (1993) compares face-to-face and CMC withregard to memory of texts.

    * Dubrovsky, Kiesler, and Sethna (199X) talks about status effects inCMC versus FTF decision-making groups. * Short (1974) compared FTF, sound only, and CCTV communication totest social presence hypothesis about persuasion. 2. 1.

    2 Socioemotional Content in CMCSocioemotional content in CMC * McCormick and McCormick (1992)explores content of undergraduate electronic mail. * Rice and Love (1987) indicates that CMC systems can facilitatesocioemotional content and network roles don’t differ in percentage ofsocioemotional content. * Walther and Burgoon (1992) describes relational communication inCMC. * Walther (1992) asserts that CMC is expressive/relational: byaccumulated verbal, textual cues.

    * Hellerstein (1985) describes social use of CMC in a university. * Phillips (1983) finds there is emotion (love/hate, spontaneity, creativity)in CCs. 2. 2Computer-Mediated Scholarship/Education* Amiran and Unsworth (1991) explains development of PostmodernCulture: design decisions, considerations for integrity and needs ofaudience.

    * December (1993b) explores current use of CMC for scholarship, suggestthree possible approaches: systems, tools, and ad hoc. Main point: Thedirections for CMS include: 1) recognizing CMC and NIR tools as aprogression in media evolution; 2) identifying needs and level ofcommitment to CMS; 3) matching these needs and commitment totechnology using a systems-oriented, tools-oriented, or ad-hoc approach;and 4) supporting research in CMC and related user-interface issues. * Harasim (1989) asserts that the CMC domain is unique (asynch, geoindependence, many:many) and needs new mindsets for use. * Harasim (1990a) introduces online education.

    * Harasim (1990b) asserts that current CMC systems help communicateand generate ideas; but we need tools for linking ideas. * Harrison and Stephen (1992) describes how Comserve provides a modelfor ways of on-line scholarship. * Harrison, Stephen, and Winter (1991) maintains that an electronicjournal has to fit its disciplines practices and needs. * Hiltz (1992) describes the Virtual Classroom(TM), a CMCS forcollaborative learning. * Kaye (1989) asserts that CMC is a new educational paradigm- andpresents a resource approach to its use in distance education.

    * King (1991) describes the impact of networking on the delivery ofscholarly information. * Lynch (1992) presents ideas about the crisis in scholarly communicationand networked information. Main point: p. 111 “My personal view isthat our primary objective must be to make the transition to a networkedinformation environment.

    “* Mason and Kaye (1989) describes how CMC can be used in distanceeducation. * Mason and Kaye (1990) describes a paradigm for distance education. * Michelson and Rothenberg (1992) trends in info technology andscholarly practices demand new services from the archival community. * Okerson (1991) explores the electronic journal. * Okerson (1992) describes publishing on the network. * Rawlins (1992) there are opportunities for electronic publishing to lowercosts and speed up distribution.

    * Reich (1992) describes a discipline-specific literature base. * Strangelove (1993) observes that ejournals are becoming morewidespread; trend toward simultaneous print and electronic versions ofjournals* Turoff and Hiltz (1982) presents a progress report on electronic journals. * Bailey and Rooks (1991) discusses role of librarian in providing accessto electronic resources. * Dillon (1993) describes result of project for library services on theInternet.

    * Duggan (1991)* Paulsen (1993) six features must be considered in developing a DEprogram based on CC: freedom of time, space, pace, medium, access, andcurriculum. * Piternick (1991) presents human factors likely to influence adoption ofelectronic journals. * Powell (1993) describes a simply-implemented UNIX system forsupporting electronic journals. * Pullinger (1986) describes how computer conferencing supports scientificcommunication.

    2. 3CMC Infrastructure2. 3. 1 Forums and Tools* Bush (1945) describes memex, a personal system for information. * December (1992) describes sources of information about: the Internetand services, information services/electronic publications, societies andorganizations, newsgroups, and a selected bibliography.

    Main point:There is a variety of information sources about the Internet and CMC. * December (1993c) describes sources of information about: the Internetand services, information services/electronic publications, societies andorganizations, newsgroups, and a selected bibliography. * December (1993d) summarizes Internet NIR tools, CMC forms, andServices, giving a summary, action using described notation, pointer to ademonstration, and pointer to documentation. * Banks (1992) tells how easy it is to have portable PC communicationsover networks. * Bowman, Danzig, and Schwartz (1993) describes issues of supportingfuture information infrastructure: current tools (Archie, Gopher, etc) arenot ready for larger data volume, user base, and data diversity. * CERN (1992) describes the WWW project.

    * Foster, Brett, and Deutsch (1993) presents a report catalogingNetworked Information Retrieval (NIR) tools. Main point: There are avariety of tools available. * Hahn (1993) summarizes use of UNIX with computer communicationand Internet services. * Kapor (1991) explores legal issues of networks.

    * Kehoe (1992) describes basic Internet services and the background ofthe Internet. * Kerr (1986) presents a guide for moderating an online conference. * Krol (1992) describes the uses of Internet tools as well as Internetresources. * Meckler (1993) describes Electronic Journals, Newsletters, Books, andDiscussion Lists on the Internet.

    * Negroponte (1991) Networks will free us from space and timeconstraints. * Rapaport (1991) presents comprehensive overview of CMC Systemsfrom design and implementation perspective. * Rose (1993) describes Internet mail and network issues in general. * Schwartz, Emtage, Kahle, and Neuman (1992) presents a taxonomy ofapproaches to resource discovery giving insight into problems oforganizing, browsing, and searching for information.

    * Smith (1993) describes tools for discover (archie, gopher, vernoica, wais,www, hytelnet) and how these are being used together. * Stephen and Harrison (1989)* Sudweeks, Collins, and December (1993)* Yanoff (1993) describes telnet, ftp, and finger information services onvarious subjects on the Internet. 2. 3. 2 Networks* Cerf (1991) describes how networks are growing larger and faster.

    * Malamud (1992a) describes the people and networks on the Internet theauthor encounters in three round-the-world trips. * Malamud (1992b) This book looks at the question of interoperability incomputer nets/how to turn components into a computing environmentthrough tailoring. * Dern (1992) The Internet is now widespread, growing larger. * Dertouzos (1991) describes how fusing computing with communicationinfrastructure can transform society. * Glossbrenner (1990) Tells details of how to access and about PC onlineservices.

    * Gore (1991) describes his vision for an information infrastructure. * Hancock (1990) Technical details of computer network communication. * Kahin (1992) describes how to build an information infrastructurethrough the NREN. * Kahn (1992) describes infrastructure for national information. * LaQuey (1990) describes global computer networks.

    * Lottor (1992) describes the growth of the Internet from 1981 to 1991. * Lucky (1991) We have a dream to join collectively, electronically, tocreate a global “town commons. . . a virtual coffeeshop.

    “* Lynch (1993) summarizes the evolution of the Internet. * Mabrito (1990) lists 49 resources for CMC research, showing findings,pedagogical approaches, and theory. * McClure, Bishop, Doty, and Rosenbaum (1991) presents an overview ofthe NREN research, policies, and technologies. * Quarterman (1990) describes how the metanetwork of computernetworks will be as pervasive as the phone network (p. 3). * Maule (1993) discusses structural and organizational issues of CMCinfrastructure.

    * Dunning (1992) * Grycz (1992) describes economic models fornetworked information. describes infrastructure for information society. * Codex (1992) presents an introduction to computer communication andnetworks. * Sitzler, Smith, and Marine (1992) describes how to build a networkinformation infrastructure. 3Organizational Communication3.

    1Theory* Morgan (1986) presents metaphors for organizations: machine,organism, brain, culture, political system, psychic prison, flux andtransformation, instrument of domination. Main point: You can view anorganization in many different ways built on images, assumptions, andmetaphors. * Euske and Roberts (1987) examine implications for organizationalcommunication contained in seven categories of organization theory:classical, human relational, behavioral decision theories, systems theory,resource dependency, population ecology, and institutional. Main point:Organizations are dynamic processes that interact with theirenvironments.

    * Perrow (1979) discusses complex organizations. * Putnam and Pacanowsky (1983) describes interpretive approach toorganizational communication. 3. 1. 1 Structure/Functions of OrganizationsOrganizations studied in terms of function and structure, focusing onpower, authority, and legitimacy.

    * Weber (1947) describes classicalorganizational theory. * Farace, Monge, and Russell (1977) describes a systems approach tocommunicating in organizations. 3. 1. 2 Human RelationsTenents: productivity determined by social norms, non-economic rewardsare important, workers react as group member versus individuals,leadership is important, communication as facilitator of decision making. * Fulk and Boyd (1991) describes theories of communication inorganizations.

    * Likert (1967) describes communication and human relation perspectiveof organization. * Peters (1992) describes how empowering people helps (human relationsperspective). * Peters (1982) describes how empowering people helps (human relationsperspective). 3. 1.

    3 Communication as Process of OrganizationCommunication is organization. Weick (1979) describes how to look atand think about organizations. Main point: An organization is because ofits organizing process. * Galbraith (1977) describes horizontal view of information processing inorganizations. Main point: Information exchange should take place inorganizations to reduce uncertainty because of diversity, task variability,or interdependence. * Daft and Weick (1984) describes a model for organizations asinterpretation systems in four modes: enacting, discovering, undirectedviewing, and conditioned viewing.

    Main point: p. 294 Organizations candevelop workable information from scraps. * Zuboff (1984) describes computer use and changing technology, in theworkplace. * Manning (1992) describes organizational communication theory andfield studies from an organizing (reducing equivocality throughinterlocking behaviors) perspective. 3. 1.

    4 Adaptive Structuration TheoryThere is a mutually causal relationship between context and action. * Contractor and Eisenberg (1990) explores the interplay between social environmentand application of communication technologies in organizations. * Poole and DeSanctis (1990) Describes adaptive structuration theory ingroup decision support systems. * Poole, McPhee, and Seibold (1982) interaction is creator of context incommunication, not medium3. 1.

    5 Organizations as CulturesOrganizations create a shared reality, produced by interactions, practices,ways of understanding. * Smircich (1983a) discusses organizations assystems of shared meanings. Main point: Organizations are systems ofshared meanings created by symbolic processes. * Smircich (1983b) explores organizations as cultures. Main point: Peopleenact their organizational reality through shared meaning; studying thisrequires using empathy, involvement, and use of self as researchinstrument.

    * Pacanowsky and O’Donnell-Trujillo (1982) describes organizations asorganizational cultures; explores how theory and research constrainsquestions, describes organizational perspectives questions and utilities. Main point: Communication is the way organizations create a web ofinterlocked actions. 3. 1. 6 Network Analysis* Rogers (1987) uses network analysis approach to look at relationshipsand electronic communication technologies. * Monge and Contractor (1987) describes how to identify and measureinformation flow between people, about a variety of topics, using a varietyof media.

    * Monge and Eisenberg (1987) examines how emergent communicationnetworks influence and are influenced by new media in organizations. * Rice (1990) discusses CMC as a process of convergence and interactionusing the network convergence paradigm. * Rice and Aydin (1991) describes structural, relational and physicalproximity among groups in CMC. * Rice and Barnett (1985) describes how to study group communicationin a network environment using metric multidimensional scaling. * Tichy (1981) uses metrics to measure networks. * Wellman (1988) describes network approach to analyzing socialstructures.

    * Wigand (1988) describes procedures and methods for analyzingcommunication networks in organizations. 3. 2Studies of Organizations* Kent and McGrath (1969) explores task and group characteristics thatinfluence performance. * Sanders and Baron (1977) describes social comparison theory applied togroup shifts.

    * Harrison (1987) describes writing in organizational contexts. * Steiner (1972) describes theory of process loss and gains. * Tang (1991)3. 3Technology/Communication in Organizations* Steinfield and Fulk (1987) describes the role of theory in research oninformation technologies in organizations. * Steinfield and Fulk (1990) * Allen (1984) describes goal of volume: to”provide foundation for theory development on information technology inorganizations” p.

    15. describes the flow of technology in organizations. * Beniger (1990) describes a theory of information technology asorganization, and organization as information technology. * Conger (1992) studies relationship between task complexity, culturetoward technology and coordination methods (meetings, phone, email,etc) by studying finance personnel. * Gattiker (1992a) summarizes this volume on technology-mediatedcommunication. * Gattiker (1992b) introduces this book series on technology-mediatedcommunication.

    * Hiemstra (1983) describes use of info tech in organizations. * Hullin and Roznowski (1985) describes how technology effectsorganizations. * Markus and Robey (1988) explores social effects in theory and researchin information technology and organizations. * Markus (1983) describes interactionist theory for humans confrontingtechnology.

    * Nass and Mason (1990) considers broad base of technologies in theorganization/technology interface. * Orlikowski (1992) explores concepts of technology in organizations. * Rogers (1988) describes how logical expectations for media use are notmet. * Zmud, Lind, and Young (1990)* Clement (1988) surveys office automation and control of informationworkers. Main point: p.

    218 Information workers are subject to greatermanagerial control through information systems. * Allen and Hauptman (1987) describes the influence of communicationtechnologies on organizational structure for providing state-of-the-artinformation and coordination across technical specialties. * Allen and Hauptman (1990) demonstrate how organizational infoprocessing can be modified to account for new communication options inR&D settings. * Feldman and March (1981) describes how management reflects need toappear competent and legitimate. * Keen (1988)* Leifer (1988) describes how to match communication informationsystems with organizational structures.

    * Papa and Tracy (1988) discusses CMC communication network features. 3. 4Organizational CMC* Steinfield (1992) describes directions for theory and research in CMC inorganizations. * Danowski and Edison-Swift (1985) describes effects ofintraorganizational computer communication. * Hiltz, Johson, and Turoff (1986) surveys experiments in group decisionmaking; compares group problem-solving for FTF and CMC forqualitative and scientific rankings test.

    * Huber (1990a) we need to re-examine theory for small group interactionin computer-supported context. * Huber (1990b) analyzes capabilities of new decision technologies andhow these are relevant to existing organizational theories. * Johansen and DeGrasse (1979) describes effects of computer-basedteleconferencing on working patterns. * Johansen, DeGrasse, and Wilson (1978) describes effects of groupcommunication via computers on working patterns.

    * Nunamaker, Dennis, Valacich, Vogel, and George (1991) describeselectronic meetings in support of group work. * Nunamaker, Applegate, and Konsynski (1987) presents experiences withgroup support systems for facilitating creativity. * Rice (1980) reviews CMC research conducted in the 1970’s. * Rice (1987) asserts that CMC provides organizations ways to enhanceresourcefulness and responsiveness.

    * Rice (1989b) explores use of CMC in organizations, finds more exchange. * Rice and Shook (1990a) explores job categories and organizational levelsand communication channels, including email. * Rice and Steinfield (1990) describes new forms of organizationalcommunication by email and voice messaging. * Siegel, Dubrovsky, Kiesler, and McGuire (1986)* Valacich, Dennis, and J.

    F. Nunamaker (1991)* Zachary (1986)* Zmud (1979) describes individual differences approach to explaininghuman behavior when confronted with technology. * Crowston, Malone, and Lin (1988) presents a case study oforganizational design for computer conferencing. * Finholt and Sproull (1990) re-examine theory of small groups whenusing computer support.

    * Murphy (1992) describes a case history illustrating howinformation-processing system fits organizational requirements. 3. 5CSCW* Applegate (1991) sets theory foundation for group work in organizations. * Galegher and Kraut (1990) sets forth the research and design issues ofcooperative work. * Greenberg (1991a) defines groupware and CSCW and introduces volumeon CSCW and groupware. * Acker (1992) describes a GDSS which facilitates collaborative fiction.

    * Garcia-Luna-Aceves, Craighill, and Lang (1988) explores MOSAIC, amodel for CSCW providing a share view. * Greenberg (1991b) presents annotated bibliography and description ofinformation sources for CSCW and groupware. * Grief (1988) presents readings in CSCW* Gutek (1990) describes how group must fit technology to task structure. * Hiltz, Turoff, and K. (1989) presents experiments in group decisionmaking* Hiltz (1984) describes the complex technological and social variables inCMC acceptance.

    * Johansen (1988) describes groupware for business teams. * Johnson-Lenz and Johnson-Lenz (1982) defines the term groupware. * Kraemer and L (1988) describe group decision support systems,evaluate experience, benefits, barriers. * Opper and Fersko-Weiss (1992) describes how technology can enhanceproductivity for teams in organizations. * Rice and Shook (1990b) describes how group must fit technology to taskstructure. * Rothschild and Whitt (1986) describes cooperative work.

    * Sproull and Kiesler (1991b) describes how networked communicationand information will transform organizational behavior. * Sproull and Kiesler (1991a) asserts that CMC leads to more discussion,equality, emotions, creativity. * Stefik, Foster, Bobrow, Kahn, Lannry, and Suchman (1988) describescomputer support for collaboration and problem-solving in meetings. * Stodolsky (1993) describes the USENET comp. groupware newsgroup.

    * Turoff (1991)* Ellis, Gibbs, and Rein (1991)* Pinsonneault and Kraemer (1989) describes empirical research into theimpact of technological support for groups. 3. 5. 1 GDSS* Kraemer and Pinsonneault (1990) describes how group must fittechnology to task structure. Main point: There is a lack of research ingroup processes support. * DeSanctis and Gallupe (1987) apply cuelessness to study of GDSS.

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