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Royal Mail’s implementation of change management

Table of Contentss


Research subject

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Practical relevancy

Theoretical relevancy

Change direction and its importance

Change execution in public sector

Kotter’s eight measure theoretical account

Potential success factors

•Purposeful engagement and managerial support

•Communication and leading engagement

•Attention to civilization and immune component

Royal Mail

Research design


i‚·Data analysis


Research subject

To analyze the execution of alteration direction in the public sector: A survey of Royal Mail

To understand the demand for alteration in concern

To analyze the restructuring of the administration

To discourse the execution patterns

To analyze the obstructor of opposition


This programme of survey continues personal research of recent organizational alteration within the public sector. Changeless alterations have become climacteric for administrations to keep the fight, peculiarly in changeless and dynamic concern environment ( Gallic and Bell, 1999 ) . Cardinal alteration derives and supports the organisation’s competitory place. Further, acceptance of improved managerial patterns offer a path to administration to cut down the cost, better the service and productiveness ( Lewis et al, 2011 ) . The survey aims to supply the cognition sing complexnesss of alteration direction execution procedure within the administrations. Technological promotion has put intense force per unit area for manual labor oriented administrations to overhaul and fit the concern with advanced mechanism. The United Kingdom’s postal industry observes disputing fortunes as worsening mail volume, competition and denationalization issues have forced the concern to reconstitute the operational activities wholly to last as a service. Company has accomplished the restructuring of operating Centres in Kent part and Home Counties North, Hemel Hempstead ( Royal Mail Group, 2013 ) . Business has worked with the Communication Workers Union ( CWU ) to foreground the significance of reorganizing for the industry. The research worker desires to detect the alteration that has taken topographic point, and analyze the attack used by the concern to implement the alteration in UK’s extremely unionised sector.

Practical relevancy

Competitive environment, technological alterations and globalization is one of the indispensable grounds for administrations to transform and reconstitute their operational activities ( Beer, 1997 ) . Additionally, due to limited resources administrations have to accommodate the techniques to be efficient, which surely can increase the firm’s end product ( Lewis et al, 2011 ) . Therefore, to remain competitory and efficient administrations have to re-examine and amend their activities ( Kotter and Schlesinger, 1979 ) . While disregarding the concern environmental demands can take to unpleasant state of affairs, as Badhamet Al( 2003:715 ) stated that “looking at the luck of 500 companies over the last few decennaries, 40 per cent of those who were at that place 20 old ages ago are no longer there” . Therefore, to manage the extrinsic or internal force per unit area administration acclimate the new techniques. Similar to private administrations, public sector are obliged to reshape the operational activities by restructuring and re-organising.

Theoretical relevancy

Change has been defined as executing the deviant activities of operations to obtain the premium consequences and effects ( Ford & A ; Ford, 1994 ) . Further, Huber et Al ( 1993 ) explained that amending the established and traditional exercisings, re-adjusting the resources and employee’s assignment can lend to firm’s fight. Schalk et Al ( 1998 ) has described that alteration is an intended add-on and inception of advanced processs, which are required to set about or administrate a occupation contrastively, truly to get outstanding results. The comprehensive expectancy of alteration and re-structuring of an administration is to better and better the productiveness.

Change direction and its importance

Change direction has been defined as organized attitude to change the administrations or persons from modern-day place to an aimed finish adequately ( Balogun & A ; Hailey ( 2004 ) . In a concise mode, alteration direction has been described as a coadunation of two influential Fieldss of ideas, foremost an applied scientist or technician’s attack to better organizational public presentation and back a psychologist’s attack to regulate the human side ( Jansson, 2008 ) .

Figure: Jansson ( 2008 ) , p 4

Procuring the alteration expeditiously the convergence of both elements is indispensable, alteration agent ( s ) , the individual ( s ) is responsible for put to deathing the alteration expeditiously in the administration ( Balogun & A ; Hailey, 2004 ) . Therefore, alteration manager’s function is to implement the strategic alteration and to cover with unexpected hardships, which may originate during the procedure. Beck ( 1987 ) categorised alteration in four typical beginnings: scheme, engineering, civilization and people. Harmonizing to Beck ( 1987 ) , strategic alteration aims to re-develop the topographic point of an administration in its environment, in this procedure the full concern reorganises the operational activities and adapts to awaited state of affairss. Cultural alteration seeks to transform the procedure within the corporate set regulations, the purpose of implementing the cultural alteration is to redefine and beef up the interpersonal relation, ends and aims. Technological alteration aims to ease the administration with modern installations, surely to better the productiveness and cut down the concern cost. And eventually alteration of people seeks to bring forth new constructs and kineticss ( Beck, 1987 ) .

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Change execution in public sector

Chary ( 2007 ) predicted that public administrations are seeking to be more competitory, cut down the operational cost by following modern engineerings and get the efficiency. However, despite the necessity of alteration, public administrations observe hard state of affairss during implementing the alteration. Bourgeois et Al ( 2008 ) claims that deficiency of managerial accomplishments and experience is one of the cardinal elements that prevent the alteration to happen swimmingly. The passage period may non be that easy for those employees, who have been working in the administration for a long clip. Arendt et Al ( 1995 ) described that during organizational alteration, directors prioritize the proficient issues of alteration while evade the psychologist or human facets of alteration. Further, Arendt et Al ( 1995 ) cautioned that by evading the human component during alteration procedure can arouse the opposition and hinderances for the undertaking.

Kotter’s eight measure theoretical account

Change is an unsure and hard process ( Bourgeois et al, 2008 ) , the success of alteration depends on the engagement of personals from the senior direction and first line employees, hence Kotter ( 1995 ) described 8 stairss of alteration, which author would wish to utilize during this research. Harmonizing to Kotter ( 1995 ) , the of import measure to ‘set up a sense of urgency’, originating the procedure with executable ‘communicating’ , which would set up the trust every bit good between employees and direction. The following procedure is to develop ‘powerful guided coalition’, which would help to take towards alteration. Kotter ( 1995 ) mentioned to hold a ‘vision’ and a program to accomplish that, Bourgeois et Al ( 2008 ) stated that directors should brief the program to employees, the communicating channels must be used to update staffs sing the province. The following phase is to ‘empower persons’ , this enables employees to truly affect with organizational construction, surely would lend to minimalize the hinderances and oppositions. Further, Kotter ( 1995 ) elaborated that ‘making short-run wins’ are indispensable to animate employees, farther encouragement is of import by directors to implement the alteration successfully. The following measure to ‘consolidate the improvements’, while non declaring the triumph and eventually ‘commit the change’into concern civilization, the of import factor is to bespeak the characteristics sing the new attitude and how it has facilitated to get the better of the issues ( Bourgeois et al, 2008 ) .

Potential success factors

There are legion characteristics that influence on alteration execution within an administration. The writer high spots certain constituents, which have been clarified theoretically by several research workers before.

•Purposeful engagement and managerial support

As shown in the figure that all the bookmans have recognized the significance of managerial purposeful engagement and support, farther managerial engagement aids to cut down the possibility of project’s failure. Employees approach towards alteration could be diverging, encouragement from direction to take part in alteration procedure would profit the full alteration procedure ( Lanning, 2001 ) .

•Communication and leading engagement

The importance of communicating can non be overlooked, peculiarly to those, who would be affected by the alteration procedure. Effective communicating enables to cut down the concerns that may originate during organizational alteration, while it besides can help the alteration procedure by staff’s feedback ( Victorian Quality Council, 2006 )

Figure: Lanning, H ( 2001 )

•Attention to civilization and immune component

Public sector’s employees set up values and norms due to long-run working history in the administration, Cunningham et Al ( 2009 ) argued that these put behavior can blockade or ease the alteration procedure. Further, the resilient elements originate due to miss of information shared with employees surely can increase the cost of alteration execution ( Cunningham et al, 2009 ) .

Royal Mail

Royal Mail provides the postal service in the United Kingdom, the concern has established a reputable place by supplying occupations to around 160,000 employees ( Royal Mail Group, 2013 ) . Administration collects, procedure and delivers the mail to 29 million references six yearss a hebdomad ( Royal Mail Group, 2013 ) . Over the past few old ages, concern has struggled from deficiency of modernization, industrial dealingss, pension shortage and technological intercessions ( electronic mail ) that doubtless has influenced the mail volume. Therefore, concern has built modernised screening office in Kent ( UK ) and in Home Counties North ( HCN ) , while meaning to spread out this procedure of shuting many of the old sites. This restructuring means closing of several runing Centres including bringing offices. Harmonizing to the company, to present the services in competitory environment, it will hold to cut down the operational cost of by deploying new engineering and restructuring of operating Centres. For this research, writer wants to discourse about the execution procedure company adapted and how strong opposition had been managed in the full procedure. The research worker desires to obtain the information from Kent and HCN project squad along with managerial and employees point of positions.

Research design

Parahoo ( 2006 ) mentioned that appropriate research design must get to explicate the intended research inquiry. Consequently for this instance survey, the writer desires to achieve the information from qualitative research, the method would comprehensively help to look into the thought and practicality of alteration direction in the populace sector. Answering ain inquiry “why people do qualitative research? ” , Yin ( 2011 ) defines the features of qualitative research. The giving description by Yin ( 2011 ) , qualitative research allows the research worker to procure the richness of individual’s day-to-day life by pull offing and oversing a deepness surveies about researcher’s front-runners.

  • Interview
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As mentioned in research design that the writer desires to garner the information from interviews, Yin ( 2011 ) labelled the interviews into two types despite assorted signifiers and forms, one is unstructured and other is structured. Further, Yin ( 2011 ) explained that due to absence of relentless behavior unstructured interview ushers itself. While, instead structured interviews are designed to get the participants’ positions sing the selected survey in the presence of precise book ( Mason, 2002 ) . The writer aims to research the survey with structured interviews, which would be carried out in those Centres where alteration has been implemented. The semi structured interviews would let the writer to busy comprehensive and elaborate information, as Rubin and Rubin ( 1995 ) stated that research worker can obtain the sufficient account of equivocal inquiries and questions during interviews. Further, qualitative research provides support to the research worker to size up behavior, attitude and extraordinary response with typical concentration ( Burns and Grove 2009 ) .

  • Datas analysis

Qualitative information requires a separating attack to analysis, farther thoughtful systematic procedure is of import for geting the textual context from the informations ( Polit and Beck, 2008 ) . The information analysis allows obtaining and pull outing the account from the qualitative information. Harmonizing to Yin ( 2011 ) , qualitative information analysis advancement in five stages ;Compiling, Disassembling, Reassembling, Interpretingand eventuallyReasoningthe information. Roll uping involves re-reading and re-listing the gathered information, this allows researcher to familiarise with the stuff ( Polit and Beck, 2008 ) . Disassembling requires dividing the information into different classs, the whole procedure could be repeated several times until the needed consequences are achieved. After that research worker can reassemble the, perchance into new classs to obtain the relaxation. The interpreting phase seeks to build the categorized information into history form, eventually supply the decision to the research. The writer would transcribe the interviews verbatim, the analysis of these transcripts stuff would be accomplished by utilizing the five stages mentioned by Yin aboard with computing machine packageNvivo.Yin ( 2011 ) besides admits the improved functionality of these ‘Computer Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis’Software, however highlights the complications one may detect to utilize these computing machine programmes.


Arendt et Al ( 1955 ) , ‘The human side of alteration– portion 4’, IEE Solutions, May, pp. 22-6.

Nathan birnbaums, N. & A ; Grove, S.K. ( 2009 ) , ‘The Practice of Nursing Research: Appraisal, synthesis, and coevals of evidence’,6Thursdayedn.Saunders, USA.

Beck, R. ( 1987 ) , ‘Visions, values and schemes: Changing attitudes and cultures’, Academy of Management Executive 1 ( 1 ) : 33-41.

Bourgeois et Al ( 2008 ) , ‘A survey on re-organizations in the Swedish public sector’ ,online, available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:206190/FULLTEXT01 ( accessed 23-08-2013 ) .

Balogun, J & A ; Hope-Hailey, V ( 2004 ) ‘Researching Strategic Change’, Harlow, Prentice Hall.

Beer, Michael. ‘The transmutation of the Human Resource map: deciding the tenseness between a traditional administrative and a new strategic role’, Human Resource Management, Volume 36, No.1, spring 1997.

Badham et. Al ( 2003 ) , ‘Designer aberrance: Enterprise and aberrance in civilization alteration programmes’ , Organization 10 ( 4 ) :707-730.

Cunningham, J. Barton and Kempling, S. J ( 2009 ) , ‘Implementing alteration in public sector organisations’ , Management determination, vol 47 ( 2 ) : 330-344.

Ford JD, Ford LW. 1994, ‘Logics of individuality, contradiction, and attractive force in change’, Acad. Manage. Rev. 19:756-85.

Gallic, W. L. and Bell, C. H. 1999. ‘Organization Development –Behavioral Science Interventions for Organization Improvement’, Sixth edition. Englewood Cliffs ( NJ ) , Prentice-Hall.

Huber et Al ( 1993 ) , ‘Understanding and foretelling organisational change’, See Huber & A ; Glick 1993, pp. 215-65.

Jansson, E. J ( 2008, ‘The importance of alteration direction in executing customs’ ,World Customs Journal. Online, available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.worldcustomsjournal.org/media/wcj/-2008/2/The_importance_of_change_management_in_reforming_Customs.pdf ( accessed 07-09-2013 ) .

Kotter, J.P. ( 1995 ) , ‘Leading alteration: why transformational attempts fail’ , Harvard Business Review, Vol. 73 No. 2, pp. 59-67.

Kotter, J. & A ; Schlesinger, L. ( 1979 ) , ‘Choosing Schemes for Change’ , Harvard Business Review 57 ( 2 ) : 106-114.

Lanning, H ( 2001 ) , ‘Planing and Implementation Change in Organisation- A Construct for Pull offing Change Projects’ ,Dissertation undertaking, Helsinki University of Technology, Finland.

Lewis et Al ( 2011 ) , ‘Change Management in the Public Sector: The Use of Cross-Functional Teams’ ( online ) . Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //eprints.uwe.ac.uk/14691/2/PPC_abstract.pdf ( Accessed 1-03-2013 ) .

Mason, J ( 2002 ) , ‘Qualitative Research’, ( 2neodymiumerectile dysfunction ) , London. Sage.

Parahoo K. ( 2006 ) , ‘Nursing Research: Principles’, Process and Issues. 2neodymiumedn. Palgrave Macmillan. London, UK

Polit D.F. and Beck C.T. ( 2008 ) , ‘Nursing research: Generating and Assessing Evidence for Nursing Practice’. 8Thursdayedn. Lipponcott, Williams & A ; Wilkins. United Kingdom.

Royal Mail Group ( 2013 ) , ‘Annual Report & amp ; Consequences 2012’, ( online ) . Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.royalmailgroup.com/annual-report-results-2012 ( Accessed 1-03-2013 ) .

Rubin, H. J and Rubin, I. S ( 1995 ) , ‘Qualitative interviewing: The art of hearing informations ‘, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Royal Mail Group ( 2013 ) , ‘Annual Report & amp ; Results 2012’ , ( online ) . Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.royalmailgroup.com/annual-report-results-2012 ( Accessed 1-03-2013 ) .

Schalk et Al ( 1998 ) , ‘Change and employee behaviour’, Leadership & A ; Organization Development Journal, 19 ( 3 ) , pp. 157-163.

Yin, R. ( 2011 ) , ‘Qualitative Research from start to finish’, The Guildford Press. New York

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Royal Mail's implementation of change management
Table of ContentssForewordResearch subjectImportancePractical relevancyTheoretical relevancyChange direction and its importanceChange execution in public sectorKotter’s eight measure theoretical accountPotential success factors•Purposeful engagement and managerial support•Communication and leading engagement•Attention to civilization and immune componentRoyal MailResearch design
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Royal Mail's implementation of change management
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