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    Principles of Health Science – Ancient times, Middle Ages and Renaissance and Industrial Revolution and Modern Era

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    In the primitive era, what did people believe that illness was caused by?
    Supernatural beings (if people were disobedient, the gods would infect them with illness or disease)
    Who treated illness in the primitive era?
    Priests and medicine men (religious ceremonies, evil spirits were driven out the body)
    What was used as medicine in the primitive times? What important medicine that we still use today was developed during this era?
    herbs and plants were used. Morphine, pain killer, is still used today
    What contribution did the ancient Egyptians make to health care?
    designed structured procedures and kept accurate health records
    Who is believed to be the first physician?
    During the time of the ancient Egyptians and Babylonians, what was the average lifespan?
    30 years
    What advanced medical procedures did the ancient Hindus in India develop?
    *hospitals with some of the best nurses in the world
    *doctors were trained in many types of surgery (cataracts and plastic surgery)
    *increased knowledge of drugs, mainly for anesthesia
    What did the ancient Hindus develop that helped to maintain a sanitary environment?
    walled sewage drains & an underground water pipe system
    What useful medical practices did the ancient Chinese develop?
    documented over 1,000 medical herbs and developed the science of acupuncture
    Who is known as the Father of Medicine?
    What contributions did Hippocrates make?
    *stressed the importance of observation and note taking
    *taught that disease was the fault of natural causes and that the only way to cure disease is to observe the sick
    What contributions did Aristotle make?
    he developed the field of anatomy by dissecting animals and was the first to make the connection between biology, medicine and the body
    What flawed theories of Claudius Galen held back medical progress for centuries?
    he taught that the body was composed of 4 fluids and if the fluids became unbalanced, sickness would occur
    What positive contributions did the ancient Romans make?
    that disease was often caused by filth and overcrowding
    What is the bubonic plague?
    a bacteria transmitted by fleas and rats
    What was forbidden during the Dark Ages?
    the study of medicine
    What advances did the Moslem Arab Empire create?
    *pharmacology, the study of medicine and their uses
    *set up a system of hospitals with specialized wards for certain illnesses
    Who was known as the Arab Hippocrates?
    What did Rhazes discover?
    *blood was the cause of many infectious diseases
    *1st form of stitches by using animal gut sutures to sew wounds
    What major medical advancement was made in the Middle Ages?
    formation of the 1st true medical school
    When the Bubonic Plague struck a second time, how much of Europe’s population died as a result?
    over 1/3rd
    What did medical researchers in the Renaissance period do that propelled the medical field?
    reject their commitment to religion
    What contribution did Andreas Vesalius make?
    dissected human corpses to make the first human anatomy book
    What contribution did Anton van Leeuwenhoek make? What did he discover?
    *created the first microscope
    *red blood cells
    What did Robert Hooke prove?
    all living things are made of cells
    What was the average lifespan during the Middle Ages and Renaissance?
    40 years
    What did Louis Pasteur discover? What procedure did he develop that we still use today?
    *discovered that microorganisms make wine sour over time
    *developed pasteurization
    What did Joseph Lister discover and develop?
    *Microorganisms were the cause of infection in people
    *medical asepsis-cleaning procedures that kill microorganisms and help eliminate infection
    John Hunter discovered what?
    inserted a feeding tube into a patient’s stomach in 1778
    Edward Jenner discovered what?
    administered the first vaccination in 1796
    William Beaumont discovered what?
    fully described the digestive system in 1822
    Elie Metchnikoff discovered what?
    Explained how white blood cells protect humans from diseases in the early 1900’s
    What contribution did Sir Alexander Fleming make?
    discovered penicillin (an antibiotic used to treat diseases caused by bacteria) on accident
    What did Wilhelm von Roentgen develop in the early 1900’s?
    the x-ray machine
    What medical advances were made in the 20th century as technology advanced?
    *Francis Crick and James Watson-structure and function of DNA
    *organ transplants
    *In virto fertilization (infertile couples could have kids)
    *Childhood vaccinations

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