“Is it more appropriate to use the percentage-of-completion method or the completed-contract method for acknowledging gross of long-run building contracts? ”
Draft Paper for DFST3341
Bachelor of Applied Business Administration – Accounting Bachelor of Applied Business Administration – Accounting
February 4, 2014
Many concerns are concerned with how to enter their grosss and disbursals in order to maximising their benefits while minimising their revenue enhancements lawfully. The inquiry associating to revenue enhancements is frequently asked by many little businesses’ proprietors. However, another every bit of import issue that little concern proprietors might frequently bury is their accounting income which can be every bit of import. Many little concerns might be invariably looking for the extra loans to fund their ongoing undertakings. Therefore, fiscal establishments and prospected investors might be inquiring if the concern can manage excess loans or take on the new proposed undertakings.
For the intent of this paper, we will be analyzing little place builders who have been entering their contracted undertakings by utilizing the completed method to find if it is more appropriate to utilize the per centum of the completed method.
The immediate impact of the different methods of gross acknowledgment will hold direct impact on the fiscal statements. Therefore, we will be utilizing the illustration from John-of-all-trades edifice corporation to establish our findings if the company should be taking one method over the other.
We may happen that depending on the assorted demands of the concern, one method might be more appropriate than the other depending on the coveted Numberss that a concern proprietor wants to hold on the fiscal statement that will be fulfilling the alone demands of a company.
The Percentage of completion method versus the Completed contract method
A comparing of the two different accounting methods will enable us to hold a better apprehension of the advantages and disadvantages in term of fiscal and non-financial factors.
The per centum of completion method
The percentage-of-completion method recognizes income as work on a contract ( or a group of closely related contracts ) progresses. The acknowledgment of grosss and net incomes is by and large related to costs incurred in supplying the services required under the contract.
Under this method, work-in-progress ( WIP ) is accumulated in the accounting records. At any point in clip if the cumulative Billingss to day of the month under the contract exceed the sum of the WIP plus the part of the contract’s estimated gross net income attributable to that WIP, so the contractor recognizes a current liability captioned “billing in surplus of costs and estimated earnings” . The liability recognizes the staying duty of the contractor to finish extra work prior to acknowledging the extra charge as gross.
If the contrary is true, that is, the accrued WIP and gross net income earned exceed Billingss to day of the month, so the contractor recognizes a current assets captioned “cost and estimated net incomes in surplus of billings.” This plus represents the part of the contractor’s grosss under the contract that have been earned but non yet billed under the contract commissariats.
The percentage-of-completion method recognizes the gross over clip as building progresses to capture the ‘earned’ gross and fit it with the incurred disbursal. The contractor has the duty to execute the work and the purchaser has the duty to pay the contractor throughout different completed phases of the undertaking.
Harmonizing to the article Overview of the Percentage of Completion method, this method works best when it is moderately possible to gauge the phases of undertaking completion and the staying costs. This method will non be favorable when there are excessively much uncertainnesss about the per centum of completion and the contractor is unable to gauge the minimal entire gross and maximal entire cost to get at the contract command.
The advantages for the contractor would be a lessening in bad debt, gross received sooner which improves the hard currency flow for the concern which could take to a possible decrease in involvement disbursal, and an addition in motive to finish the undertaking harmonizing to the jutting clip frame.
The disadvantage for the contractor would be an addition in administrating cost to publish estimations of completed phases of the undertaking, an addition in labor for publishing bills and roll uping grosss.
The disadvantage for the purchaser would be an addition in hard currency out flow than the completed accounting method.
The completed-contract method
The completed-contract method recognizes incomes merely when the contract is complete, or well complete. Under this method, contract costs and related Billingss are accumulated in the accounting records and reported as recesss points on the statement of fiscal place until the undertaking is complete or well complete. A contract is regarded as well complete if staying costs of completion are immaterial. When the accumulated costs ( WIP ) exceed the related Billingss, the surplus is presented as a current plus ( inventory history ) . If Billingss exceed related costs, the difference is presented by current liability. The finding is besides made on a project-by-project footing with the accrued assets and liabilities being individually stated on the statement of fiscal place. An surplus of accrued Billingss over related costs is presented in most instances as a current liability.
The completed contract method is a deferral method of acknowledging the ‘earned’ gross and ‘realized’ disbursals. The completed contract method will acknowledge the WIP as a current plus point while the surplus of charge will be categorized as current liability.
The disadvantages for the contractor would be a lessening in hard currency flow due to concluding payment will be received one time the whole undertaking is completed. Therefore, an addition in involvement disbursal would be realized due to the limited of hard currency influxs.
Is it more appropriate to use the per centum of completion than the completed contract method?
These undermentioned factors that should be considered before choosing the accounting method for acknowledging the gross of the building undertakings:
- The possibility of uncertainnesss that associated with the staying costs of the undertakings
- Are there possible conditions that might forestall the enforcement of a undertaking due to related belongingss being expropriated?
- When contracts are short-run in nature that the consequences reported differ between the two methods are immaterial.
- The delaying in acknowledging grosss will let a concern to postpone the acknowledgment of related income revenue enhancements.
- There is a demand for obtaining extra support as working capital for enlargement in the following few old ages
- There is an outlook of loss before the undertaking is completed
Harmonizing to the article of Overview of the Completed Contract method and the Percentage of completion method, the writer identifies the appropriate state of affairss that will promote the choice of one method over the other. By traveling through each factor, a company can find the demands of the presentation of the fiscal statements to reflect the gross recognized.
Because of the different intervention of the earned gross, one company may take the per centum of completion because of the demands in more frequent hard currency flows to cover disbursals that the company does non hold adequate hard currency to cover. Besides, another cardinal factor that will promote a concern to take the per centum of completion is the ability to anticipate the instability in the economic system ; hence, enabling the estimations of concluding costs for the undertaking prior to the company’s rivals.
1 ) www.accounting tools.com/percentage-of-completion-method
2 ) Lamoreaux, M. G. ( 2012 ) . A new system for acknowledging gross: larn how the new theoretical account in FASB ‘s revised proposal could impact your concern.Journal of Accountability, 1-30.
3 ) McKee, T. E. ( 2013 ) . Using larning curves for Revenue Recognition: how to use a different attack under FA
SB ‘s proposed criterion.The CPA Journal, 1-60.
4 ) Spector, S. ( 2012 ) . Revenue Recognition: Take Three.CGA Magazines, 44-45.
5 ) Spector, S. ( 2013 ) . A joint IASB/FASB gross theoretical account is on the skyline.CGA Magazine, 42-43.
6 ) Rashty, J. , & A ; O’Shaughnessy, J. ( 2011 ) . Accounting for Deferred Revenue Liabilities in Post-Business Combination Statements. CPA Journal, 81 ( 4 ) , 30-33.
7 ) Culp, William R. , ,Jr, & A ; Richardson, M. L. ( 2006 ) . CAN COMPLETED CONTRACT ACCOUNTING METHOD BE USED BY LOT DEVELOPERS WHO DO NOT BUILD HOMES?Journal of Taxation,105( 6 ) , 342-348. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //search.proquest.com.libezproxy.nait.ca/docview/198106842? accountid=12654
8 ) Brady, R. , & A ; Triplett, L. ( 2011, October ) . Revenue acknowledgment: remark letters help determine future counsel.Financial Executive,27( 8 ) , 30+ . Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //go.galegroup.com.libezproxy.nait.ca/ps/i.do? id=GALE|A270733460 & A ; v=2.1 & A ; u=naitl_main & A ; it=r & A ; p=AONE & A ; sw=w & A ; asid=c3da09f0219b502c098e26ad463dce28
9 ) www.irs.gov./small-businesses- % 26-self-emloyed/accounting-for-construction-contracts-construction-tax-tips
10 ) Wiley GAAP 2012 pages 359