Northern Renaissance beyond Italy
Renaissance scientists thought mathematics could help understand the universe. They took ancient teachings and built on them.
New Symbols were invented during this period including the square root and positive (+) and negative (-) numbers
Advances in math led to advances in other fields like architecture. Engineers used mathematical formulas to make building much stronger.
Scientists began studying astronomy.
Renaissance scientists learned that the earth moves around the sun.
During the Renaissance history became equally as important as learning about religion.
Petrarch- Renaissance scholar from Italy. He was the first to offer a combination of abstract entities of classical culture and Christian philosophy.
Some call the “Father of humanism”
Paper making spread China to the Middle East, and then to Europe
European factories were producing paper by the 1300s
Paper was much cheaper and easier to make than the process animal skins people had written on before.
In 1456 Gutenberg printed the Bible in Latin. It was later translated into many languages. The availability of the Bible caused many more people to read and value an education.
Each letter was on a separate piece of metal. This made printing much quicker and easier.
Scholars from around Europe traveled to Italy to learn. Here they picked up new humanists ideas. They carried these new ideas back to their countries.
Only men could attend universities at this time, however, many noble families educated their daughters at home.
As humanism spread to northern Europe it took on a more religious form.
Scholars focused on the history of Christianity instead of Greece and Rome.
Christian Humanism- a blend of humanist and religious ideas
Desiderius Erasmus- Dutch Renaissance scholar who remained a devout catholic although he wanted to reform the church from within.
Erasmus believed that instead of rituals the church should focus on God and he teachings of Jesus
Artists used a more realistic style than Italian painters.
People in their paintings did not resemble the Greek gods. They looked more like real people with physical flaws.
They painted a broader range of subjects.
Many painted scenes in daily like rather than biblical scenes and classical myths favored by italian artists
A print is a work of art that is produced from the orignal.
Writers outside of Italy included Renaissance ideas into their work.
They wrote in their home language… similar to Dante.
Miguel de Cervantes
Don Quixote is considered the most influential work of literature from the Spanish Golden Age. As a founding work of modern Western literature, and one of the earliest canonical novels, it regularly appears high on lists of the greats works of fiction ever published
Northern artists and writers altered Renaissance ideas.
Considered one of the greatest painters in European art history.
His contributions came during a period known as the Dutch Golden Age.
Best known for self-portraits and biblical scenes