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    Music of Medieval, Renaissance and Baroque Periods

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    Cantus Firmus
    also known as fixed song or a pre-existing melody which forms the basis of polyphonic composition.
    is the singing of one syllable of text while moving between several different notes in succession.
    music consisting of a single melodic line without chordal accompaniment; It is the oldest type of music.
    symbols representing one to four notes used as notation during the Medieval Period.
    music consisting of several (two or more) melodic lines, each having individual significance and independence.
    Sacred Music
    music that was specifically written for use in religious services.
    Secular Music
    music that was composed for purposes rather than religious.
    each syllable of text is matched with one note.
    songs in which there is new music to each stanza; the opposite of strophic.
    system where the musical piece is based on a key center.
    Three Periods of Western Music History
    Medieval Era, Renaissance Period and Baroque Period.
    Gregorian Chant
    type of music from the Medieval Era which was mainly used in the Early Christian Church.
    Imitative Polyphony
    is the distinctive characteristic of Renaissance Music.
    Baroque Period
    is characterized by grand and elaborate ornamentation of sculptures, theaters, arts and music.
    Music Genres which flourished during the Baroque Period
    the Concerto, the Fugue, the Chorale and the Oratorio
    Music of the Medieval Period (700 – 1400)
    is also known as Middle Ages or Dark Ages that started with the fall of Roman Empire.
    secular music which was not bound by Catholic traditions emerged.
    Monophonic Plainchant
    was named after Pope Gregory I, who made this the approved music of the Catholic Church.
    Characteristics of Gregorian Chant
    Free meter
    Usually based on Latin liturgy
    Use of Neume notation
    secular music which was not bound by Catholic traditions emerged. most of these songs were performed across Europe by these groups of musicians.
    Troubadour Music
    Usually monophonic
    Sometimes with improvised instruments
    Tells of chivalry and courtly love
    Originated in France
    Written in the French Language
    Composer of the Medieval Period
    Adam de la Halle
    Adam de la Halle, France, 1237-1288
    -was also known as Adam le Bossu (Adam the Hunchback)
    -one of the oldest secular composers whose literary and musical works include chansons and poetic debates.
    jeux partis
    poetic debates
    Jeu de Robin et de Marion
    a musical play that was considered the earliest surviving secular French play with music.
    Adam de la Halle’s works
    Jeu de Robin et de Marion
    La Chanson du roi de Sicile
    Music of Renaissance (1400 – 1600)
    comes from the word renaitre.
    the period of looking back to the golden age of Greece and Rome.
    rebirth, revival and rediscovery.
    Characteristics of Renaissance Music
    Mostly polyphonic
    Imitation among the voices is common
    Use of word painting in texts and music
    Melodic lines move in flowing manner
    Melodies are easier to perform
    Vocal Music of the Renaissance Period
    is a form of sacred musical composition that sets text of the Eucharistic liturgy into music.
    Characteristics of a mass
    -May be sung in a cappella or with orchestral accompaniment
    -Text may be syllabic, neume or melismatic.
    one note set to each syllable.
    a few notes set to one syllable.
    many notes to one syllable.
    Five main sections of Mass
    Kyrie – “Lord Have Mercy”
    Gloria – “Glory to God in the Highest”
    Credo – “Apostle’s Creed” and “Nicean’s Creed”
    Sanctus and Benedictus – “Holy, Holy” and “Blessed is He”
    Agnus Dei – “The Lamb of God”
    “Lord Have Mercy”
    “Glory to God in the Highest”
    “Apostle’s Creed” and “Nicean’s Creed”
    Sanctus and Benedictus
    “Holy, Holy” and “Blessed is He”
    Agnus Dei
    “The Lamb of God”
    Characteristics of Madrigal
    Sung a cappella
    Frequently in 3 to 6 voices
    Composers of the Renaissance Period
    Giovanni PierLuigi da Palestrina
    Thomas Morley
    Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, Rome, 1525-1594
    is said to be the greatest master of the Roman Catholic music during the Renaissance Period.
    -Masses (first book)
    Thomas Morley, England, 1557-1602
    -Morley, the son of the brewer was born in Norwich, East England.
    -was the most famous composer of secular music in his time.
    -His Musica Transalpina, a collection of Italian madrigals fitted with English text, was published in 1588 by Nicholas Yonge.
    Thomas Morley’s Works
    “Fire, Fire, My Heart”
    “Sing and Chant it”
    “April is in my mistress’ face”
    “It was a lover and his lass”
    Music of the Baroque Period (1685-1750)
    During this time, the arts highlighted grandiose and elaborate ornamentation.
    is derived from the word barroco which means “pearl of irregular shape.”
    Composers of Baroque Period
    George Friedrich Handel
    Johann Sebastian Bach
    Claudio Monteverdi
    Antonio Vivaldi
    Characteristics of Baroque Music
    Melodies sound elaborate and ornamental
    melodies are not easy to sing or remember
    primarily contrapuntal textures with some homophony
    Dynamic contrast – alteration between loud and soft
    Music Genres – operas, oratorios, suites, tocattas, concerto grosso, fugue
    Orchestra consists of strings and continuo
    Hapsichord and organ are the keyboard instruments that are commonly used
    New Forms : binary – AB, ternary – ABC, ground bass and fugue
    Dynamic contrast
    alteration between loud and soft
    Music Genres of Baroque Music
    peras, oratorios, suites, tocattas, concerto grosso, fugue
    Hapsichord and organ
    are the keyboard instruments that are commonly used in Baroque music.
    New Forms of Baroque Music
    binary – AB
    ternary – ABC
    ground bass
    Music genres of Baroque Music
    Concerto Grossso
    a form of orchestral music that employs a solo instrument accompanied by an orchestra.
    Concerto Grosso
    a form of orchestral music during Baroque Music Period wherein the music is between small group of solo instruments called concertino and the whole orchestra called tutti.
    small group of solo instruments
    whole orchestra
    Johann Sebastian Bach
    Germany, March 21 1685 – July 28, 1750
    came from a family of musicians
    Eisanach – town of musicians where they lived.
    started playing violin at 7
    Johann Sebastian Bach’s works
    Concerto Grosso – Brandenburg Concertos (concerto grosso)
    Masses – Mass in B minor
    Cantatas – Cantata 208 and 211
    Fugues – Fugue in G minor
    Tocatta and Fugue in D minor
    Works for clavichord and hapsichord – Well Tempered Clavier ( one of his more well-known keyboard improvisations)
    Antonio Vivaldi
    -Vienna, March 4, 1678 – July 28, 1741
    -nicknamed il Prete Rosso (“The Red Priest”) because of his red hair
    -composed Four Seasons
    (Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter)
    George Friedrich Handel
    Germanym February 23, 1685 – London, April 14, 1759
    was the second son from the second marriage of a pastor.
    taught himself how to play hapsichord
    England’s favorite composer
    George Friedrich Handel’s works
    -written by Handel within 24 days in London and performed it in Dublin
    -most famous work of Handel which has the chorus “Hallelujah”

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