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    Music Ballam test 3

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    complex jazz style developed in the 1940s
    cool jazz
    substyle of bebop, unemotional performance with lush harmonies. (Miles Davis)
    French movement developed by visual artists who favored vague, blurry lines intended to capture an impression of the subject
    created by blacks, highly sycopated melodies; contributed to early jazz styles
    Song Cycle
    group of songs that are unified musically through their texts
    deliberate upsetting of the meter through temporary shifting of the accent to a weak beat or offbeat
    operatic “realism” a style popular in Italy in the 1890s, which tried to bring naturalism in the lyric theater
    “borrowed time” the performer hesitates here or hurries there, common in romantic music
    gathering of musicians, artists, and intellectuals who share similar interests and tastes, hosted by a wealthy aristocrat
    Blue Note
    a slight drop of pitch on the third, fifth, or seventh tone of the scale. blues or jazz usually
    German for “song”, associated with the solo art song of the nineteenth century, usually accompanied by piano
    “leading motive” or basic recurring theme, representing a person, object, or idea, commonly used in Wagner’s opera
    Absolute Music
    music that has no literary, dramatic, or pictorial program
    Program Music
    instrumental music endowed with literary or pictorial associations, popular in 19th century
    Big Band (also called swing)
    commonly a large jazz ensemble but also coined to describe Louis Armstrong’s style
    New Orleans Jazz
    characterized by multiple improvisations in an ensemble
    Musical Quotation
    Is the practice of directly quoting another work in a new composition
    musical structure based on repeated harmonic rhythmic patterns that is twelve measures long
    Strophic Form
    the same music is repeated in every stanza
    song structure composed from beginning to end, without repetitions of large sections
    Idee Fixe
    recurring musical idea that links different movements of a work
    Hector Berlioz
    19th century French composer who was far ahead of his time and one of the most original composers.
    Miles Davis
    1940s&50s; black jazz musician invented bebop, rejecting white expectations for black music; challenged traditions, spontaneous, FREE; inspired challenging of authority and encouraged people to stand up for civil rights
    Bille Holiday
    Was an American jazz singer, songwriter, and actress. Nicknamed “Lady Day” by her friend and musical partner Lester Young, Holiday had a seminal influence on jazz and pop singing. Her vocal style, strongly inspired by jazz instrumentalists, pioneered a new way of manipulating phrasing and tempo.
    Duke Ellington
    An American composer, pianist, and bandleader of jazz orchestras. He was born in Washington D.C. and gained a national profile through his orchestra’s appearances at the Cotton Club. Referred his music to “American music” rather than a genre such as “jazz”.
    Scott Joplin
    Was an African-American composer and pianist. Joplin achieved fame for his ragtime compositions and was dubbed the “King of Ragtime Writers”. He wrote 44 original ragtime pieces, one ragtime ballet, and two operas.
    Frederic Chopin
    Was a Polish composer and virtuoso pianist of the romantic era, who wrote primarily for the solo piano. A child prodigy, he completed his musical education and composed many of his works in Warsaw before leaving Poland, aged 20, less than a month before the November 1830 uprising.
    Bedrich Smetana
    • Bohemian composer (Czech)
    • Symphonic cycle “My Country” honoring his native country:
    o The high castle
    o The maldau
    o From bohemia’s meadows and forests
    Harlem Renaissance
    a literary, artistic, and sociological movement that highlighted African American intellectual life in the 1920s and 30s. the most important literary figure associated was Langston Hughes
    Louis Armstrong
    the technique of setting music for instruments in various combinations
    Thematic transformation
    musical expansion of a theme by varying its melodic outline, harmony, or rhythm
    William Grant Still
    Schubert: Elfking
    Genre: Leid
    Melody: Wide-Ranging, each character winds in a different range
    Rhythm/Meter: almost constant triplets in the piano; duple meter
    Harmony: shifts from minor to major
    Form: Through-Composed
    Expression: fast with urgency
    Performing forces: solo voice and piano
    Chopin:Mazura in B-Flat Minior, Op. 24, No 4
    Genre: Mazurka for Solo piano
    Melody: Chromatic lines, wide-ranging, disjunct
    Rhythm/Meter: moderate triple meter
    Harmony: shifts between major and minor
    Texture: Largely Homophonic
    Form: Long Coda
    Expression: Much Rubato
    Berlioz: Symphonie fantastique, IV
    Genre: Program symphony with 5 movements
    Melody: two main march themes
    Rhythm/Meter: duple-Meter
    Harmony: minor
    Form: Sonata like
    Expression: diabolical mood
    Timbre: Prominent timpani
    Smentana: The Moldau
    Genre: Symphonic poem
    Melody: wide ranging river theme
    Rhythm: 6/8 –> Duple Meter –> 6/8
    Harmony: shifts between major and minor
    Expression: depicts scenes along the river Moldau
    Timbre: Varied instruments for each scene
    Brahms: Symphony No.3 in F Major, III
    Genre: Symphony
    Melody: Lyrical, melancholic
    Rhythm: moderate triple meter
    harmony: alternates minor and major keys
    Form: Three Part Structure
    Expression: Arched dynamics and subtle rubato
    Timbre: woodwinds featured in middle section
    Debussy: Prelude to “The Afternoon of a Faun”
    Genre: Symphonic Poem
    Melody: lyrical, sinuous
    Rhythm/Meter: free-flowing
    Texture: Homophonic, light and airy
    Form: Lose A-B-A Structure
    Expression: sensual
    Timbre: Rich Colors
    Performing Forces: HARPS
    Which African American had their first symphony to be performed by a major American orchestra
    William Grant Still
    Who is a gifted jazz pianist and unrivaled orchestrator
    Duke Ellington
    Who is known as “Birth of the Cool Jazz”?
    Miles Davis
    Who is known as “King of Ragtime
    ” Scott Joplin
    Who is known as Lady Day
    Billie Holiday
    Who is known worldwide for “My Country”
    Composed of 6 symphonic poems. Bedrich Smentana
    Who is one of the greats of New Orleans jazz trumpet player and singer
    Louis Armstrong
    Who is widely considered one of the most influential musician of the 20th century and creates the term cool jazz
    Miles Davis
    Whose works include 4 epic ballades, the thoroughly Romantic Sonatas in B-flat minor and B minor, and 2 piano concertos and his piano music technique is transformed into poetry
    Frederic Chopin
    Who was coined the name “idee fixe”
    Hector Berlioz
    Who won the coveted Prix de Rome and composed the Symphonie fantastique
    Hector Berlioz

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