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    Music Appreciation – 2. Middle Ages and Renaissance

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    Know the characteristics of the Gregorian Chant?
    • Melody sung without accompaniment. From the sacred Latin text.
    • It conveys a calm, otherworldly quality
    • Its rhythm is flexible, without Meter or beat
    • The melodies tend to move by step without a narrow range of pitches.
    • Monophonic
    • Melodies were meant to enhance specific parts of religious services.
    • They set the atmosphere of prayers and ritual actions.
    • Melodies can be simple or elaborate.
    Know the two types of services in which monks and nuns sang?
    Monks and nuns sang at the office and the mass
    How are the church modes like the major and minor scales?
    The church modes are like the major and minor scales in that they consist of seven tones and an eighth tone that duplicates the first an octave higher.
    What group of people composed the first large body of secular songs that survives in decipherable notation?
    Troubadours and Trouveres composed the first large body of secular songs that survived in decipherable notation.
    What subjects did Trouvere Songs deal with?
    Dealt with love, dancing and the Crusades.
    The notation of the Troubadour and Trouvere melodies?
    Does not indicate rhythm.
    Definition of Organum?
    A term applied to medieval music that consists of Gregorian chant and one or more additional melodies.
    How does the ars nova or new art differed from older music?
    The Ars Nova or New Art differed from older music in that a new system of notation permitted composers to specify almost any rhythmic pattern.
    • Was not base on Gregorian Chant, but included drinking songs and more.
    • Secular music more important than sacred.
    A composer of the Ars Nova?
    Guillaume De Machaut was an outstanding composer of the Ars Nova.
    The two main forms of sacred Renaissance music?
    Mass and Motet were the two main forms of sacred Renaissance music.
    Renaissance Motet characteristics?
    • Choral work set to a sacred Latin text.
    • Polyphonic
    • Introduces new phrases of imitation, so the words can be more clearly heard.
    • Is written for small choirs of about eight or so singers; only men and boys.
    • Is usually for four voice parts: soprano, alto, tenor and bass.
    What was every educated person in the Renaissance expected to do?
    Read musical notation, play a musical instrument and be skilled in dance.
    What is Thomas Weelke’s As Vesta Was Descending notable for?
    Its word painting.
    The two types of secular vocal music during the Renaissance?
    The Madrigal and Lute song were secular vocal music which enjoyed popularity during the Renaissance.
    What is the texture of a Lute Song?
    Are mostly Homophonic.
    What was much of the instrumental music composed during the Renaissance intended for?
    Definition of Lute?
    • A versatile (רב צדדי) plucked string instrument with a body shaped like a pear, popular during the Renaissance.
    • Homophonic
    • Lute accompanies the vocal melody.
    In the Middle Ages what profession were most of the important musicians?
    Most important musicians were priests.
    What music did the Medieval monks sing?
    Gregorian chants.
    Was Medieval Estampie used for religious services?
    False! Medieval Estampie was not intended for religious services. It was one of the earliest pieces of instrumental music. The manuscript (כתב יד) contains only a single melodic line. It does not indicate which instrument should play the melody.
    What began the development of polyphony between 700 and 900?
    When the monks in monastery choirs began to add a second melodic line to Gregorian chant it became the first steps toward the development of polyphony (between 700 and 900)
    Who were the earliest known composers to write music with measured rhythm?
    Leonin and Perotin were the earliest known composers to write music with measured rhythm.
    Define A Capella?
    A Cappella is unaccompanied choral music.
    Characteristics of the Renaissance madrigal?
    • The Renaissance Madrigal is a piece for several voices set to a short poem, usually about love.
    • Combined Homophonic & polyphonic textures
    • Word painting & unusual harmonies

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