the music of the early Christian church
features monophonic, nonmetric melodies set in one of the church modes, or scales.
Syllabic, neumatic, melismatic
Chant melodies fall into these three categories
based on how many notes are set to each syllable of text.
Hildegard of Bingen exemplifies what
the tension between an individual, creative response to divine inspiration and community expectations of worship.
Religious communities (monasteries)
fostered the extensive development of worship music, starting in the Middle Ages.
is a shared feature among many world cultures, allowing for a more intense personal and collective connection with the divine.
with one note sung to each syllable of text
generally with small groups of up to five or six notes sung to syllable
many notes set to a single syllable
-became an expressive feature of Gregorian chant
variety of scale patterns
(Multivoiced music) originally improvised and eventually noted, is an essential feature of the Western music tradition
in the middle ages, Paris’s Cathedral of Norte Dame was a center for ______ the earliest type of polyphony. two three or four- voice parts sung in fixed rhythmic patterns
the combination of two or more simultaneous melodic lines, is the single most important feature in the development of Western music.
Religious wars (the Crusades) and medieval explorations
these people enabled an exchange of musical instruments and theoretical ideas about music with middle Eastern and Far Eastern cultures
Guillaume de Machaut
was a poet-composer of the French Ars nova (new art) who wrote sacred music and polyphonic chansons (secular songs) set to fixed text form (rondeau, ballade, virelai)
European contacts with Eastern Cultures along with developments in feudal social structure, inspired new concepts of life, art, and beauty
french monophonic or polyphonic song especially of the middle ages and Renaissance set to either courtly or popular poetry
a form of English street song, popular from the sixteenth through the eighteenth centuries. ballads are characterized by narrative content and strophic form
south of France (finders or inventors)
northern France (finders or inventors)
is not unique to western culture but has defined the development of western music and allowed for it astonishing variety diffusion and staying power
the set order of religious services and the structure of each service with a particular denomination
monophoic melody with a freely flowing unmeasure vocal line; liturgical chant of the Roman Catholic Church
based on principles of major-minor tonality as distinct from model
Dances music has often been both _________ and ________ in the Western traditions
soft (bas), loud (haut)
Music instruments in medieval and Renaissance Europe were categorized as _______ or_______ according to their purpose.
instrumental dance music, often adding embellishments.
Both professional and amateur musicians played__________________________________.
the most solemn ritual of the Catholic Church.
ordinary and proper
what are the two categories of prayers in the Catholic Church?
texts that remain the same for every Mass
texts that vary according to the day
ordinary, polyphonic masses
renaissance composers set texts from the ________ of the mass (Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei) for their_____ Masses.
Luther and Calvin
Who believed that monophonic congregation singing in the vernacular should define Christian worship?
trained singers and polyphony
what did Catholic establishment preferred?
a cappella (for unaccompanied voices)
Renaissance sacred music was generally performed as what?
_____ formed the basis for early polyphony, including organum
Machaut’s chanson Ma fin est mon commencement employs a _______ form and an ______ text to display compositional craft and challenge the listener to careful listening and thinking
Both _____ and ______music- making expanded in the Renaissance through secular vocal and instrumental genres.
who was an early master of the Italian madrigal?
sixteenth-century tradition that linked music and lyric poetry. Madrigals usually feature expressive text setting, word-painting and multiple meanings
English madrigals (ex. John Farmer)
were often simpler and lighter in style than their Italian counterparts
some works are built on a fixed preexisting melody
Josquin des Prez’s Ave Maria … Virgo Serena is a _____ to the virgin Mary set in varied textural styles, which are designed to convey the changing meanings in the text