Music notation allows us to see..
High and low notes
Short and Long notes
accented and unaccented notes
(also speed and volume but those came later)
church music sung as a single vocal line in free rhythm and a restricted scale (plainsong)
basic element of Western and Eastern systems of musical notation prior to the invention of five-line staff notation
What did Guido d’Arezzo do?
invented modern musical notation (ut-re-mi-fa-so-la) in the 11th century, so people no longer needed to memorise pieces, and could sing just from sight-reading
(“fixed song”), a pre-existing melody forming the basis of a polyphonic composition
early polyphony of the late Middle Ages that consists of one or more voice parts accompanying the cantus firmus often in parallel motion at a fourth, fifth, or octave above or below
Ambrosian chant vs Gregorian chant
Ambrosian chant- originates from Northern Italy. Both are sung in unison, a capella, involving men’s voices. However Ambrosian chant is more free and meanders more.
Hildegard of Bingen
A female music composer in the 12th century
5th to 15th centuries
Guillaume de Machaut
Medieval composer; helped develop motets, secular (distinct from religion) music, and music for the mass
one of the pre-eminent polyphonic forms of Renaissance music
Early renaissance composer; used systems such as writing polyphonic harmony over a simple chant
Single melodic line with no accompaniment, or everyone singing the same line
a texture with one dominant melodic voice accompanied by chords
two or more simultaneous lines of independent melody