MultimediaMultimediaMultimedia, or mixed-media, systems offerpresentations that integrateeffects existing in a variety of formats,including text, graphics,animation, audio, and video. Such presentationsfirst became commerciallyavailable in very primitive form in theearly 1980s, as a result of advancesthat have been made in digital compressiontechnology– particularly thedifficult area of image compression. Multimediaonline services areobtainable through telephone/computeror television links, multimediahardware and software exist for personalcomputers, networks, the internet,interactive kiosks and multimedia presentationsare available on CD-ROMs andvarious other mediums. The use of multimediain our society has it benefitsand it’s drawbacks, most defiantly. Someof the more computer-related uses ofmultimedia, such as electronic publishing,the internet, and computers ineducation will be discussed in depth thoughtthis paper.Order now
Electronic publishing is the publishingof material in a computer-accessiblemedium, such as on a CD-ROM or on theInternet. In a broader sense of theterm it could also include paper productspublished with the aid of a desktoppublishing program, or any form of printingthat involves the use of acomputer. Reference works became availablein the mid-1980s both in CD-ROM format andonline. Increasingly, in the 1990s, magazines,journals, books, andnewspapers have become available in anelectronic format, and some areappearing in that format only. Companiesthat publish technical manuals toaccompany their other products have alsobeen turning to electronicpublishing. Electronic books have been recentlyintroduced to the world as a whole.
Thisnew concept is the use of internet orotherwise computer technology toelectronically convert books to a digital,readable format viewed on atelevision set or computer screen. Thiswould most likely be done by scanningin individual pages in a book, arrangethem in orderly fashion, and haveusers be able to cycle back and forthbetween the photo-identical pages. Thismethod would be very quick, and very easyto accomplish- that is- scanningpages as opposed to re-typing millionsof words is preferred. This brings usto another method in electronic book production-the interactive method. Indigital format, the book’s pages can onlybe viewed, just like a book.
If areader would want to take notes from abook, he/she would have to write downthe notes by hand, or would be forcedto photo-copy the page(s). If the bookwas typed out entirely as would be doneby an electronic word processor suchas Microsoft Word, users would greatlybenefit. The ability for the computerto recognize the words on the screen asactual words as opposed to merebitmaps is often unrealized to the computernon-familiar. This recognitionallows the page to be edited with completeinteractivity and ease- again likeMicrosoft Word. Books can be updated orcorrected in real time, withouthaving to re-upload corrected pages, orcompensate for unalignment in wordsand page breaks. Perhaps the most beneficialto the user is theinteractivity- the ability to interactwith the words in the book.
Byhighlighting letters on the page, copyingthem, and pasting them in personalclipboards or other word processing programs,the tedious task of note-takingcan be eliminated. This idea, on the otherhand, can raise issues with theauthor and publisher of the book. Plagiarism,already a problem, would runwild in this area. Users would theoreticallybe able to copy entire books ormagazines to their personal files, andbe able to use them as their ownreports or writings.
Additionally, theability to view a book and it’scontents at no charge obviously will notagree with some publishers. Thisalso brings up the idea of charging peoplefor time “online. ” Users could becharged money for use of electronic books/magazineson a time basis. This,however, will not go over well in thepublic domain. We would rather take onthe trouble of taking manual notes thanbe charged for something that isotherwise free at a library.
In a very short time the Internethas become a major vehicle of worldwidecommunication and an unrivaled sourceof information. One of the Internet’sfascinations is that its resources arelimited only by the number ofcomputers participating in the World WideWeb and the imaginations of theirusers. The Internet is an internationalweb of interconnected government,education, and business computer networks-in essence, a network of networks. From a thousand or so networks in themid-1980s, the Internet had grown toabout 30,000 connected networks in mid-1994.
By mid-1995 the number ofnetworks had doubled to more than 60,000,making the Internet available to anestimated 40 million people worldwide. The Internet owes its unusual designand architecture to its origins in theUS Defense Department’s ARPANET projectin 1969. Military planners wanted todesign a computer network that could withstandpartial destruction (as from anuclear attack) yet still function asa network. They reasoned thatcentralized control of the data flow throughone or a few hub computers wouldleave the system too open to attack.
Everycomputer on the network should beable to communicate, as a peer, with everyother computer on the network. Thus if part of the network was destroyed,the surviving parts wouldautomatically reroute communications throughdifferent pathways. Because manyfactors–power outages, overtaxed telecommunicationslines, equipmentfailure–can degrade a network’s performance,the ARPANET solution was alsoattractive to networkers outside the military. The Internet is also a repositoryof information for businesses.
Thousandsof discussion groups with specializedinterests–in topics ranging fromaeronautics to molecular biology–sharedata across the Internet. The USgovernment posts more and more information,such as Commerce Department dataand new patent filings, on the Internet. Additionally, many universities areconverting large libraries to electronicform for distribution on theInternet. One of the most ambitious examplesis Cornell University’s ongoingproject to convert 100,000 books, printedover the past century, on thedevelopment of American infrastructure-books on bridges, roads, and otherpublic works.
Some businesses have also begun toexplore advertising and marketing on theInternet. Thus far results have been mixed. Protection of copyrightedmaterial is a problem, because anyonecan download data from the Internet. Some companies have explored encryptingdata for sale on the Internet,providing decoding keys only to buyersof the data, but this scheme will notprevent the buyers from repackaging andreselling the data.
However, thecompanies are very reluctant to deny thelure the internet generates. Anycustomer from around the world could logon to a company site, getinformation in seconds, and even orderdirectly through the company’s server. The recent development in modem speedshave also allowed businesses toelaborately cram web sites with spectacularmultimedia effects, drawingsurfers in young and old. Advertisingon the internet is relatively cheap(compared to television) and is very specializedand often more effective.
Companies can choose to advertise on certainhigh hit rate sites that pertainto that company’s field. This makes theadvertisement seen by more of it’starget audience, and as a result, theadvertisement will be more effective. The explosive growth of the Internethas been fueled by individual userswith modem-equipped personal computers. Most of these users subscribe tolocal networks that provide a connectionto the wider Internet. As well, alot of users (including myself) chooseto use direct-connection serviceproviders.
Unlike separate networks likeAOL, the direct service providersoften have less users, thus increasesthe speed of the T1 connection. Manyusers, as well as businesses, can createtheir own “home pages”- points ofaccess that allow anyone on the Internetto download information from thepersonal computer. The prime cause ofthe Internet explosion, however, hasbeen the development of the World WideWeb service: a collection of severalthousand independently owned computers,called Web servers, that arescattered worldwide. Using software programssuch as Mosaic and Netscape,individuals can enter the World Wide Weband “browse” or “surf” the Internetwith increasing ease and rapidity througha system of hypertext links. Thisis perhaps the most exiting part aboutthe internet.
You can visit anywebsite you like, wherever it is locatedat no extra charge, and downloadfiles and view great multimedia effectsat any time. Though greatlyover-hyped as the “Information Superhighway,”the Internet will becomeincreasingly more interactive and willplay a much more significant role inthe future. Since their introduction in schoolsin the early 1980s computers andcomputer software have been increasinglyaccessible to students andteachers–in classrooms, computer labs,school libraries, and outside ofschool. By the mid-1990s there were about4. 5 million computers in elementaryand secondary schools throughout the UnitedStates. Schools buy Macintosh andIBM-compatible computers almost exclusively(though mostly Macs, dang it!!),although nearly half of their computersare based on older designs such asthe Apple IIe.
Students spend on the averagean hour per week using schoolcomputers. Though this depends on thestudentComputers can be used for learningand teaching in school in at least fourways. First, learning involves acquiringinformation. Computers- especiallylinked to CD-ROMs and video disks thatelectronically store thousands ofarticles, visual images, and sounds- enablestudents to search the electronicequivalent of an encyclopedia or a videolibrary to answer their ownquestions or simply to browse throughfascinating and visually appealinginformation.
Second, learning involves the developmentof skills like reading andmathematics- skills that are greatly learnedon computers in basic forms. Software called computer-assisted instruction,or CAI, asks questions tostudents and compares each answer withthe single correct answer- a verybasic program. Typically, such programsrespond to wrong answers with anexplanation and another, similar problem. Sometimes CAI programs are embeddedin an entertaining game that holds studentinterest and yet keeps studentattention on academic work. Most CAI programscover quite limited material,but some larger-scale reading and mathematicsprograms have been developed.
Third, learning involves the developmentof a wide variety of analyticunderstandings. Computers help studentsreach these goals through softwaresuch as word processors , graphing andconstruction tools, electronicpainting and CAD programs, music compositionprograms, simulations of socialenvironments, and programs that collectdata from science laboratoryequipment and aid in analysis. Finally, a large topic in learningis communicating with others–finding andengaging an audience with one’s ideasand questions. Several types ofcomputer software can be used in schoolsfor communications: desktoppublishing and image-editing softwarefor making professional-quality printedmaterials, computer programming languagessuch as BASIC or Pascal or C forcreating interactive computer exercises,and telecommunications software forexchanging ideas at electronic speedswith students in other classrooms allover the world. The computer in education can posegreat benefits to the student, but to alimited extent.
The computer must be usedas a tool, and not as a teacher. Itshould be thought of as an educationalassistant (in the school setting) andnot a game machine. Computers have unlimitedpossibilities, and we shouldincorporate them into our schools. Butin doing this, we must realize thatcomputers should not be the main focus,education and the quality of theteachers should be.
For any case, withoutsolid teaching and instruction,computers and other such resources becomeuseless.