What were Charlemagne’s greatest accomplishments?
1)Encouraged education and scholarship 2)Unified all of Christians under one empire 3)Catholic church blessed him
What responsibilities did monarchs have in the feudal system?
Keep order and provide protection for their vassals
What responsibilities did lords have in the feudal system?
1)Manage/defend their land and people on it 2)Appointed officials to make sure villagers payed rent 3)Acted as judges 4)Had power to fine and punish people who broke the law
What responsibilities did knights have in the feudal system?
1)Expected to be loyal to church and lord 2)Protected the helpless
What responsibilities did peasants have in the feudal system?
1)Worked lang 2)Raised crops and tended livestock 3)Worked as carpenters, shoemakers, smiths, etc. 4)Grind grain in mill 5)Payed taxes
Why is William the Conqueror an important monarch?
1)Established a line of Norman kings in England 2)Brought feudal systems to England
What was the role of noblewomen in the feudal system?
1)Ran estates 2)Sat as judges in manor courts 3)Sent knights in time of war
What was the code of chivalry?
The medieval knight’s code of ideal behavior, including bravery, loyalty, and respect of women
How were the lives of peasant women and men different?
Male peasants worked and payed taxes. Female peasants only worked when needed, but mostly cared for children and homes
3.2 — The Christian Church Takes Shape
-Christianity became recognized religion -All Christians in Roman Empire were under one church -Spread of monasteries and preaching of missionaries helped bring new converts to Christian faith -Pope was assisted by high ranking clergymen called cardinals -Pope was supreme head of Roman Catholic church -Each Parish had own church
3.3 — Sacraments and Salvation in the Middle Ages
Religion in the Middle Ages included things called Sacraments and Salvation. The afterlife was firmly believed in, where your soul lived on. To help you get there, you could use sacraments, which gained you salvation. There are 7 different sacraments – Baptism, Confirmation, Eucharist, Matrimony(Marriage), Holy Orders, Penance, and Extreme Unction
3.4 — Pilgrimages and Crusades
There were a lot of Pilgrimages and Crusades. Pilgrimages showed people’s devotion to God. This was an act of Penance or for an illness. Popular destinations were Jerusalem, Rome, and Canterbury. People also went on Crusades to gain land for Muslim control.
-About 500 crusaders -Some of first were peasants who attacked Jews in Germany -Turkish killed peasants before reaching Holy land -Nobles and knights took Jerusalem(Set up small kingdoms for only a little while)
-French and German kings -FAILURE(Poor Planning)
-After Muslims retook Jerusalem -German king died -French king left -King Richard of England stayed -Main opponent was Saladin, ruler of Muslim forces -Richard returned home with Saladin still ruler
-Didn’t have money to pay for voyage(Knights) -Knights attacked Zara and Constantinople(Threatened by Muslims first) -Christians vs Christians
-Army of young people -Kidnapped and sold as slaves
Fifth, Sixth, and Seventh Crusades
Battle of Nicopolis/Last Crusade
-Army of French and Hungarian knights were massacred
5.2 — Political Developments in England
-Henry II improved English law(Made legal reform a central concern) -Magna Carta protected rights and privileges of Nobles by making deal between barons and king -Model Parlament was new gov. including more people such as lower ranking clergy and commoners -Power shifted to common people=Decline of feudalism
5.3 — Bubonic Plague
-Effected Europe, China, Italy, North Africa, and Asia Minor -Called Black Death due to black spots on people’s skin
-Spread by fleas on rats and sometimes by bad hygiene of people and towns -Weren’t many workers left and jobs were given out=Decline of ferudalism
5.4 — Hundred Years’ War
-Started due to Charles IV of France died without a son and Edward III of England thought he could be new ruler
-English beat French early with light armor, more men, and more crossbows -More power was given to lower class citizens=Decline of feudalism
5.4 – Joan of Arc
-Peasant girl -Thought she heard voices of God telling her to fight -Dressed as a man and fought for French -Was shot by arrow but still fought, even though it should’ve been impossible to do
Magna Carta vs Bill of Rights
-Freedom of Petition -Due Process of Law -Takings/Just Compensation -No Excessive bail and fines -No Cruel/Unusual punishments -Speedy/Public trial in criminal cases -Confrontation of Accusers -Common law and jury trial -(Local) Impartial jury for all crimes
Bill of Rights
(All Magna Carta laws plus…)-No established religion/favored sect -Rights of Conscience/Free exercise -Freedom of Speech -Freedom of Press -Freedom of Assembly -Keep and bear arms/militia -Quartering of troops -Double jeopardy -Self Incrimination -No unreasonable searches/seizures -Nature of accusation
-Compulsory Witness -Assistance of Counsel -Rights retained by the people -$ Limitation on Appeals -Grand Jury for loss of life or limb -Reservation of non delegated powers
28.3 — Growth of Trade and Commerce
-Towns provided inns and places for travelling merchants to rest -Rise of Commerce and Banking provided new jobs and helped Renaissance start. Craftspeople, Merchants, and bankers became more important -Started using coins and other currencies, creating bankers and moneychangers
28.4 — The Influence of Italian City-States
-Italian City-states became powerful from being rich due to trade and were governed by powerful people -Payed for creations of statues, paintings, building, elegant avenues, and centers of learning (Universities, hospitals, etc.)
28.5 — The Growth of Humanism
-Humanists believed all people had the ability to control their lives and achieve greatness -Humanists studied grammar, thetoric, history, poetry, and ethics
29.3 –Advances in Architecture and Engineering: Duomo di Santa Maria del Fiore
-Classical ideas influenced Renaissance architecture: Modeled Greek and Roman architecture and Modeled Humanist ideas -Brunelleschi built and dome
-Dome wouldn’t collapse due to stone arches meeting at the top and leaning against each other
29.4 — Advances in Painting: Palazzo Medici
-Two Renaissance advances in painting style: Perspective and use of oil paint -Two advances in painting techniques: Use of science and mathematics and shading
29.5 — Advances in Sculpture: Piazza Della Signoria
-Renaissance vs Medieval: Three dimensional(Renaissance) and Real People(Renaissance)
-Donatello’s David was natural and inspire others
-Michelangelo’s David may be most admired sculpture
29.6 — Advances in Literature: Casa di Dante
-Renaissance vs medieval: Topics-Medieval= Religion Renaissance=Individual experience and world around them Language-Medieval= Italian Renaissance=Dialect
-Dante’s The Divine Comedy examples humanist art due to highlighting strong emotions and experiences of individuals
29.7 — Advances in Science and Mathematics: Orsanmichele
-Advance from more questions being asked and research/experiments being done -4 Science/math topic Leonardo explore= Geometry, Engineering, Sound, and Motion
29.8 — Florentine Politics: Palazzo Vecchio
-Medici family kept strong military, involved with the city, had supporters of artists, writers and musicians, and killed/ punished people plotting against them -Machiavelli’s The Prince book was about how politics and government really work
29.9 — Florentine Commerce and Trade: Mercato Nuovo
-Woolen-Cloth making, Banking, Real-Estate, Graindealer, and Lawyers helped Florence become center of Renaissance -Old Market=Vegetables, fruit, bread, fish, meat, medicine, and shoes -New Market= Banned food and weapons
31.3 — Early Calls for Reform
-John Wycliffe was called heretic by church from challenging the church’s right to money demanded from England and questioning Pope’s authority -Jan Hus wanted to purify Church and return it to the people and End corruption among the clergy -Catherine of Siena helped prepare for the Reformation by emphasizing personal experiences of God more than the formal observance of church practices -Desiderius Erasmus was a humanist from Hollan. He attacked corruption in the church(Many left Catholicism)
31.4 — Martin Luther Breaks Away from the Church
-Wrote 95 theses due to being angry about church selling indulgences -Luther believed bible, not pope or church leaders, held ultimate source of religious authority and only sacraments were Baptism and Eucharist -When brought before Diet of Worms, refused to take back teaching and declared heretic and couldn’t print or sell writings
31.5 — Other Early Leaders of the Reformation
-Printing Press, Translations of Bible, and Rulers embracing Protestant faith helped spread movement -Huldrych Zwingli and John Calvin began two churches in Switzerland -King Henry VIII split with Catholic church= Wanted to end first marriage and no longer wanted to share power and wealth with church -William Tyndale= English Priest, writer, and scholar who translated books from Bible to help contribute to movement