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    Kaymito Leaves as Antiseptic Mouthwash Essay

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    Introduction:

    The Philippine population grows at an average of 1.7 million each year. One of the concerns that goes along with population increase is the problem of people’s health. The high cost of Western medicines and treatments has resulted in the growing number of self-medicating people. Many have also resorted to traditional medicines, thus the growing demand for natural products. Aside from financial considerations, people opt for natural products because they have become concerned about what they use as food and medicines.

    With this situation, the Department of Health through the Philippine Institute of Traditional Alternative Health Care (PITAHC) under Republic Act No. 8423 has endorsed the use of traditional medicines in the country. Medical plants abound in nature. Since most of them are available and easily accessible, these medicines are more affordable compared to synthetic drugs. Ten medicinal plants have been endorsed by the DOH-PITAHC after they have been scientifically validated to ensure safety and efficacy. These are Acapulco, Ampalaya (Makiling variety), Lagundi (five leaflets), Bawang, Bayabas, Sambong, Niyug-niyogan, Tsaang-gubat, Yerba Buena, and Ulasimang bato (pansit-pansitan).

    Uses of 10 scientifically validated medicinal plants:

    Plant Uses

    • Lagundi (Vitex negundo) – Cough and asthma
    • Sambong (Blumea balsamifera L.) – Anti-urolithiasis (kidney stones)
    • Ampalaya (Momordica charantia L.) – Lowering blood sugar and anti-diabetes
    • Garlic (Allium sativum) – Anti-cholesterol
    • Guava (Psidium guajava) – Oral/skin antiseptic
    • Tsaang-gubat (Carmona cetusa) – Mouthwash
    • Yerba-Buena (Mentha arvensis) – Analgesic or anti-pyretic
    • Niyug-niyogan (Quisaualis indica) – Anti-helminthic
    • Acapulco (Cassia alata) – Antifungal
    • Ulasimang-bato (Peperomia pellucida) – Anti-hyperurisemia

    Other medicinal plants which are folk-validated (need further study for clinical tests and trials) are represented.

    Tips for growing herbal and medicinal plants:

    A. Site selection for growing medicinal plants:

    Free from pollution such as:

    • Soil – no heavy metals, pesticide residues, and high microbial count
    • Air – away from heavily traversed roads by motorized vehicles
    • Air – away from farms using pesticides
    • Water – no contamination with microorganisms and pesticides
    • Accessible to motorized vehicles
    • With a reliable and clean water source
    • B. General propagation methods for some medicinal plants: Propagation.
    • Plants Sexual Asexual Akapulko Ampalaya Lagundi Niyog-niyugan Sambong Tsaang gubat Ulasimang bato Yerba buena 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
    • C. Harvesting and Post-Handling of Some Medicinal Plants
    • Plant Part Harvesting Duration of Yield (kg) Harvested Frequency How Air Drying per Plant (;10% M. C.) (Garbled)

    Akapulco Leaves 5-6 months after transplanting (mat) and every 4 months thereafter Cut all branches 0.75 m from the ground. Remove all leaves and minor branches. Leaves 4-5 major branches. 7 days, 14-21 days 1st harvest 0.50 K fresh leaves. 2nd harvest 0.70 K fresh leaves. 3rd harvest 1. K fresh leaves.

    1. Ampalaya (Makiling variety) Leaves 2-3 mat. and every week thereafter Cut branches 60 cm long from the tip. 7 days, 14 days 0.40-0.50 kg fresh leaves.
    2. Bawang Bulbs 100-120 days after planting drying of leaves Uproot the whole plant. Tie bulbs together and hang indefinitely. 3.23 g dried bulbs or 3.23 tons/ha (Batangas).
    3. Bayabas Leaves 3-4 years after planting Remove healthy leaves from stems. 7 days, 14-18 days 1st harvest (2 years after planting) 1.40 kg fresh leaves.
    4. Lagundi Leaves 7-8 mat. and every 3-5 months thereafter Cut all branches 0.75 m from the ground. Remove all leaves and minor branches. Leaves 4-5 major branches. 7 days, 14-21 days 1st harvest 0.80-0.90 kg fresh leaves. 2nd harvest 0.95-1.10 kg fresh leaves. 3rd harvest 1.15-1.30 kg fresh leaves.
    5. Niyog-niyugan Fruits 2-3 years after planting every summer (March-May) Fruits have turned golden yellow. Handpick ripe fruits. 14 days, 30-45 days No ample data. Fruiting in UPLB is erratic.
    6. Tsaang gubat Leaves 7-8 mat. and every 4-5 months thereafter Cut all branches 0.75 m from the ground. Leaves 4-5 major branches and remove minor branches. 4-5 days, 14 days 1st harvest 0.90-1.00 kg fresh leaves. 2nd harvest 1.00-1.50 kg fresh leaves. 3rd harvest 1.50-2.00 kg fresh leaves.
    7. Sambong Leaves 3-5 mat. and every 3 months thereafter Remove all mature and healthy leaves. After 3-4 harvestings, prune plant 0.5 m from the ground. 7 days, 14-21 days 1st harvest 0.80-0.90 kg fresh leaves. 2nd harvest 0.90-1.00 kg fresh leaves.
    8. Ulasimang bato or Pansit-pansitan Whole plant minus roots 2.5-3 mat. Uproot the whole plant. 30 days, 90 days 0.30-0.50 kg fresh leaves and stems

    Microbial Test Requirements:

    • Standard plate count – 10 cfu/g
    • Coliform plate count – <10 cfu/g
    • Molds and yeasts plate count – <10 cfu/g
    • E. coli – negative
    • Salmonella – negative
    • Staphylococcus aureus – negative
    • Heavy Metal Analysis:
    • Allowable Amount
    • Lead (Pb) – 10.0 ppm
    • Cadmium (Cd) – 0.3 ppm
    • Chromium (Cr) – 10.0 ppm
    • Argon (Ar) – 3.0 ppm

    Additional Safety Guidelines on Using Medicinal Plants:

    • Do not take for granted the identification of the herb.
    • Use only the recommended amount for the recommended period.
    • If you’re over 65 and sensitive to drugs, start with a low-strength preparation.
    • Be extra cautious if you have chronic diseases.
    • Pay attention to any symptoms of toxicity.
    • Be extra careful when using herb oil.
    • With few exceptions, pregnant and nursing women should not use healing herbs as medicines without a doctor’s advice.
    • With few exceptions, healing herbs should not be given to children below 2 years old without a doctor’s advice.

    Role of the Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau, DENR:

    • The ERDB with the project on medicinal plants will directly manage and provide technical assistance, as follows:
    • The farmer-beneficiaries will be trained on the production and management of medicinal plants to be spearheaded by ERDB.
    • The research team of ERDB will provide the technology using organic fertilizer, fungicide, and pesticides.
    • The farmer-beneficiaries will be trained on the medicinal livelihood options, like herbal soap making, ointment preparation, herbal tea production, and planting stock production.
    • At the same time, household use on proper preparation and use of medicinal plants for alternative health care will be taught, such as decoction and other uses of medicinal plants for health care.
    • The farmer’s activities will be supervised and monitored by the ERDB research team. They will mutually coordinate their plans and directly implement the production management to enhance productivity of the land.
    • The ERDB will be responsible for the overall production and management of high-value and high-priority medicinal plants.
    • The ERDB research team will be allowed and given full access to the farmer’s land to use their denuded forest land and/or farm lot to promote sustainable development for medicinal plants.

    To support the poverty alleviation of the upland farmers through livelihood, ERDB will provide and assist the cooperators in marketing medicinal products. ERDB will be the conduit to link farmer’s medicinal products to the herbal industry, manufacturers, and markets. ERDB will be responsible for formulating marketing strategies and other marketing aspects of raw materials and other related products from the medicinal plants.

    Role of Farmer-Beneficiaries:

    • The farmer should assign and designate the working force and land to be used for medicinal plant production.
    • They should be willing to plant and cultivate medicinal plants at their farm lot, such as lagundi, sambong, tsaang-gubat, acapulko, banaba, alagao, ampalaya, and other high-value crops with medicinal use.
    • They will plant the herbal and medicinal plants as agroforestry crops in their farm.
    • In cultivating the medicinal plants, the farmer’s farm should be free from heavy metals and pollution (soil analysis is required).
    • The farmer should use organic fertilizer, pesticides, and fungicide.
    • The farmer should render their shared free

    Professional Chair lecture:

    1. Estrada Hall, UP-PGH, Manila, Department of Health, 1994.
    2. Technology status and need assessment for herbal medicines: An executive summary, DOH, Manila. Quintana, E. G. (2002). “Propagation, harvesting, and post-harvest of some medicinal plants”. The lecture was given on July 19, 2002, at the ERDB Training on the Production Management of Herbal and Medicinal Plants in Sta.
    3. Catalina, Atimonan, Quezon. Escobar, V. M. (1998). Raw materials for natural and herbal personal care product formulation.
    4. Paper presented during the conference on the 1998 BIO-Search, Department of Trade and Industry, Manila. Gomez, F. (1998). The rational use of medicinal plants in primary health care. Paper presented during the Conference on the 1998 BIO-Search, Department of Trade and Industry, Manila.
    5. Philippine Council for Health Research and Development. Department of Science and Technology (1991). Selection and scientific validation of medicinal plants for primary health care.
    6. Philippine Institute of Traditional and Alternative Health Care (PITAHC) (1997). Republic Act No. 8423, otherwise known as the “Traditional and Alternative Medicine Act of 1997.” (1995).
    7. Feasibility study on the integrated herbal processing of Agundi, Sambong, Yerba Buena, and Tsaang-gubat. Prepared by PCHRD, DOST. The Asia and Pacific Centre for Research, June 1995.
    8. Traditional Medicine Unit (1992). Gabay sa Paggamit ng 10 Halamang Gamot.
    9. Department of Health. Ubaldo, J. B. (1997). Perspectives on integrated health care and herbal medicine. Kalayaan Press Marketing Enterprises, Inc., 50 Kalayaan St., Diliman, Quezon City.

    Common name Folklorically-validated (needs further scientific studies) Scientific name Uses

    1. Abukado Persea americana Diarrhea/wounds
    2. Abutra Arcangelista flava Wounds/pruritis
    3. Alagaw Premna odorata Fever/headache, gaseous distention/cough/aromatic bath
    4. Anis Foeniculum odorata Gaseous distention, dizziness/fainting, hysteria
    5. Balanoy Ocimum basilicum Dizziness/fainting, hysteria/toothache, cough/arthritis, wounds/antifungal
    6. Balatong aso Cassia occidentis Antifungal
    7. Balimbing Averrhoa carambola Antipyretic
    8. Bani Pongamia pinnata Gaseous distention
    9. Banaba Lagerstroemia speciosa Kidney and bladder problems
    10. Barak Curcuma zedoaria Gaseous distention
    11. Dalanghita Citrus nobilis Dizziness/fainting, hysteria/aromatic bath
    12. Damong maria Artemmisa vulgaris Headache/wounds, gaseous distention
    13. Dayap Citrus aurantifolia Fever/dizziness, fainting/hysteria, aromatic bath
    14. Dilaw Curcuma longa Wounds/gaseous distention
    15. Duhat Syzygium cumini Swollen gums/wounds
    16. Eucalyptus Eucalyptus sp. Wounds/cough
    17. Gatas-gatas
    18. Kamoteng kahoy Manihot esculenta – Constipation/pruritus.
    19. Kamyas Averrhoa bilimbi – Antipyretic.
    20. Kanya pistula Cassia fistula – Antifungal/constipation.
    21. Kangkong Ipomoea aquatica – Constipation.
    22. Kasoy Anacardium occidentale – Swollen gums/constipation.
    23. Kaymito Chrysophyllum cainito – Diarrhea/swollen gums.
    24. Kintsay Apium graveolens – Poisoning.
    25. Kugon Imperata cylindrical – Diuretic.
    26. Lantana Lantana camara – Arthritis/sprain.
    27. Lanting Plantago major – Swollen gums/wounds.
    28. Linga Sesamum orientale – Constipation.
    29. Luya Zingiber officinale – Gaseous distention/cough.
    30. Mais Zea mays – Diuretic/pruritus.
    31. Makabuhay Moringa oleifera – Scabies/antiseptic.
    32. Malunggay Moringa oleifera – Arthritis/scabies wounds/constipation.
    33. Mangosteen Garcinia mangostana – Diarrhea/stomach pain.
    34. Mani Arachis hypogaea – Constipation.
    35. Mansanilya Chrysanthemum indicum – Gaseous distention/headache/abscesses.
    36. Manga Mangifera indica – Aromatic bath/cough/fever/vaginal wash.
    37. Mayana Coleus blumei – Headache/sprains.
    38. Niyog Cocos nucifera – Constipation/oral dehydration.
    39. Oregano Coleus amboinicus – Gaseous distention/cough/burns.
    40. Palay Oryza sativa – Constipation/pruritus.
    41. Pandan mabango Pandanus odoratissmus – Analgesic.
    42. Papaya Carica papaya – Constipation/wounds.
    43. Pili Canarium ovatum – Constipation/abscesses.
    44. Romero Rosmarinus officinalis – Gaseous distention/aromatic bath.
    45. Sabila Aloe barbadensis – Hair growth/stimulant/burns/wounds.
    46. Sampalok Tamarindus indica – Fever/cough/wounds/vaginal wash/aromatic bath.
    47. Siling labuyo Capsicum frutescens – Arthritis.
    48. Sorosoro Euphorbia neriifolia – Otitis media.
    49. Suha Citrus grandis – Fever/dizziness/fainting/hysteria/aromatic bath.
    50. Tulasi Ocimum sanctum – Toothache/dizziness/gaseous distention/fainting/hysteria/arthritis/wounds/antifungal/aromatic bath.
    51. Suob kabayo Hyptis suaveolens – Toothache/headache.
    52. Talumpanay Datura metel – Antiasthma/abscess.
    53. Tangan-tangan Ricinus communis – Skin antiseptic.
    54. Tanglad Andropogon citratus – Gaseous distention/mouthwash/aromatic bath.
    55. Tubang bakod Jatropha curcas – Sprain.

    Source: Department of Health Circular No. 168-A, Series of 1995.

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