Robert Hofstadter was an American physicist born in Madison, Wisconsin in 1908 and passed away in 1991.
He was known for his studies of semiconductivity and other aspects of solid-state physics. Bardeen was the first person to win a Nobel Prize twice in the same field. He shared the 1956 physics prize with Walter Brattain and William Shockley for their work in developing the transistor, and the 1972 physics prize with Leon Cooper and John Schreiffer for their theory of superconductivity. John Bardeen (1908-1991) was an American physicist born in Madison, Wisconsin. He worked at Bell Laboratories in New Jersey and was a member of the team that developed the transistor. For this work, he shared the 1956 Nobel Prize in physics with American physicists William Shockley and Walter H.
Brattain. In 1972, he shared the Nobel Prize in Physics with American physicists Leon N. Cooper and John R. Schrieffer for the development of a theory to explain superconductivity. He was the first scientist to win two Nobel Prizes in the same field.