The Catalan struggle and Spanish Civil War greatly influenced Joan MirÃ³ ‘s art; Miro’s techniques of forceful strokes with paint and ceramics enable MirÃ³ to express his feelings and depict the Catalan people’s struggle through art.
I. Surrealism in the 1920s
A. Born into a Catalan culture
B. Intense nationalist activity
D. Clement Greenburg
II. Lack of interest in political matters
A. Spanish Civil War
B. Being Catalan
C. Catalan struggle for freedom
III. Career in art
A. 1911 enrolled at design school
B. Frances GalÃ
C. 1914 MirÃ³’s earliest painting
2. The Hunter
IV. Anger in MirÃ³s art
A. Spaces of his art are occupied
B. New tensions
The Catalan struggle and Spanish Civil War greatly influenced Joan MirÃ³’s art; MirÃ³’s techniques of forceful strokes with paint and ceramics enable MirÃ³ to express his feelings and depict the Catalan people’s struggle through art. Surrealism in the 1920s was defined as a fantastic arrangement of materials that influenced MirÃ³, due to the fact that he was one of the most original and sympathetic artists during the Surrealism periods. MirÃ³ was born into the Catalan culture in April 20,1893 in Barcelona, Spain Munro 288. Having to be born into the Catalan culture gave MirÃ³ an opportunity to have an intense nationalist activity. In which much attention was paid not only to political expressions of the need for autonomy, but also to the re-Catalanizing of every day life Higdon 1.
“It was necessary to fight so that Catalan, our language might be recognized as a cultural language” “MirÃ³”. In 1910 MirÃ³’s parents bought a masia which is a sort of traditional farmstead of Catalonia, where the family has its roots on the paternal side. MirÃ³ described the masia in his painting The Farm of 1921-1922 Figure1. Clement Greenburg a close friend of MirÃ³ who is also a critic, said that MirÃ³’s art is based on ideas “of painting as an irrevocable two dimensional medium” Munro 289.
Greenburg also stated “MirÃ³ is known for his almost total lack of interest in political matters” Munro 289. The only thing that really kept MirÃ³ interested was his people and their culture. What really shot MirÃ³ down was the Spanish Civil War, he stated that “I am not in favor of separatism. I am in favor for Spanish unity, European unity, and World unity.” He believed that they should be able to celebrate their myths, and abide by their own laws Higdon 1.
Being Catalan was pretty hard on MirÃ³ as well as his people and their culture. For one, the government tried to shut them out or at least make them in to a Spanish-speaking country. Yet the Catalans had to push on their struggle for freedom. MirÃ³ used his paintings to show his urge for unity, and wanted his people to have the right to practice their customs Munro 288. He was extremely devoted to his people and their aspirations.
He wanted to bring out Catalan traditions as well as their language Higdon 2.
MirÃ³ career in art was sort of brought on by destiny. In 1911 he enrolled at a design art school, taught by a man named Frances GalÃ. GalÃ was extremely strict and straightforward. His art was basically drawn in the form of a picture. Yet when he saw MirÃ³’s art he realized true potential and realized that MirÃ³’s use of paint strokes and use of two-dimensional shapes were unique.
In 1914 MirÃ³ painted a man wearing a Catalan “liberty cap.” Higdon2 After MirÃ³ had completed small amount of his paintings they were brought to Barcelona for their safe keeping. Such as the Montroig, the Church and the Village Figure 2, The Farm Figure 1, Still Life with Old Shoe Figure 3, and Women in the Night Figure 4, When MirÃ³ moved to Paris in the 1920s he experienced a wide variety of changes in one year, he had then moved from “naÃ¯ve” of The Farm to the startlingly spare abstraction of the Hunter.
After his experience with Paris, which only lasted for a couple of months, he went back to Barcelona until the beginning of the Spanish Civil War in 1932. MirÃ³ began to show his anger in his art by drawing wild paintings. The spaces left between his artwork were occupied with monstrous figures, and flesh that are bruised or infected with diseases Higdon 3. From these new forms of tensions are savagely animated due to the struggle of his people as well as the Spanish Civil War.
MirÃ³ also enjoyed painting his work to connect like stars to kind of form constellations. He did this by letting his shapes overlap, and coloring only the flat surfaced areas. Some people tried to relate his art toward taboo due to his colors representing the different areas of Spain. Yet in 1977, MirÃ³ was asked to design the official poster for Catalonia Figure 5. MirÃ³ lived to see the success of that campaign and thought it to be among the greatest rewards of his life Higdon 5. MirÃ³ died in Palma, Majorca, Spain December 25, 1983.