Isolation Precautions Special precautionary measures, practices, and procedures used in the care of patients with contagious or communicable diseases. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provides explicit and comprehensive guidelines for control of the spread of infectious disease in the care of hospitalized patients. The type of infectious disease a patient has dictates the kind of isolation precautions necessary to prevent spread of the disease to others. Standard Precautions are the primary tool for the successful control of hospital acquired infections.
Standard Precautions are those precautions designed for the care of all patients’ regardless of their diagnosis or presumed infection status. When you are close to, or are handling, blood, body fluid, body tissues, mucous membranes, or areas of open skin, you must use personal protective equipment, depending on the anticipated exposure, such as gloves, mask and goggles, apron, gown, and shoe covers. Airborne precautions may be needed for germs that are so small they can float in the air and travel long distances.Order now
Airborne precautions help keep staff, visitors, and ther patients from breathing in these germs and getting sick. These germs include chicken pox, measles, and active tuberculosis (TB). Patients who have these germs should be in a special room where the air is gently sucked out. This is called a negative pressure room. Everyone who goes into the room should put on a respirator mask that fits well before they enter the room. Gloves are to be worn when entering the room. A gown should be worn if you anticipate that your clothing will become contaminated with infectious materials.
Gown and gloves should be removed before eaving the patient’s room and hands washed thoroughly. If the patient must leave their room for diagnostic tests or treatments, notify the receiving department that the patient requires Contact Precautions. Contact precautions may be needed for germs that are spread by direct or indirect contact. This means that the bacteria or virus can be acquired by either directly touching the infected site or body fluid or by touching equipment that may be contaminated with infectious material.
Everyone who enters the room who may touch the patient or objects in the room should wear a gown and gloves. These precautions help keep staff and visitors from spreading the germs after touching a patient or an object the patient has touched. Droplet precautions are used to prevent contact with mucus and other secretions from the nose and sinuses, throat, airways, and lungs. Droplet transmission occurs when the person coughs or sneezes and releases large respiratory droplets into the usually falling within 3 feet of the patient. These particles are too heavy to remain in the air and to be carried on air currents.
Illnesses that require droplet precautions nclude influenza (flu), pertussis (whooping cough), and mumps. Everyone who goes into the room should wear a surgical mask. 1. A child is admitted to the pediatric unit with a diagnosis of suspected meningococcal meningitis. Which of the following nursing measures should the nurse do FIRST? a. Institute seizure precautions b. Assess neurologic status c. Place in respiratory isolation d. Assess vital signs 2. A client is diagnosed with methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus pneumonia. What type of isolation is MOST appropriate for this client? . Reverse isolation b. Respiratory isolation c. Standard precautions d. Contact isolation 3. Several clients are admitted to an adult medical unit. The nurse would ensure airborne precautions for a client with which of the following medical conditions? a. A diagnosis of AIDS and cytomegalovirus b. A positive PPD with an abnormal chest x-ray c. A tentative diagnosis of viral pneumonia d. Advanced carcinoma of the lung 4. Which of the following is the FIRST priority in preventing infections when providing care for a client? a. Handwashing b. Wearing gloves c.
Using a barrier between client’s furniture and nurse’s bag d. Wearing gowns and goggles 5. An adult woman is admitted to an isolation unit in the hospital after tuberculosis was detected during a pre-employment physical. Although frightened about her diagnosis, she is anxious to cooperate with the therapeutic regimen. The teaching plan includes information regarding the most common means of transmitting the tubercle bacillus from one individual to another. Which contamination is usually responsible? a. Hands. b. Droplet nuclei. c. Milk products. d. Eating utensils.