IndonesiaThis report will be on the History in Brief of Indonesia, the Government ofIndonesia, the island of Java, and the Geography of Indonesia. In early days,the region from India to Japan, including Indonesia, was known to the Europeansas the Indies.
Chris Columbus was looking for a westward sea root from Europe tothe Indies, when he arrived in America. During 1600s the Dutch political controlbegan to spread Indonesia. Indonesia declared it’s independence in 1945 andfought the Dutch until 1949, when they gave up their control. At first, theDutch allowed nationalist movement to develop.
In 1905, it had introducedcouncils to govern the towns and cities. By 1920, there were 32 such councils,with little electoral franchise. Other councils were also established. Theyincluded provincial councils in Java, and group communities councils outsideJava. The current government of Indonesia is based on a constitution written in1945. A president serves as the head of government.Order now
The president appoints asheet of advisers consisting of top military leaders and civilians. In theory,the assembly is supposed to establish a general direction of the government’spolicies. A house of peoples Representatives is the nation’s parliament,however, in practice neither the assembly nor the house has real power. Instead,it is the president who makes all of the important decisions. The president iselected to a five-year term the Peoples Consultative assembly.
The assembly has1,000 members. It includes the 500 members of the people’s representatives. Italso includes 500 members of regional, occupational, and other groups. Allassembly members serve five-year terms. The assembly usually is only held onceevery five years.
The 500 members of the People’s Representatives includes 400who are elected through a system that insures that the government’s politicalorganization win most of the seats. Serviceman have no vote, so the remaining100 are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the commander of thearmed forces. Indonesia is divided into twenty-seven provinces. The provincesare divided into regencies and municipalities.
These units are further dividedinto villages. Officials of all local government units except villages areappointed by central government from lists of people nominated by regionallegislators. Indonesian villages elect their own village officials to providelocal government. Java lies between Sumatra (to the west), and Bali (to theeast). To the north is the Java Sea.
To the south is the Indian Ocean, whichIndonesians call the Indonesian Ocean. The greatest distance from North Java toSouth Java is two hundred kilometers. From East Java to West Java is over onethousand kilometers. The island of Java has five administrative units: thespecial territory of Jakarta Raya, Java Barat , Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, thespecial territory of Yogjakarta, and Jawa Timur. Chains of volcanic mountainsrun along the island from west to east. These mountains are apart of a fold inthe earth’s crust which extends from Southeast Asian mainland through Sumatraand Java to the lesser Sundra Islands.
Java itself has 112 peaks. The volcanicsoil is extremely fertile and this are supports a large population. TangkubanPrahu in West Java is a live volcanoe that attracts many tourists. A similarmountain in the Sunda Straights, Krakatoua, is famous for its eruption in 1883. The whole northern portion of the peak was blown away. The explosion was heardover 700 kilometers away.
The resulting sea waves caused over thirty sixthousand Indonesian deaths in the low lying of West and South Jakarta. Indonesiais a country in Southeast Asia that consists of more than 13,600 islands. Theislands lie along the equator, and extend more than 5,000 kilometers. Many ofthe islands cover only a few square kilometers but about half of New Guinea (anarea called Irian Jaya), and three fourths of Borneo (Kalimantan), also belongto Indonesia. New Guinea and Borneo are the second and third largest islands inthe world after Greenland.