- 1 INTRODUCTION:
- 2 PANDEMIC DISEASES:
- 3 MODE OF SPREAD:
- 4 USE OF VACCINE :
- 5 COVID-19:
- 6 SCIENTIFIC STRUCTURE OF COVID – 19:
- 7 DRUGS USED FOR THE COVID-19:
- 8 SECONDARY BACTERIAL INFECTION :
- 9 SUSCEPTIBILITY:
- 10 AWARENESS:
- 11 CHALLENGES FACED DUE TO A PANDEMIC:
- 12 CROSS SPECIES ADAPTATION AND RECOMBINATION :
- 13 IMPACT ON HEALTH CARE SYSTEM:
- 14 INFLUENCE OF WEATHER:
- 15 PREVENTION AND SAFETY MEASURES
- 16 CONCLUSION:
Coronaviruses are critical human and animal viruses. The contamination that causes COVID-19 is the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome that is (SARS-CoV2) . Before it was known as 2019 – nCoV (1) . Coronavirus is in the spot with the family Coronaviridae and different Nidovirales, a family that consolidates contaminations that causes ailment running from the essential cold to extraordinary serious respiratory condition that is ( Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) SARS and it likewise prompts Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)(2) . Coronavirus are encompassed RNA types of the virus that will cause affliction in an avian and warm-blooded creature species, including people. They contain the greatest single-deserted, constructive sense RNA genomes starting at now known, running in size from 27 to 32KB long.SARS – CoV, at 29 Kb, encodes open getting housings (ORF) (3).Order now
Hydroxychloroquine, which is a normally utilized antimalarial medicate is utilized to treat the novel coronavirus (4). Remdesivir is additionally utilized for the treatment of the coronavirus as it is an antiviral medication (5). Coronavirus causes ARDS in grown-ups as well as motivations cytokine storm disorder in patients (6). A survey is made with the assistance of Google forms and sent so that the individuals will get some thought in regards to the nature and the destructive impacts of the coronavirus.
Individuals from different nations got apprehensive in the wake of knowing the quick spread of the sickness, so they began moving to start with one spot then onto the next and furthermore starting with one nation then onto the next nation, that the spread of the virus is a lot of lower contrast with where they used to live. There was an affordable emergency, food shortage and numerous different confusions looked by the individuals because of the pandemic illness(7)
Influenza virus causes several rapid spread as there is no vaccine for the majority of the pandemic disease, Doctors, over a few years back have told that the pandemic disease is a very important disease-for the government to take immediate actions. The author has also mentioned that the disease spread from one country to another country (8). A pandemic disease occurs over an epidemic disease and it spreads very rapidly by crossing the international borders and by killing lakhs of people. The fatality rate was more for all the pandemic diseases compared to any other disease (9). The pandemic disease brings a great impact on the country as well as the nation. The author has said that there is a lack of immunity among the people (10). The pandemic disease gets spread easily with the help of the community spread, as the climatic conditions also play a very important role in the spread of the disease(11).
MODE OF SPREAD:
The patterns of present-day society, including the expanding accessibility of fast human transportation and the urbanization of the quickly extending human populations, will in general encourage the spread of flu. Current medication can lessen the mortality that came about because of inconveniences of contamination with flu infection during prior pandemics, however, the expense of clinical mediations has expanded to the point that compelling techniques for pestilence control ought to be thought of(12). The COVID – 19 pandemic disease mainly spreads through the community spread (13).
USE OF VACCINE :
The assembling of antibodies from pathogenic avian influenza viruses by conventional strategies isn’t possible for security reasons just as specialized issues. Techniques received to conquer these issues incorporate the utilization of converse hereditary frameworks to produce reassortant strains, the utilization of baculovirus expressed haemagglutinin, or related non-pathogenic avian influenza strains, and the utilization of adjuvants to improve immunogenicity. In clinical preliminaries, regular surface antigen influenza infection immunizations created from avian viruses have demonstrated inadequately immunogenic(14). There is no vaccine found for the COVID – 19 till now. Still many studies have been going on in order to find the vaccine for the COVID – 19(15).
COVID – 19 is caused by (SARSCoV2) which was confirmed and identified by the world health organization.COVID-19 is a major disaster that has occurred in the year 2020. Most natural disasters are more among the developing countries, But Coronavirus affects almost all the countries. Evidence states that this originated in Wuhan, China The virus will be highly infectious transmitting disease from one to another. SARSCoV2 still causes a standstill situation throughout the world. It affects the newborn, children, middle-age as well as old aged people (16). SARS-CoV-2 Has been identified to be a beta virus and it resembles the genetic sequence of the bats. It mainly gets transmitted through the droplets and also through contact.(17). It can also be transmitted with the help of the aerosols and also from the affected mother to the child (18).
SCIENTIFIC STRUCTURE OF COVID – 19:
The SARS-CoV-2 virus binds to a viral RNA and gets itself turned up to be a filament. This coronavirus is an RNA virus. The range of this virus is from 60 nm to 140 nm in diameter, on the surface, they have spikes like protection.(19) This can only be viewed with the help of a microscope. Coronavirus has been causing mild diseases related to the respiratory system COVID -19 is a pleomorphic, spherical particle with bulbous surface and it is a spike protein (20) (21)(22)
DRUGS USED FOR THE COVID-19:
The author in his study has said that the lopinavir helps to inhibit the Coronavirus replication through several methods. Chloroquine has also been used in the treatment of pneumonia. People infected with pneumonia have a higher negative value of nucleic acid when the throat swab has been taken within five days after using lopinavir or by using the ritonavir. The side effects of chloroquine might be present or it need not be present. It usually depends upon each and every individual (23). Remdesivir can be used for the treatment of the novel coronavirus as it is an antiviral drug (24). The author has said that the Ribavirin drug should be introduced into our body through IV with a dosage of about 500 mg for the adults which has to be given twice or thrice a day along with a combination of lopinavir or the ritonavir. He also mentioned the fact that the hydroxychloroquine can also be given for the precaution of the coronavirus (25)
SECONDARY BACTERIAL INFECTION :
Since various classes of pathogens require various kinds of invulnerable reactions, seeing how a progressing safe reaction to one sort of disease influences the host’s capacity to react to another pathogen is basic for total comprehension of host-pathogen reactions. Flu contamination causes a rapid increase in the serum glucocorticoid levels, leading to several changes in the body. Glucocorticoid reaction is very important to control immunopathology during coinfection(26).
For a pandemic illness like influenza, antiviral resistance can be given by utilizing viral prescriptions for prophylaxis and for the management of the outbreak(27). For example, patients with influenza who got treatment from a medical clinic would give some important information to direct clinical administration and, ought to incorporate those things which have been told previously by the patients, during and after antiviral treatment, especially in specific gatherings of patients, for example, seriously immunocompromised hosts (organ transplant, patients with hematological danger rewarded with chemotherapy, those with significant lymphocytopenia, propelled AIDS, or accepting higher doses of fundamental glucocorticoids) and those with genuine sickness requiring mechanical ventilation or emergency unit(26,28)
The author in his study has clearly explained about the awareness of the pandemic disease. The author said that the people are aware of the harmful effects of the pandemic disease and they are very much worried about it, whether it would affect them or not. The author also says that the majority of the people were aware of the H1N1 virus, which is said to be a virus causing pandemic disease all over the country, a few years ago (29). People are very much aware of the emerging pandemic disease and they follow safety measures, as well as precautions, were also taken in order to completely protect themselves from the virus. By doing so, they will be able to completely eradicate the emerging pandemic disease (30). The author has said that the people are very much aware of the COVID-19 and its harmful effects when we come to know the evidence which is obtained from the Google trends (31).
CHALLENGES FACED DUE TO A PANDEMIC:
The authors have explained clearly all the challenges which are faced due to pandemic diseases. Whenever any pandemic disease occurs in a country, people are not allowed to step out of the house, so they will feel isolated at home, they will have deep thoughts that they might lose their jobs and food scarcity will also be present. When people don’t go for jobs during the rise of the pandemic disease, automatically they won’t be able to pay their debts, so a financial crisis will occur for the family (14)(32).
CROSS SPECIES ADAPTATION AND RECOMBINATION :
A few coronavirus cross-animal transmission will occur, just as changes in virus tropism, which has offered ascend to the new creature and human illnesses that involve bovine coronavirus (BCoV), human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43), human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E), canine coronavirus (CCoV), feline coronavirus (FCoV), porcine coronavirus (PCoV), and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV)(33)
IMPACT ON HEALTH CARE SYSTEM:
The non-medical health care workers had a higher predominance of tension than medical care professionals. Our discoveries are reliable with those of an ongoing COVID-19 examination showing that frontline nurses had an altogether lower effect than non–forefront medical caretakers and the overall population. The health care professionals and the frontline nurses suffered a lot wearing the Personal Protective Equipment. They had to work every day and night without eating proper food. They were not able to see their family at all. Even if they meet them, they have to see them from a long distance as the Healthcare workers cannot go near their families. (34).
INFLUENCE OF WEATHER:
The extraordinary climate conditions with environmental change may likewise add to the spread of the West Nile infection in the United States and Europe(35). Certain climatic conditions can be considered as the top indicators of respiratory illnesses, for example, SARS. Atmosphere factors can likewise be an immediate reason for natural collaborations between SARS-CoV and people. Ideal temperature, dampness, and wind speed are factors that can decide the endurance and transmission of the SARS infection (36). Changes in climate are fundamentally associated with changes in death rates because of pneumonia (37). Infections can be transmitted by being impacted by a few variables, including climatic conditions, (for example, temperature) (38). Research on environmental change and COVID-19 is still constrained so this examination will help to prevent COVID – 19.
PREVENTION AND SAFETY MEASURES
The authors in their study have told that the hand sanitizers should be used very often, social distancing has to be maintained wherever we are and whatever we do in order to prevent the easy spread of the pandemic disease, use of face masks should be made compulsory for the people when they step out of the house and very important personal hygiene has to be maintained (39)(40)(41). Plasmid encoded dfrA-1, dfrA-5, sul 1, and sul 2 mediated trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole has been tested for the antiviral activity in order to treat the COVID -19 (42). Many medicines are found against the Enterococcus Faecalis in the treatment of the root canal (43).Hepatitis – B vaccine can also be given as a precaution because it’s an Antiviral drug (44). Orange peel oil is said to possess antimicrobial activity and it has many other benefits and uses (45). Bay leaf is likewise ordinarily used to treat muscles and joint agony. Fluid concentrates of narrows trees can likewise be utilized as astringents and even as a sensible treatment for open injuries. The calming movement of Bay leaf was resolved yet its capacity to repress protein denaturation where denaturation of proteins is an all-around recorded reason for aggravation (46). For the Acinetobacter baumannii infections, carbapenem drug can be given as a treatment (47)(48).N6- adenosine methylation acts as a very important gene for the diagnosis of hypertension as well as for the cardiovascular diseases(49).
Thus from the information obtained about the pandemic disease, we come to the conclusion that we have to be safe by following the safety measures in order to protect ourselves from the disease.