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    Humanities 101 Midterm: Plato, Art Before the Renaissance, The Ghent Altarpiece, and 1453.

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    To Plato and Pythagoras, what other study was most closely related to Music?
    Who was Plato’s teacher?
    Who was Plato’s student?
    What philosopher influenced Plato with his teachings that the universe was created according to musical and mathematical proportions?
    What branch of philosophy deals with the question, “What is real”?
    What do we call the belief that our five senses are our only access to truth?
    Why do we think the Lascaux cave painters created their art?
    To influence an upcoming hunt by depicting images of great bounty.
    Why did the ancient Egyptians create their art?
    Their art was to influence the next life.
    Why do Egyptian paintings show some parts of the body straight on and some in profile?
    It was a tradition where what we would think of as “realism” was a secondary consideration. Instead, the important thing was to show images of things in the most direct and orderly fashion, to have the most powerful influence over the events of the next life.
    What artistic subject did the Greeks love most?
    The proportions of the human body.
    What was the name of the Greek style as it spread throughout the Mediterranean world in the second and first centuries BCE?
    Golden Age of Pericles
    Does Hellenistic art favor form or expression?
    Sculpture became more expressive, less reserved.
    What form of sculpture is uniquely Roman?
    What form of sculpture is uniquely Roman?
    Roman Portrait Bust
    What did the Byzantines seek to show rather than physical realism?
    Spiritual Reality
    Give an example of the Byzantine's portrayal in art.
    Give an example of the Byzantine’s portrayal in art.
    Stern faces, Jesus does not look like a baby to portray that he was more than human. His fingers are extended in that he was teaching.
    What characterizes Romanesque architecture?
    Series of Roman arches, which created long, barrel-shaped vaults. These vaults had to have rather low ceilings and very few windows; otherwise, the vaults would collapse from their own weight. To make a large building, vaults were stacked one on top the other. These buildings were mainly for the use of monks and were usually simple and unadorned.
    What event in the 1100s brought about trade with the east and a renewed interest in the comforts of life?
    The Crusades
    Why was the style of the 1100-1300’s called Gothic?
    Since most of these cathedrals were built in the north of France, they were called Gothic (the Goths were a tribe that settled in Western Europe after the fall of Rome).
    What was the technological advance of the Gothic style?
    The intersecting arch
    What was the name of the side supports that propped up the high Gothic walls?
    Flying Buttresses
    Which artist led the realistic revolution in painting in the 1300s?
    Which set of brothers were pioneers in the development of oil paint?
    Van Eyck brothers
    For what two things were the Flemish known in the late Middle Ages?
    1)The fine quality of the cloth they produced.
    2) The craftsmanship of their painters.
    Why did the Flemish experiment with linseed oil for their paints?
    The egg and water-based paints ran a lot, especially in rainy weather.
    What do we call a single work of art composed of several panels?
    What catastrophe reduced the population of Europe in the 1300s and 1400s?
    The Black Death (the Bubonic Plague)
    What three events occurred in 1453, signaling the end of the Middle Ages?
    Constantinople fell to the Turks. The last battle of the Hundred Years War was fought. And Johannes Gutenberg published books printed with moveable type.
    Which Roman emperor made Byzantium his capital?
    What did Constantine call the city he conquered?
    What did the Turks later name it?
    Who were the main combatants in the Hundred Years’ War?
    France and England
    Who inspired victory in the Hundred Years’ War?
    Joan of Arc
    Who brought movable type to Europe?
    Johannes Gutenberg

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