What changes occurred in the late (high) Middle Ages that would enable the Renaissance to take place?
People started questioning the role the church played and the power of the clergy, still following the faith, but lightly criticizing the ceremonies and grandiose of the church instead of just focusing on the faith. The need for a higher and better education led to universities and when people couldn’t find the answers to their questions in the Bible, they turned to philosophy and education instead. Because of the Crusades, Europe became exposed to new ideas, new technologies, and trade routes. They learned from the surrounding civilizations, gaining new knowledge and advanced technologies. Their cities and towns grew as trade was revived.
Describe Renaissance Humanism. What influences, traits, projects, and goals did Humanist thinkers share?
-writing about the human condition
-bringing together knowledge to better understand the world
-introducing science/scientific thought and inquiry
-brought back/reintroduced Greek and Roman writing, ideas, and thought
-focus on individual experience and to attain excellence
-build ideas from East
-calls for social change
-Although remaining religious, Humanists questioned the Church’s role and the power of the clergy.
Explain the following: “at the center of the humanist’s pursuit were the individual human being and his personal quest.”
Humanists thought that the individual human being was extremely important. And they thought that beauty was found in the individual person. They thought that humans possess free will and have the ability to control their own fate.
What did Humanists think of religion? The Church?
The humanists questioned the role of the Church and the power of the clergy. They believed that they were focused too much on the ceremonies and the grandiose instead of just the connection between god and the human. They still remain faithful and follow the religion though.
Why were Venice and Florence centers of the Renaissance movement in Italy?
They were incredibly successful in the large export industries where merchants retained ownership of the raw material and paid other to finish the product. They produced goos for city markets. Soon so much wealth accumulated that these merchant capitalists turned to money lending and banking. The upper class groups became greatly self-confident and the literature and arts reflected that self confidence. They displayed their wealth by patronizing the arts and literature. Leading the arts and literature to be extremely popular. Also Venice was a port city and was wealthy from trade. Florence was an industrial center, textile industry.
How would you describe Machiavelli’s political philosophy?
Machiavelli believed that it is better to be feared than loved because that belongs to you. He believed that it is okay to be immoral sometimes as a ruler and that sometimes a ruler needed to use brute force or deceit while ruling. He tried to avoid hatred and avoid taking property.
What areas outside of Italy were “engines” of the Renaissance?
The low countries (physically near the ocean level) (Modern Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands) because they were also port cities who wanted to support the arts because of their surplus wealth from trade.
How did the invention of the printing press transform Europe?
There was now an incentive to make more books but since monks were the only ones who could write, the book writers were dying from the plague. So copying books was becoming increasingly expensive. So the invention of the printing press allowed for more books to be printed, for information to be spread quicker and more accurately, and decreased some of the power that the Church had since they were no longer in control of the writing and therefore no long in control of the information that was being spread.
What is “utopian” literature and how does it reflect Humanist thought?
Utopian literature is about a perfect society in the real world instead of a an ideal society in the after life. It reflects humanist thought because it allows the writer to criticize and examine the flaws in our current society and give alternatives to help fix those flaws.
How did Renaissance art reflect Humanist thought? Give examples.
It reflects humanist thought because it focuses on the individual and the uncompromising prominence of the individual. For example, they tried to establish their paradise on this plant instead of heaven where they have the figure standing firmly on their earthly home instead of hovering like spirits. The painters touched many issues regarding the human condition which was a main focus in Humanism.
Choose two Italian Renaissance artists and describe one work of each artist.
– Leonardo daVinci was considered a “Renaissance man” because he was very well-rounded and his art reflected the humanism of the time period. In his painting of the Mona Lisa, he showed her emotion just through her subtle smile. But he focused on her as the main theme of his painting.
-Michaelangelo was considered a genius and his painting of the entire ceiling of the Vatican is thought of as a superhuman ideal. His sculptor of David portrayed his idealized view of human dignity and majesty.
Choose two Northern Renaissance artists and describe one work of each artist.
-Cervantes wrote Don Quixote which was a satirical novel poking fun at the antiquated ideas of knighthood,chivalry and the feudal system
-Michel de Montaigne was thought of the father of skepticism and was known for popularizing essays and being able to merge serious intellectual exercises with casual anecdotes. In his large volume Essais it combines all of his most influential essays. His essays were all embodying the spirit of freely entertaining doubt.
How did the Protestant Reformation come about?
They came about because Martin Luther posted his Ninety-Five theses to the Church. The new church of the Protestants objected to the doctrines, rituals, and leadership of the Roman Catholic Church.
Describe two reasons for the spread of Protestant ideas.
-lay people agreed who were questioning the church’s power
-princes supported because the Catholic Church was in competition with them for power over the empires.
How did the Catholic Church react to the reformation
They held a counter reformation where they reaffirmed the doctrine and deepened the spirituality of the Church. The Council of Trent gathered the Church leaders, initiated reforms and strengthened priests training and spirituality.
Why did witch hunts arise as a social phenomenon at this time?
Witch huts arose because people needed someone to blame when bad things happened like when a women could not have children, a crop failed etc. They needed an explanation for these things so they used witches as an explanation.
Explain ways in which religious doctrine and practices differed between Catholicism and the new Protestant denominations.
Roman Catholics believe that grace through sacraments and good works is the way to receive salvation. Whereas the new protestant denominations believed that in order to gain salvation only through faith to Jesus. Roman Catholics believed that the church was above the state but Protestants believed that the church was subordinate to the state. Catholics believed that the Pope was at the top of the priest-bishop-cardinal-pope hierarchy. Whereas the Protestants believed there was no formal distinction between clergy and laymen.
Give examples of how conflict between Catholics and Protestants resulted in “religious wars”
There was religious, political, and economic issues. They believed that church held too much power over government, doctrine, taxes, and even trade routes.
How did monarchs emperors attempt to consolidate power during this period. Give two examples.
They attempted to create unity under Charles V. But then different monarchs did different things. Henry VIII took over the church lands and wealth as head of Church and he also increased government and administrative structure. Louis XI and Frances I added more taxes on goods, trade to increase revenue and increased royal power over nobles. Ferdinand and Isabella added new sales taxes and administrative structures.
He was a humanist thinker who Il Canzoniere. He was one of the first to bring back classical literature of Rome and Greece. He brought education, literature, and art to everyone giving more rights to each individual. He launched the idea of writing about romance and art instead of religion. His writing was accessible to everyone. He focused on human potential in order to attain excellence.
A humanist thinker who wrote the Boccaccio. He focused on the ideas of human potential and encouraged people to question the world around them. His work is about how humans possess free will and can control their own fate.
Humanist thinker who wrote Gargantua and Pantagruel,a satirical tale of two giants and their adventures. Known for his satire, grotesque humor and harsh critique of French society. He criticized religious education and monastic orders.
Humanist thinker who wrote The Praise of Folly. He was knowledgable about many subjects and brought back many Greek and Roman ideas. He criticized the grandiose and ceremonies of the Church and instead wanted the religion to just be about your connection with God.
Humanist thinker who wrote Utopia. In his novel Utopia it explores the benefits of a society built on reason. It also explores the idea of religious tolerance as opposed to a society run by the Roman Catholic church. He also thought men and women should be treated equally.
This humanist thinker wrote The NEw Atlantis. During his life he made large contributions to science, law, philosophy, and other subjects supporting the Humanist idea of getting a wide range of knowledge.
He was an italian writer, historian, statesman, and humanist who wrote The Price. He advised rulers that it is better to be feared than loved but not hated and not to take property. He advised rulers to act immorally if it kept them in power.
He was one of the inventors of the printing press and he was also a printer. Movable type was created by cutting up old printing blacks to form individual letters. He used movable type for papal documents and for the first printed version of the Bible in 1454.
Frances 1 of France
-King of France
-added more taxes on goods, trade to increase revenue
-maintained standing armies to increase power
-increased royal power over nobles
Lorenzo de Medici
A descendant of a wealthy Florentine banking family. He was a statesman and a patron of the arts, who made Florence the center of Renaissance artistic and cultural production. He sponsored artists such as DaVinci, Botticelli and Michelangelo.
Humanist thinker who developed a new literary form – the essay. He advocated open-mindedness and tolerance which were rare in the 16th century. He focuses on the human condition and the individual. He studied and wrote about how to attain excellence.
Cervantes wrote Don Quixote which was a satirical novel poking fun at the antiquated ideas of knighthood,chivalry and the feudal system. He exposed the inadequacies of chivalry’s ideals in a world that valued new and practical aims.
An engineer, mathematician, architect, geologist, botanist, philosopher, sculpture, artist, musician and poet. Because he loved the process of experimentation more then finishing his projects, few of the projects he started were ever finished. He was thought of as a “Renaissance Man” because his art reflected the humanism of the time period, making his subjects the main focus of the painting which was the idea of the individual and individualism. (Mona lisa)
A painter, whose work expressed the individualism and the idealism of the High Renaissance. He also excelled as a poet, engineer and architect and was the greatest sculptor of the Renaissance. The glorification of the human body was his greatest achievement.
The Low Countries
Modern Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. Before the Italian Renaissance began to influence the artistic circles of northern Europe, the painters of the low countries had been making advances on their own.
A german monk who criticized the Church’s sale of indulgences. He wrote a document called the Ninety-Five Theses, in which he stated all the problems he had with the Church. In 1520 Pope Leo X excommunicated him but Luther still considered himself a Christian.
A French lawyer who converted to Protestant Christianity. Because the French monarchy sought to suppress Protestants he went to Geneva and organized a Protestant community and worked with the local officials to impose a strict code of morality and discipline on the city. (Predestination)
Saint Ignatius Loyola
He was a spanish nobleman and former soldier. promotes education and scholarliness and promotes missionaries who were advisors to princes. He was the founder of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits).
Holy Roman Emperor who gained control of hapsburg (austrian lands), spain and spanish lands in new lands (Peru), and germany and central Europe. Rules Vast empire with work administrative structure. Numerous domestic and foreign problems prevented him from establishing his empire as the supreme political authority in Europe. Couldn’t control spread of Lutheranism –> europe divides after his reign.