It also mediated between the earthly and the divine. It was trough art that the church revealed its earthly and divine power Monophonic was the principal texture for music of this period until polyphony was developed by the end of the era Different chants from the sacred text HAKE DIES (on this day) 1. Gregorian chant: this particular chant is responsible, where a soloist and a choir alternate in a manner of call and response 2. Organza: First type of polyphony. The new over the old: faster line (voice) over a slow Gregorian chant, which is mostly indistinguishable and symbolic 3.
Motet: political vocal composition (polyphonic). The instrumental line is based on the original Gregorian chant Syllable singing: when you have a note for every syllable Melodramatic singing: Many notes per syllable The Renaissance (1450-1600) It was the next phase in a cultural process that, under the leadership of the church, universities and princely courts, had long been under way This era marks the passing of European society from an orientation to a more secular one, and from an age of unquestioning faith to one of belief in reason and scientific inquiry.
The focus of human destiny was seen to be life on earth rather tan the here after People began to rely more on the evidence of the senses.
This awakening found its Historical Periods in Music By labor Some characteristics that set the difference between the renaissance and medieval culture Introduction of gunpowder Development of the compass, which enabled voyages of discovery The discovery of the Americas, which had an essential influence on European economy and society Culture spreads more equitably with the introduction of printing, helping revive ancient writings Support to musicians of the sixteenth century came from the most important social institutions: church, city and the state, as well as from royal and aristocratic courts.
Composers and musical works Joaquin des Perez (1440-1521): Eave Maria (4 voice motet, STAB 1502) Giovanni periling dad Palestinian (1525-1594): Gloria from the Pope Marcella Mass (6 voices, c. 1562) Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643): A UN guiro sol (5-vote madrigal, STATS, 1603) Madrigal: Secular vocal music for about five singers which was base don poetry. Golden section . 618 proportion used to structure music
The Baroque Era (1600-1750) The term was derived from the Portuguese barrio, a Pearl of irregular shape much used in the Jewelry of the time Social aspects from the Baroque Era Rupee’s wealth from the Americas continues to grow Imperial battles to dominate the world The middle classes acquired wealth and power in their struggle against the aristocracy Contradictions: Appalling poverty and wasteful luxury; magnificent idealism and savage oppression An era of absolute monarchy.
Baroque Culture Baroque art: Splendor, vigor, elaborate decoration and grandeur The transition room the classically minded Renaissance to the Baroque was foreshadowed by Michelangelo (1475-1564). His turbulent figures, their twisted bodies, reflect the baroque love of the dramatic Intensely religious Age of Reason: Galileo and Copernicus (Physics and astronomy; Descartes (mathematics); Spinal (Philosophy); Newton (Theory of gravity) Music in the Baroque Era The rise of the virtuoso musician.
Great instrumental and vocal techniques Evolution of harmony and structure Interest for homophony (texture where a single melody stands out) Basso continuo: musical accompaniment by two instrumentalists, usually cello and ripcords. One played the bas line while the other played the harmonies (chords) Baroque musical style Vigorous rhythm Continuous melody Greater use of dissonance (for dramatic purposes ) of the affections: a piece or movement was built on a single affection, sometimes using the technique of text painting.
This changed in the Classical and romantic eras. Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741) Gambling motherhood’s Composer, virtuoso violinist, teacher and priest (the red priest”) Composed around 770 works indulging 477 concertos and 46 operas Author of The Four Seasons, a group of four violin concertos (with string orchestra and basso continuo). Spring In three movements: 1. Form Routinely A-b-a-c-a-d-a-b-a A= Spring B=birds C=brooks D=storm 2. Contemplative and evocative character.
A largo in % meter. Solo violin, two violins and a viola 3. Routinely. Dance tune in upper strings (routinely theme) and sustained notes (like bagpipe drone) in lower strings Johann Sebastian Bach (1685- 1750) Brandenburg Concert No. 2 In F major (1717-18) It’s a Concerto Gross (Various soloist) Concertina: violin, oboe, flute and trumpet Tutu: violins 1 and 2, violas, double basses and basso continuo (cello and harpsichord). 1. Allegro (Routinely) 2. Andante (3/4 in D minor) 3.
Allegro assai (Fugue. Soloists with basso continuo) The baroque suite It’s a group of dancers with origins from different European regions. They contrast with each other in tempo, meter and/r character. Binary forms (A-B) predominate These had begun as popular dances. By the late Baroque they became abstract types of art music Suite for Violoncello No. L in G major, by J. S Bach. Prelude and Fugue in C minor from “The well-tempered Clavier”- J. S Bach Fugue