The _____________ was the era from the collapse of the roman empire to about A.D. 1500. This was a time of political and social unrest, when many health advancements of earlier cultures were lost.
-Lack of fresh water and sewage removal were major problems for many medieval cities. There was little emphasis on cleanliness or hygiene.
-characterized by great epidemics; perhaps the cruelest was leprosy.
The ______________, known as the black death
, may have been the most severe epidemic the world has even known. The death toll was higher and the disruption of society greater than from any war, famine, or natural disaster in history.
During the Middle ages, despite the disagreement that existed on the cause of the disease, contemporaries believed that the disease was _____________, in other words, it was passed from person to person in some unknown way.
-it was not until the middle ages and the epidemics of leprosy and bubonic plague that it started to become more universally accepted.
During the middle ages, although there were no professional health education specialists, priests, medical doctors, and community leaders attempted to “___________” anyone who would listen to their ideas about health and disease prevention.
The ____________, which means “rebirth,” lasted roughly from 1500-1700. This time period was characterized by a gradual change in thinking. People began to view the world and humankind in a more naturalistic and holistic fashion.
-Although progress was slow, science once again emerged as a legitimate field of inquiry and numerous scientific advancements were made.
-It was a period of exploration and expanded trade.
-The human body was again considered appropriate for study, and realistic anatomical drawings were produced.
-the microscope was discovered.
During the Renaissance, ______________ was a major form of treatment for everything from the common cold to tuberculosis. Popular remedies included crabs’ eyes, foxes’ lungs, oil of anise, oil of spiders, and oil of earthworms.
During the Renaissance, a major means of diagnosing a patient’s condition consisted of examining the ____________ for changes in color. This inspection was known as “water casting.”
During the Renaissance, much surgery and dentistry
was performed by ___________ because they had the best chairs and sharpest instruments available.
During the Renaissance, disposal of _____________ was a major problem. While the Renaissance is characterized by the rapid growth and spread of science in various fields, public health as a practiced activity received very little, if any, direct benefit from these advances.
Age of Enlightenment
The ____________________ during the 1700s were a period of revolution, industrialization, and growth of cities. Plague and other epidemics continued to be a problem.
-The general belief was that disease was formed in filth and that epidemics were caused by some type of poison that developed in the putrefaction process.
During the Age of Enlightenment, the concept known as the ______________ remained popular throughout much of the nineteenth century. The concept was that the vapors rising from rotting refuse could travel through the air for great distances and were believed to result in disease when inhaled.
During the Age of Enlightenment, one scientific advancement that occurred was when Dr. James Lind discovered that __________ could be controlled on long sea voyages by having sailors consume lime juice.
During the Age of Enlightenment, ______________, the forerunner of today’s health departments, developed as scientific and medical knowledge increased. The roots of modern health education/promotion were planted, and the first sprouts would soon emerge.
In 1842, Edwin Chadwick published his “Report on an Inquiry into the Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring Population of Great Britain.” In the report, he made a strong case that ____________ were the cause of much disease and suffering, and called for interventions.
–This report eventually led to the formation of a General Board of Health for England in 1848.
The years from 1975 to 1900 became known as the __________________ of public health.
-Pasteur discovered how microorganisms reproduce, introduced the first scientific approach to immunization, and developed a technique to pasteurize milk.
–Koch developed the criteria and procedures necessary to establish that a particular microbe caused a particular disease.
-Lister developed the antiseptic method of treating woulds by using carbolic acid and he introduced the principle of asepsis to surgery.
During the 1700s in the United states, the primary means of controlling disease were _______________ and regulations on environmental ___________.
The first _________________ tables were developed for the United States in 1789 by Dr. Edward Wigglesworth. In 1789, life expectancy at birth was only 28.15 years. In 2006, it was 77.7 years.
___________ reform in the U.S. was slow to begin. In 1850, a major report helped jump-start the reform movement in the U.S. Lemuel Shattuck’s “Report of the Sanitary Commission of Massachusetts” contained remarkable insights about the public health issues of Massachusetts, including how to approach and solve these problems.
-this report is remarkable because no national or state public health programs existed at the time; shattuck visualized how to improve the public’s health.
state boards of health
By 1900, Thirty-eight states in the U.S. had established ________________. However, despite the formation of these, state-level health departments could not meet health needs on a more cal level.
American Public Health Association
During the 1800s in the U.S., as states initiated boards of health, board members had to interact, communicate, and develop their skills. These needs led to the founding of the ________________________. In 1873, the first annual meeting was held in Cincinnati, Ohio, and seventy new members were elected.
In the United States, the period from 1900 to 1920 is known as the __________ phase of public health. During this time, urban areas expanded and many people lived and worked in deplorable conditions. To address these concerns, federal regulations were passed concerning the food industry, states passed workers’ comp laws, the u.s. bureau of mines and the us department of labor were created, and the first clinic for occupational diseases was established.
-By the end of the 1920s, the movement for healthier workplace conditions was well established, and the average life expectancy had risen to 59.7 years.
Also during the period from 1900 to 1920 in the U.S., the first national _______________ were formed. They were run primarily by volunteers and a few paid staff. Each of these agencies was designed to address a specific health problem.
-Ex: The national association for the study and prevention of tuberculosis, the american cancer society
public health education
In the U.S. in 1922, the ___________________ Section of the American Public Health Association was founded. This is the APHA section to which most health education specialists belong. It “promotes the advancement of the health promotion and education profession and provides a forum for public health educators and those involved in health promotion activities to discuss ideas, research, and training; promotes activities related to training public health professionals.
In 1936, Newsholme noted three reasons that ___________ formed a larger part of public health efforts and why it would continue to do so in the future:
1. the knowledge to prevent a large proportion of the total sickness and mortality in the community is only partial.
2. even when knowledge exists which if applied would reduce avoidable illness, it has not become vitally realized by most of us, and many among us are completely ignorant concerning it.
3. physicians, hygienists, and Public Health Authorities find themselves confronted by an embarrassing multitude of sick people needing immediate aid; and their primary duty obviously is to give adequate and complete treatment of already existent sickness.
As an amendment to the Social Security Act of 1935, ____________ was created to assist in the payment of medical bills for the elderly, while ___________ did the same for the poor.