The Harlem Renaissance was also known as the following
New Negro Movement
New Negro Renaissance
the movement emerged toward the end of World War I in 1918, blossomed in the mid- to late 1920s, and then faded in the mid-1930s.
1) The Harlem Renaissance marked the first time that mainstream publishers and critics took African American literature seriously
2) African American literature and arts attracted significant attention from the nation at large.
Although it was primarily a literary movement, the Harlem Renaissance was closely related to developments in African American music, theater, art, and politics.
Black Middle Class developed as a result of the following:
Four factors that laid the groundwork for the movement:
1)Great Migration (hundreds of thousands of black Americans moved from an economically depressed rural South to industrial cities of the North to take advantage of the employment opportunities created by World War I)
2) development of the black middle class
3) Harlem developed into the political and cultural center of black America
4) a new political agenda advocating racial equality
African American Organizations:
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), which was founded in 1909 to advance the rights of blacks.
National Urban League (NUL) was founded in 1910 to help black Americans address the economic and social problems they encountered as they resettled in the urban North.
African American Publications
~ Fire!!: an African American magazine that featured Harlem Renaissance writers, including Langston Hughes, Wallace Thurman, and Zora Neale Hurston, which resulted in black writers taking ownership of the literary Renaissance.
~ The Crisis (monthly journal of the NAACP)
~ Opportunity (publication of the NUL)
These publications promoted African American literature through the following three ways:
3) annual literary prize
1) interest in the roots of the 20th-century African American experience in Africa and the American South
2) a strong sense of racial pride
3) desire for social and political equality.
4) But the most characteristic aspect of the Harlem Renaissance was the diversity of its expression
From the mid-1920s through the mid-1930s, some 16 black writers published more than 50 volumes of poetry and fiction, while dozens of other African America.
Four factors that contributed to the decline of the Harlem Renaissance in the mid-1930s
1) The Great Depression of the 1930s
2) Organizations such as the NAACP and NUL shifted their interests to economic and social issues in the 1930s.
3) Many influential black writers and literary promoters (including Hughes, James Weldon Johnson, Charles S. Johnson, and Du Bois) left New York City in the early 1930s.
4) riot in Harlem in 1935—set off in part by the growing economic hardship of the Depression and mounting tension between the black community and the white shop-owners in Harlem who profited from that community
Harlem Renaissance (what it means to African Americans)
~ For thousands of blacks around the world, the Harlem Renaissance was proof that the white race did not hold a monopoly on literature and culture.
African American cultural movement of the 1920s and early 1930s that centered in the Harlem neighborhood of New York City.