Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) or transgenes are organisms that have artificially introduced new genes with new qualities and traits.
It is important to admit in the introduction, that the pace of development of world production using genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is impressive. Products with transgenes differ from ordinary ones neither in taste, nor in color, nor smell. Often they are used for the production of cooked sausages, canned meat, beer, chips, various sauces, instant soups, chocolate, syrups, and even baby food. That is, they are present in those products that include genetically engineered soy.
In the course of scientific research and thesis, it was found that immunity was reduced in rats consuming modified potatoes. After the consumption of genetically modified tomatoes, animals had abnormalities in the tissues of the stomach, decreased brain volume, negative effects on the functions of the liver, spleen, intestines, glands, etc.
History of GMO research
The first GMO food was E. Coli cultivated in 1973. In the 90s of the twentieth century, intensive studies were conducted on the creation of transgenic plants, with the aim of improving their useful qualities and yields. Among them: corn, soybeans, canola, and cotton. The advantages of genetically engineered plant varieties are obvious—they are resistant to diseases, droughts, herbicides, pests, viruses, cold-resistant, give a good harvest, which can be maintained for a long time and without loss. Some types of modified plants may be invulnerable to chemicals that at the same time may be deadly to other plants. As a result, the field is freed from all weeds, and herbicide-resistant crops survive. Of course, the economic benefits of growing genetically modified plants make it indisputable.
Example of products signaling possible GMO food content: lecithin, cottonseed oil, palm oil, corn syrup, butter, starch, soy.
Possible effect on the human body
The use of GM foods, according to scientists causes a surge in cancer diseases, allergic reactions, infertility, and a source of other dangerous ailments for a human. For example, the “introduction” of the Brazil nut gene into soybean DNA (to increase protein content) led to the fact that these agricultural crops have become dangerous for people who are allergic to nuts. Most of the known genetically modified plants resistant to herbicides are able to accumulate them. The confirmation experiments with rats that consumed genetically modified soybean resistant to the herbicide. These animals subsequently reproduced into inferior offspring, where more than 50% of the individuals were not viable.
The “new” proteins present in the genetically modified plant also affects human health. In the process of creating GMO foods, it is impossible to predict exactly what part of the genome a new gene will “integrate.” The stability of the plant’s genome is disturbed, which often leads to the appearance of toxic properties of the product. Scientists in the argumentative essay insist on eliminating GMO foods from infant formula completely. The children’s body reacts sharply to “alien” proteins, to which it is not adapted. This is because of high allergic sensitivity. Since 2004, in the countries of the European Union, the use of GMO foods for baby (up to 4 years) is strictly prohibited.
Most countries in the world have started a movement for the creation of genetically modified gm foods free zones. In January 2000, a biosafety protocol, known as the Cartagena Protocol, was adopted. The document came into force in 2003, after it was ratified by 50 states of the world. The protocol declares the rules for the processing and use of all living genetically modified organisms that may adversely affect human health.
Despite this, GMO products dominate the global food market. Currently, researchers are looking for ways to create a new generation of highly efficient, and at the same time safe, GMOs.
On a note:
When purchasing food (especially for children), it is necessary to remember: the presence of components such as corn oil, corn syrup, corn starch, soy protein, soybean oil, lecithin, soy sauce, cotton oil in their composition can be indicative of they are GMOs.
The advantages of GM foods are that you can very good control everything that happens on the field, greatly reduce losses due to pests, frost and much more. But the disadvantages are that this is still a technology that has not been rolled in, despite the fact that genetically modified organisms are the most studied organisms for agricultural purposes, as they have been studied comprehensively. But so far there are no statistics on their use in agriculture, and many are afraid that gene modifications can escape from these plants, despite assurances from biotechnologists that this cannot be, and so on. In my opinion, genetically modified gm foods are a fairly safe thing. Those tests that are carried out with them provide a very high probability of no problems. But one should not forget that in nature, in the evolution of the same agricultural crops, genetic modifications also occur, only not directed, but completely nonspecific. And if in the case of GMOs there are cons and we can say that we have read, sequenced the genome of GM plants and know what is in it, and then we cannot say the same about other cultivated plants and there are some pros. We can receive the same harm that can occur from genetically modified organisms from genetically modified cultures simply because we know less about them.
In addition, people are now focused on ecological farming, on everything clean and natural. They are just afraid of the lab. This is due to mistrust, people do not trust science itself, because there have been many cases of use, for example, of medical preparations that did not work and damaged health or their use led to death. They are afraid of people in white coats. The same applies to GMO organisms. It is much more difficult to explain to people that what has been in the laboratory is definitely harmless. People prefer organic food.
In conclusion, the last thing: everyone is concerned about the concentration of these technologies and knowledge in large companies. University laboratories cannot bring to the market any product due to the high cost of security research, so some start-ups are being created that are acquired by large companies, it is the main hook, which can jeopardize entire areas of production. How can you minimize the social aspect of attitudes towards GMOs in the first place? There is such an experience. For example, in Europe a very good harmonious system of “coexistence” has been developed, which was fixed by European directives when the farmer himself decides which type of agriculture to use: organic, traditional or biotechnological. Accordingly, the consumer also has the right to choose those products that he wants and is ready to use.