Forensic science Essay, also known as Forensics, is the application of
science to law. It uses highly developed technology to uncover scientific
evidence in a variety of fields. Modern forensic science has a broad range of
applications. It is used in civil cases such as forgeries, fraud or negligence.
The most common use of forensic science is to investigate criminal cases
involving a victim, such as assault, robbery, kidnapping , rape, or murder.
Forensic science is also used in monitoring the compliance of various
countries with such international agreements as the Nuclear Non-Proliferation
Treaty and the Chemical Weapons Convention and to learn whether a country
is developing a secret nuclear weapons program. It can help law enforcement
officials determine whether any laws or regulations have been violated in the
marketing of foods and drinks, the manufacture of medicines, or the use of
pesticides on crops. It can also determine whether drinking water meets legal
The medical examiner is the most important individual in an
investigation of a crime involving a victim. It is the responsibility of the
medical examiner to visit the crime scene, conduct an autopsy (examination
of the body) in cases of death, examine the medical evidence and lab reports,
study the victims history, and put all the information together in a report to be
turned in to the district attorney.
Medical examiners are usually physicians specializing in forensic
pathology, the study of structural and functional changes in the body as a
result of injury.
Their training and qualifications most often include a medical
degree and an apprenticeship in a medical examiners office.
In the field of forensic science, there are many subspecialties. They
include odontology (the study of teeth), anthropology(the study of human
beings), psychiatry, biology, chemistry, physics, toxicology (the study of
poisons), and pathology (the examination of body tissues and fluids). The
medical examiner may call upon forensic scientists who are specialized in
these fields for help in a crime investigation.
Toxicology is a branch of forensic science that deals with the adverse
effects of drugs and poisonous chemicals found in the home, at work or in the
environment. All drugs have toxic effect but the effect is most often minor.
The toxic effect of drugs may produce only a little discomfort or they may be
serious enough to cause death. One of the most common cases of death by
poison is arsenic poison.
Pathology is the branch of forensic science that determines the nature
and course of diseases by analyzing body fluids and tissues. Pathology is
divided into clinical and anatomic pathology. Clinical pathologists contribute
to the diagnosis of diseases by measuring chemicals and cells in blood,
sputum, bone marrow and urine. Anatomic pathologists perform autopsies
and analyze tissues taken from patients during surgery or by biopsy.
The medical examiner investigates many different types of violent
crime to determine whether a violent death was an accident, a suicide, or a
homicide. In cases involving gunshot wounds, the medical examiner looks for
gunpowder residues on the clothing of the victim and around wounds. The
information is used to determine whether the gun was fired by the victim of
by someone else.
In the case of knife wounds, the medical examiner must distinguish
between a cut (an injury that is longer than deep) and a stab wound (an injury
that is deeper than long).He must also be able to identify a defense wound
which is a cut caused when a victim grabs the knife in self-defense. Cuts are
associated with suicide.
The body of the victim usually has numerous parallel
cuts which indicate hesitant wounds or repeated hesitant trials before the final
cut is made. Homicides typically consist of one deep gash.
Medical examiners are also called upon to investigate cases of
asphyxiation or death form lack of oxygen in the blood. Asphyxiation may be
caused in a number of different ways, such as hanging , which can be an
accident, homicide or suicide, or strangling which is homicide. Damage to the
victims air passage by an object in the throat or compression of a victims
chest by a person or an objector the replacement of oxygen in the red blood
cells by another gas such .