We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy

USATESTPREP Biology (Ecology)

A) commensalism.
Grazing cows disturb the grass and cause insects to fly around the cows as they eat. In turn, birds swoop in and eat the insects. This type of feeding relationship is an example of

A) commensalism.

B) mutualism.

C) parasitism.

We will write a custom essay sample on USATESTPREP Biology (Ecology) specifically for you
for only $16.38 $13.9/page

Order now

D) predation.

This type of feeding relationship is an example of commensalism. One animal benefits (the birds) without affecting the other (the cows).

A) fungi.
Lichens, like the one shown in the picture, are usually combinations of algae and

A) fungi.

B) mosses.

C) orchids.

D) zooplankton.

Fungi combine with algae and other photosynthetic organisms to form lichens.

D) venom.
Venomous snakes such as the rattlesnake and copperhead have few natural predators. This is MAINLY due to their

A) camouflage.

B) habitat.

C) mimicry.

D) venom.

Venomous snakes have few natural predators because they have venom. The venom protects the snake from predators and helps them catch prey like mice and rabbits.

A) They eat the same foods.
It has been observed that many small minnow species will defend a territory against other species of small minnows and darter fish. What is MOST LIKELY true about those other species?

A) They eat the same foods.

B) They have the same predators.

C) They have similar appearances.

D) They use similar courtship routines.

D) species.
A butterfly can mate with another butterfly to produce fertile offspring only if the two butterflies belong to the same

A) family.

B) genus.

C) order.

D) species.

A species comprises all organisms that can mate with one another to produce fertile offspring. A butterfly can mate with another butterfly to produce fertile offspring only if the two butterflies belong to the same species.

C) commensalism.
Many species of mites, such as this one, have adapted to living on the outer surface of human skin. They obtain their food by eating dead skin cells and neither harm nor benefit humans. This type of adaptation is called

A) mutualism.

B) parasitism.

C) commensalism.

D) divergent evolution.

When two species interact and one benefits while the other is unaffected, that is commensalism.

A) It will decrease in number.
The red-cockaded woodpecker is found in the pine forests of Georgia. It eats insects found in the barks of the pine trees and nests in the trees.

How will a reduction in the number of pine trees MOST LIKELY affect the red-cockaded woodpecker?

A) It will decrease in number.

B) It will adapt to a new habitat.

C) It will build nests in other trees.

D) It will hide better from animals that eat it.

The red-cockaded woodpecker needs the pine trees to survive. If it loses its environment, it will lose its source of food and shelter. It will decrease in number.

C) The drop in the mouse population will lead to an increase in the beetle population.
The population of mice in a local forest ecosystem has recently died out due to disease. In the past, these mice were the main predators of the forest beetles.

What is the best prediction about what will happen to the beetles

A) The drop in the mouse population will lead to a drop in the beetle population.

B) The drop in the mouse population will lead to no change in the beetle population.

C) The drop in the mouse population will lead to an increase in the beetle population.

D) The increase in the mouse population will lead to an increase in the beetle population.

The drop in the mouse population will lead to an increase in the beetle population. Since the mice are the beetles predator, when there are fewer mice, there will be more beetles.

C) temperate forest
Which biome would contain the most biodiversity in deciduous tree species?

A) taiga

B) savanna

C) temperate forest

D) tropical rainforest

Temperate forest. There are defined seasons (summer/winter) in the temperate forest, so there are likely to be more species of deciduous trees there. Most trees in the taiga are evergreen conifers.

C) The presence of predators, such as grey wolves, to keep the elk population in check.
Elk herds in Yellowstone National Park are herbivores that browse on the available vegetation. Which factor is critical to ensuring stability in this ecosystem?

A) The introduction of another herbivorous species to increase competition.

B) The introduction of more elk from other parks to increase the herd population.

C) The presence of predators, such as grey wolves, to keep the elk population in check.

D) Ensuring that only vegetation that is part of the elk’s diet is allowed to grow in the park.

The presence of predators, such as grey wolves, is required to keep the elk population in check. If the population of elk is allowed to grow unchecked, the vegetation would eventually start disappearing, followed by the disappearance of the elk.

A) competition
In natural ecosystems, the presence of predators lessens the effects of _________________ among the prey.

A) competition

B) infestation

C) parasitism

D) symbiosis

The presence of predators lessens the effects of competition among the prey. Lack of competition among prey animals is lessened by the actions of predators as they lower the number of individuals in a population.

C) mutualism.
Some species of nitrogen-fixing bacteria have adapted to grow in nodules of legumes such as peas and clover. These bacteria make nitrogen available to the plant and in turn, receive nutrients from the tissues of the plant. This type of interaction is known as

A) commensalism.

B) hybridization.

C) mutualism.

D) parasitism.

Since the plant and the bacteria both receive additional nutrients from their interaction, it’s an example of mutualism.

B) They will compete with native shellfish and clams and hurt their populations.
The zebra mussel is a shellfish native to Europe. During the early 1900’s, it was accidentally brought to the United States in the ballast of a ship traveling to the Great Lakes. It has no predators in the Great Lakes.

What impact are zebra mussels likely to have on food chains in the Great lakes?

A) They will have no real effects on the food chain, since they are from Europe.

B) They will compete with native shellfish and clams and hurt their populations.

C) They will allow fish populations to expand, because they will be used as food.

D) They will cause the entire food chain to crash, since they do not fit into the original food chain.

They will compete with native shellfish and clams and hurt their populations. This is what has happened in real life. Many native shellfish are extinct or endangered, because zebra mussels out-compete them for food and reproduce more quickly.

B) an increase in the number of other grazing animals
Impala share the African plains with other grazing animals and predators. Which change would lead to a DECREASE in the impala population?

A) a reduction in the lion population

B) an increase in the number of other grazing animals

C) an increase in restrictions on the hunting of impala

D) a reduction in the populations of other impala predators

An increase in the number of other grazing animals. This causes increased competition, and the weaker individuals are likely to die out.

D) The two salamanders cannot mate a produce fertile offspring
A scientist researching salamanders has obtained two different specimens. Under what conditions would he classify them as belonging to different species?

A) One was found in the USA and the other in Mexico.

B) One was found in water and the other under a rock.

C) The two salamanders prefer different kinds of food.

D) The two salamanders cannot mate a produce fertile offspring.

The two salamanders cannot mate and produce fertile offspring. Members of the same species CAN reproduce and the product is fertile offspring.

A) A spurt in the population of jellyfish
A marine ecosystem off the California coast consists of leatherback turtles that feed on jellyfish, and killer whales that prey on the leatherback turtles. Habitat loss and fishing have been identified as the main reasons for the reduced numbers of leatherback turtles, who are on the verge of being declared an endangered species.

What would be the first effect on the ecosystem if habitat loss and fishing continue unchecked?

A) A spurt in the population of jellyfish

B) A spurt in the population of killer whales

C) A change in the feeding habits of jellyfish

D) A migration of jelly fish from the ecosystem

A change in the population of an animal at one trophic level affects the whole food chain. If habitat loss and fishing continue unchecked there would be a decline in the number of leatherback turtles, the result of which will be immediately evident by a spurt in the population of jelly fish.

C) Mosses were out-competed by other plants, and not directly by large trees.
The graphic shows the island of Krakatoa, which disintegrated in 1889 due to the largest volcanic eruption in recorded history. In the century since the eruption, the island has re-formed from lava flows. The table above shows the number of species of various plant types that were found on the island over a 30 year period since the island re-surfaced above the ocean in the 1950’s.

Describe the relationship between moss and large trees.

A) Large trees out-competed moss for sunlight and water directly after the lava-flow.

B) Mosses help to outcompete small trees, helping the large trees to grow.

C) Mosses were out-competed by other plants, and not directly by large trees.

D) There is no relationship between moss and large trees, because plants make their own food and do not depend on other plants.

Mosses were out-competed by other plants, and not directly by large trees. The chart shows that mosses rise and then fall, whereas large trees consistently rise. This indicates that there is no direct correlation between mosses and large trees. Mosses condition the soil for other plants, which outcompete them, ending ultimately with large trees.

A) The number of butterflies will drop.
The Canby’s dropwort grows in wetlands in Georgia. It is an endangered plant because wetlands have been cleared for agriculture and construction. The larvae of the black swallowtail butterfly eat this plant.

What would MOST LIKELY happen to the black swallowtail butterfly if these plants continue to decrease?

A) The number of butterflies will drop.

B) The number of larvae will not change.

C) The larvae will find other plants to eat.

D) The butterflies will lay their eggs on other plants.

A change in the environment affects all the organisms that live there. A decrease in the plant means that there will be less food for an organism that eats it. So, if Canby’s dropwort continue to decrease, the number of butterflies will drop.

D) parasitism.
Ticks suck blood from a host organism. This is an example of

A) commensalism.

B) competition.

C) mutualism.

D) parasitism.

Ticks sucking blood from a host organism is an example of parasitism. The tick grows from its host, but contributes nothing to the host organism.

C) parasitism.
Viruses are not considered to be living things, but they depend upon living cells for energy, reproduction, and protection at the expense of the cells that they invade.

The type of relationship described could best be classified as one of

A) commensalism.

B) mutualism.

C) parasitism.

D) resignation.

Parasitism is a relationship in which one organism benefits while the other is harmed. In this case, the virus is a non-living thing, but its relationship to host cells could be described best as parasitic.

A) tundra
Which biome contains many low growing plants that stay close to the ground for warmth?

A) tundra

B) savanna

C) deciduous forest

D) tropical rain forest

Low growing plants that stay close to the ground for warmth would most likely be found in tundra. The tundra is an area where tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons.

A) tundra
Lichens, represented by this symbiotic relationship, are responsible for _____________ or the establishment of a new site for plant growth.

A) tundra

B) savanna

C) deciduous forest

D) tropical rain forest

Low growing plants that stay close to the ground for warmth would most likely be found in tundra. The tundra is an area where tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons.

A) primary succession
Lichens, represented by this symbiotic relationship, are responsible for _____________ or the establishment of a new site for plant growth.

A) primary succession

B) secondary succession

C) trophic metamorphosis

D) ecological infiltration

Primary succession is the development of a community where plants have not grown before and is aided by the action of lichens such as these.

C) lava flow.
Primary succession begins after a

A) tornado.

B) hurricane.

C) lava flow.

D) forest fire.

Primary succession follows an event like a lava flow, an event that kills off all life forms in an area.

A) tundra
An animal with thick layers of blubber, dense fur, the tendency to hibernate, and light coloration is well-adapted to the _____________biome.

A) tundra

B) grassland

C) chapparal

D) temperate forest

Tundra. All of these are cold-weather adaptations.

D) an increasing number of resources and niches become available for animals.
During the process of ecological succession

A) many new species of organisms evolve rapidly.

B) the number of species in the community decreases.

C) the amount of biomass in the community stays constant.

D) an increasing number of resources and niches become available for animals.

During ecological succession an increasing number of resources and niches become available for animals. More and more plants move in, creating more homes and more food for animals to follow.

A) 10%
Only part of the energy in one trophic level gets passed to the next level. In any energy pyramid, about _____________ is passed from level to level.

A) 10%

B) 30%

C) 50%

D) 90%

In any energy pyramid, about 10% of the energy is passed from level to level.

C) recycling or composting most of the waste.
As the population increases, so does household waste. The most environmentally friendly, and also realistic, solution to this state’s household waste problem would be

A) more extensive use of landfills.

B) building underground waste storage tanks.

C) recycling or composting most of the waste.

D) burning the waste and using the ashes for fertilizer.

Remember the three R’s. The realistic solution to this state’s household waste problem isrecycling or composting most of the waste. Organic waste could be composted and paper, plastic and metal could be recycled.

A) grass-rabbit-fox-mountain lion
Beginning with the producer, which represents the correct order in a typical food chain?

A) grass-rabbit-fox-mountain lion

B) mountain lion-fox-rabbit-grass

C) grass-fox-rabbit-mountain lion

D) rabbit-fox-mountain lion-grass

The correct food chain is grass-rabbit-fox-mountain lion, because it represents producer-primary consumer-secondary consumer-tertiary consumer.

B) producer.
In this simple food chain, the organism that converts solar energy into usable chemical energy is missing. That would be the

A) omnivore.

B) producer.

C) herbivore.

D) first level consumer.

That would be the producer or the plants. Plants turn solar energy into usable chemical energy, or sugar, for all other organisms to use.

D) predator-prey.
The graph represents a _______________ relationship between moose and wolves.

A) competitive.

B) mutualistic.

C) parasitic.

D) predator-prey.

Predator-prey
The graph represents a predator-prey relationship between the moose and wolves. There is an inverse relationship between the two; when the moose increase in number, the wolf population increases and then the moose population drops. That’s because the wolves are eating the moose.

B) acid rain
Factories and cars release pollutants into the atmosphere. These pollutants can dissolve in the water vapor in the atmosphere. What is a LIKELY result of the mixing of pollutants with water vapor?

A) drought

B) acid rain

C) brush fires

D) heavy rainfall

One result of pollutants dissolving in the water of Earth’s atmosphere is the production of acid rain.

Pollutants, like carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides, released by cars and factories, can dissolve in water vapor. These pollutants plus water make a solution that has a low pH or is an acid.

B) the fish would die off
In a pond, the pollution of water by human-made pollutants, such as oil and grease, can cause chemical, biological, and ecological changes. As plants begin to die and decompose, carbon dioxide is released. What would happen to the fish in the pond?

A) the fish would thrive

B) the fish would die off

C) the fish would not be affected

D) the fish would move to another pond

The fish would die off is correct. As human-made pollutants infiltrate the pond, plants decompose the levels of carbon dioxide increase and levels of oxygen decrease resulting in fish death.

B) primary succession
Ecological succession leads to the sustainability of life in an ecosystem. Succession is the observed process of change in the species structure of an ecosystem. The community begins with relatively few pioneering plants and animals and develops through stages of increasing complexity until it becomes stable. Succession may be initiated either by formation of new, unoccupied habitat such as the formation of an island or by some form of disturbance such as fire in an existing ecosystem. Succession that begins in new habitats, uninfluenced by pre-existing communities is called primary succession, whereas succession that follows disruption of a pre-existing community is called secondary succession.

What process is occurring in the illustration?

A) classic ecosystem

B) primary succession

C) secondary succession

D) climax community

Primary succession is correct. Succession that begins in new habitats, uninfluenced by pre-existing communities is called primary succession.

D) human population.
Excessive nutrients in the Chesapeake Bay foster the growth of algae, which robs the aquatic life of sunlight and oxygen. The MAIN reason for the overabundance of nutrients is an increase in

A) fishing.

B) climate change.

C) the temperature.

D) human population.

The excessive nutrients are caused mainly by a growth in the population in the areas surrounding the bay. Wastewater from treatment plants is released into streams and rivers and eventually makes its way into the bay. In the past, forests and wetlands surrounded the bay. This natural vegetation held the nutrients in place or absorbed them.

A) Invasive
__________ species reproduce rapidly in a new habitat due to the lack of parasites and predators that would naturally control their population growth.

A) Invasive

B) Isolated

C) Native

D) Reproductive

Invasive species are plants and animals that have migrated to places where they are neither native nor naturally controlled. This would include the massive spread of kudzu across the South US.

C) The poisons discourage any animal from eating the plant, preventing damage to the plant from herbivores.
The foxglove plant, seen in the illustration, produces very toxic chemicals that can cause serious illness and death in any organisms that eats the plant. Why do scientists think the foxglove plant evolved such powerful poisons?

A) The poisons function to kill invading bacteria and other pathogens that may harm the plant.

B) The poisons maximize the efficiency of the photosynthetic process, allowing the plant to make more food.

C) The poisons discourage any animal from eating the plant, preventing damage to the plant from herbivores.

D) Poisons are likely to be the product of genetic mutations in the DNA of the plant and do not have any useful function.

Scientists believe that the poisons discourage any animal from eating the plant, preventing damage to the plant from herbivores. Foxglove plants evolved to produce the toxic chemicals as a means of defense against animals that may eat the plant.

D) One set of plants could be placed in a room with a light on the right side and one set in a room with a light on the left side; plant growth is monitored
Researchers are studying the way plants move in response to stimuli. Which scenario could be used to test phototropism?

A) Two sets of plants could be placed in a dark room and the growth monitored.

B) Two sets of plants could be placed in a lighted room and the growth monitored.

C) One set of plants could be placed in a lighted room and one set in a dark room; plant growth is monitored.

D) One set of plants could be placed in a room with a light on the right side and one set in a room with a light on the left side; plant growth is monitored

One set of plants could be placed in a room with a light on the right side and one set in a room with a light on the left side; plant growth is monitored Having the light on different sides of the room will allow the researchers to monitor the growth based on light position. All other growing conditions remain the same. We would expect differences in a lighted versus a darkened room as plants need light to grow.

A) carbon
All organic molecules have what element in common?

A) carbon

B) nitrogen

C) phosphorus

D) sulfur

Carbon is the basis of all living organisms and is the foundation of organic substances.

A) a slight decrease in the use of public transportation throughout the country.
Although the Earth’s atmosphere consists mainly of oxygen and nitrogen, neither plays a significant role in enhancing the greenhouse effect because both are essentially transparent to terrestrial radiation. The greenhouse effect is primarily a function of the concentration of water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other trace gases in the atmosphere that absorb terrestrial radiation leaving the surface of the Earth. Changes in the atmospheric concentrations of these greenhouse gases can alter the balance of energy transfers between the space and the earth system. The graph above illustrates the amounts and trends of these important greenhouse gases.

Because of the connection between greenhouse gases and climate change, there has been a concerted to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The decrease in CO2 emissions in 2015 from fossil fuel combustion was a result of multiple factors, including ALL BUT:

A) a slight decrease in the use of public transportation throughout the country.

B) substitution from coal to natural gas consumption in the electric power sector.

C) a slight decrease in electricity demand due to conservation efforts in all sectors.

D) warmer winter conditions resulting in a decreased demand for heating fuel in the residential and commercial sectors.

a slight decrease in the use of public transportation throughout the country. This would not cause a decrease in emissions but rather an increase.

B) algal blooms; eutrophication
Consider the aquatic phosphorus cycle. Phosphorus is the limiting nutrient for aquatic organisms. Decomposition naturally returns phosphorus to the aquatic cycle, but phosphates from fertilizers, sewage and detergents can cause pollution in lakes and streams. Over-enrichment of phosphate in freshwater can lead to __________ which, when they die and decay, leads to _____________.

A) a lower pH; acidification

B) algal blooms; eutrophication

C) turbidity; decreased photosynthesis

D) increased decomposition; poor growing conditions

algal blooms; eutrophication
Phosphates from fertilizers, sewage and detergents can cause pollution in lakes and streams. Over-enrichment of phosphate in freshwater can lead to massive algal blooms which, when they die and decay, leads to eutrophication of fresh water. Eutrophication may lead to hypoxia, the depletion of oxygen in the water, which may cause death to aquatic animals.

D) human caused global warming
For many years, it was believed that the Earth was flat, that the Earth was the center of the universe, and that the fire and water were part of the basic building blocks of life. As new evidence emerges or new discoveries are made, the way we explain the world changes.

Which of these is a conflicting argument in science today?

A) gravity

B) the cell theory

C) species change over time

D) human caused global warming

One of the biggest debates today deals with the topic of global warming. Although there seems to be a substantial amount of evidence pointing to human’s role in the changing climate, many others claim that any changes are simply a natural occurrence.

C) Make sure that factories and cars control the amount of pollutants they release.
What might be one way of slowing down global warming?

A) Create more open space by taking down all factories and plant trees there.

B) Stop using cars and close down all factories to prevent any further pollution.

C) Make sure that factories and cars control the amount of pollutants they release.

D) Make sure that harmful gases in the atmosphere are replaced with greenhouse gases.

Make sure that factories and cars control the amount of pollutants they release. Creating more space by taking down factories or closing down all factories are not reasonable solutions to the problem.

C) cell membranes.
Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for plants and animals. Phosphorus normally occurs in nature as part of a phosphate ion (PO4)3. As you can see from the diagram of the phosphorus cycle, phosphorus is a component of plant fertilizers. Two of the critical roles phosphorus plays in life on Earth is that it is a component of ATP as well as all

A) amino acids.

B) carbohydrates.

C) cell membranes.

D) cellular cytoplasm.

Phosphorus plays a critical role is the life of all cells in that it is component of ATP as well as all cell membranes in the form of phospholipids.

D) wind and wave erosion on coastal areas
There are many different ecological and environmental conservation methods. Which is not a conservation method?

A) water harvesting

B) fishing seasons and limits

C) limiting of clear cutting of forests

D) wind and wave erosion on coastal areas

Wind and wave erosion on coastal areas is not a method of conservation. Conservation tries to prevent erosion. The others are all very common conservation methods.

D) Finch 4
Finch species living on the islands exhibit a variety of beak types that favor different foods.Finches that eat seeds and plant parts have beaks of the shorter, thicker variety while finches that eat insects and other small organisms have thin, pointed beaks. Drought has hit the Galapagos Islands. Plant species are dying out; seeds and nuts have all but vanished. Of these four finch species, which is MOST LIKELY to survive under these conditions?

A) Finch 1

B) Finch 2

C) Finch 3

D) Finch 4

Finch 4 is most likely to survive in times of drought when there are few seeds and nuts available. This finch has a beak adapted to eating insects and a variety of other types of organisms.

A) Remove or reduce the Nile perch as quickly as possible, as it is clearly out-competing the pike cichlid.
The graph illustrates what has happened over an 8 year period, when non-native Nile perch were introduced to Lake Malawi in Africa. Based on the data, what recommendation would you make to African biologists?

A) Remove or reduce the Nile perch as quickly as possible, as it is clearly out-competing the pike cichlid.

B) Remove the remaining pike cichlids, as they are competing with the Nile perch.

C) Reduce both fish populations, or they will starve one another out.

D) There is not enough data to make a decision yet.

Remove or reduce the Nile perch as quickly as possible, as it is clearly out-competing the pike cichlid. This real world situation is a classic case of competitive exclusion. Nile perch are starving the native fish.

A) dormancy.
The days are getting shorter and colder. These trees are responding to the change. Their leaves change color and will soon fall off. Losing leaves during the winter is the response to the external environment called

A) dormancy.

B) hibernation.

C) hydrotropism.

D) phototropism.

When trees lose their leaves in winter, all their life processes slow down. This is a response to the external environment called dormancy.

B) transporting pollution.
When land becomes eroded, it loses its water-holding capacity and water washes over it into streams and rivers. This water harms the streams and rivers by

A) increasing oxygen.

B) transporting pollution.

C) transporting vegetation.

D) increasing water levels.

When soil becomes eroded and water washes over it, this water harms streams and rivers by transporting pollution from pesticides and chemicals. Erosion also harms streams and rivers by decreasing water and oxygen levels.

D) weathering
Consider the aquatic phosphorus cycle. On land most phosphorus is found in rocks and minerals. In the oceans, phosphorus is deposited from decomposition, excretion from animals, run-off from the land, and finally ______________ of rocks and minerals.

A) deposition

B) erosion

C) reformation

D) weathering

Weathering of rocks and minerals release phosphorus in a soluble form where it is taken up by plants, and it is transformed into organic compounds.

A) carbon
The diagram shown above, illustrates the _______ cycle.

A) carbon

B) nitrogen

C) phosphorus

D) water

The diagram illustrates the carbon cycle. Remember, matter is conserved; neither created or destroyed. Carbon dioxide in the air is used by plants and other producers to produce glucose, the energy molecule for all life. Carbon dioxide is put back into the air through respiration as well as combustion reactions.

D) to attract insects that pollinate the flower
Many flowering plants have very colorful petals like the lily seen here. What is the main purpose of these colorful petals?

A) to protect the plant from predators

B) to capture sunlight for photosynthesis

C) to distract birds from eating the seeds

D) to attract insects that pollinate the flower

The purpose of the colorful peals is to attract insects that pollinate the flower. This will ensure that the plant reproduces and the species will survive.

C) carbon dioxide, respiration
Two students set up the following apparatus in a lab: a pipette was filled with a mixture of yeast and apple juice and inverted in a test tube filled with warm water. The students observed bubbles being released from the end of the pipette.

Which MOST LIKELY represents the gas being released and the process used to make it?

A) oxygen, respiration

B) oxygen, photosynthesis

C) carbon dioxide, respiration

D) carbon dioxide, photosynthesis

carbon dioxide, respiration. The yeast likely used the sugars in the apple juice, along with oxygen, to make ATP, and gave off carbon dioxide as a waste.

B) increases.
The number of organisms in a food pyramid decrease as the trophic level

A) decreases.

B) increases.

C) stays constant.

D) changes unpredictably.

The answer is increases. As the levels rise in a food pyramid, the number of organisms decreases.

B) mutualism.
Unlike most mites, termites can digest wood. This ability comes from protozoa that live in the a termite’s digestive tract. These protozoa produce enzymes that digest wood, and they receive shelter and additional nutrients from the termites. The interaction between termite and protozoan is called

A) commensalism.

B) mutualism.

C) parasitism.

D) socialism.

An interspecies interaction where both species benefit is termed mutualism.

B) Plants absorb sulfates and phosphates present in the soil through their roots.
Plants need both sulfur and phosphorus in order to grow and reproduce. How do plants obtain sulfur and phosphorus?

A) Plants take in compounds of sulfur and phosphorus through the stomata.

B) Plants absorb sulfates and phosphates present in the soil through their roots.

C) Plants get sulfur and phosphorus through the insecticides sprayed on the leaves.

D) Plants absorb sulfur and phosphorus from rain droplets that accumulate on leaves.

Plants absorb sulfates and phosphates present in the soil through their roots. Processes such as acid rain and decomposition introduce sulfates into the soil. Sulfur and phosphorus are important constituents of fertilizers.

A) mutualism.
The relationship between clownfish and sea anemones is a form of symbiosis called

A) mutualism.

B) predation.

C) competition.

D) commensalism.

Mutualism is a relationship between organisms in which both species mutually benefit from the interaction. The clownfish draws in the prey; the anemone kills it and eats most of it; then the clownfish gets to finish the rest of it.

A) It uses its long beak to draw nectar from flowers
Study the picture of the bird above. Which method below describes how it most likely obtains food?

A) It uses its long beak to draw nectar from flowers

B) It uses its sharp talons to grasp fish in waterways

C) It uses its long beak to open seeds or nuts with hard shells

D) It uses its feet to pluck small fruits or berries from plants

This is a picture of a hummingbird which uses its long beak to draw nectar from flowers. The beak is not adapted for seeds or nuts and its feet are not adapted for catching large prey like fish or even picking berries.

D) yellow
Key
Yellow—Croplands
Green—Forests
Orange—Grasslands
Blue—Wetlands

According to this satellite image of the United States, which color indicates the land that has MOST LIKELY been altered by human activity over the years?

A) blue

B) green

C) orange

D) yellow

Land with crops has had the most human alteration. This land is represented by the color yellow. Grasslands, forests, and wetlands have little human alteration.

A) prey in the ecosystem.
If the population of bobcats in Yellowstone Park increases, it will directly affect the number of

A) prey in the ecosystem.

B) hosts in the ecosystem.

C) predators in the ecosystem.

D) decomposers in the ecosystem.

If a predator population increases, such as the bobcat population in Yellowstone Park, it directly affects the number of prey in the ecosystem.
In the case of increasing bobcat populations, the number of rabbits or small game would decrease.

A) taiga
Cone-bearing trees (like pines, spruce and fir) grow best in areas where winters are long and cold. Large mammals like moose, elk and bear also live and thrive in these cold areas known collectively as the ________________ biome.

A) taiga

B) desert

C) temperate grassland

D) temperate deciduous forest

The taiga biome is one of the largest on Earth and includes areas in Europe, Asia and North America. It includes cone-bearing trees and supports large mammals.

B) use less goods.
The majority of household waste in the United States is thrown away. The MOST effective way to reduce household waste would be to

A) recycle more.

B) use less goods.

C) compost food scraps.

D) burn all paper waste

The most effective way to reduce household waste would be to use less goods. If you use less, you have less to dispose of. It is a good thing to recycle and compost food scraps, but they would not be the best ways to reduce waste.

B) respiration of consumers.
Carbon dioxide is returned to the atmosphere primarily by the

A) eruption of volcanoes.

B) respiration of consumers.

C) fallout from solar flares.

D) process of photosynthesis.

Carbon dioxide is returned to the atmosphere primarily by the respiration of consumers. This process takes in oxygen and releases carbon dioxide, a vital component of the carbon cycle.

B) decomposers
The majority of Earth’s atmosphere is nitrogen, N2. The percentage of nitrogen in Earth’s atmosphere remains constant as prescribed by the law of conservation of matter and because it is a reasonably non-reactive gas. Like carbon, nitrogen is cycled through Earth’s spheres. However, nitrogen can be converted into forms usable by plants and animals, either by lightning or bacteria. Once converted to usable forms, nitrogen is able to cycle the rest of the way through the ecosystem. Much like carbon, the recycling of nitrogen through Earth’s spheres relies heavily on what type of organism?

A) autotrophs

B) decomposers

C) parasites

D) producers

decomposers The principal forms of decomposer are bacteria and fungi.
Decomposers act as recyclers in many biogeochemical cycles. Decomposition occurs when a compound is broken down into simpler compounds or into its constituent elements. This is achieved primarily by decomposers, organisms that obtain their energy from the chemical breakdown of dead organisms as well as from animal and plant waste products.

D) irreplaceable resources.
topsoil contamination
species eradication
ground water contamination

Three examples are provided. A serious environmental problem is the destruction of

A) farms.

B) grassland.

C) human housing.

D) irreplaceable resources.

An irreplaceable resource

C) tomato plants brought into a garden and given the opportunity to grow and thrive without any harm to any other plant species.
All BUT one is an example of a invasive species. That is

A) zebra mussels introduced into the Great Lake region from Russia that have affected the local species of mussels.

B) the brown tree snake that was introduced to Guam from Australia and has led to the devastation of the local bird population.

C) tomato plants brought into a garden and given the opportunity to grow and thrive without any harm to any other plant species.

D) kudzu imported from China as a ornamental plant that has grown to cover native forests throughout the southeastern United States.

The one that is not an invasive species would be that tomato plants brought into a garden and given the opportunity to grow and thrive without any harm to any other plant species. In order to be invasive, a species must be introduced,have no natural predators or competitors, reproduce rapidly, and cause a problem to the native species. All of these are example of species that have been introduced and have led to environmental problems except the example with tomatoes.

A) 10%
In this food pyramid, about __________ of the available energy is transferred to each level.

A) 10%

B) 25%

C) 50%

D) 90%

In an energy pyramid, about 10% of the energy is transferred to the next level.

C) Technological advances in farming and medicine will allow human populations to continue to grow without natural limits.
Which statement about human population growth is LEAST likely to be correct?

A) Worldwide, humans are reproducing more quickly than mortality is removing people from the population.

B) Advances in agriculture have allowed the world’s food supply to expand dramatically in the last 100 years.

C) Technological advances in farming and medicine will allow human populations to continue to grow without natural limits.

D) Modern medicine has allowed human populations to extend well past the earth’s carrying capacity, as more people survive for longer.

Technological advances in farming and medicine will allow human populations to continue to grow without natural limits. This is false. Earth’s carrying capacity has already been exceeded and many resources are becoming more scarce.

C) Pesticides remain on fruits and are passed on to anyone who eats the fruits.
Farmers spray pesticides to protect fruits from pests. What is a possible harmful effect of using pesticides?

A) Pesticides are harmful to plants and should not be used.

B) Pesticides collect on the leaves and do not allow plants to take in oxygen.

C) Pesticides remain on fruits and are passed on to anyone who eats the fruits.

D) Pesticides also kill insects, such as mosquitoes, that do not harm the plants.

Pesticides remain on fruits and are passed on to anyone who eats the fruits. That is why it is important to wash fruits thoroughly before eating them.

C) available energy is lost from one trophic level to the next.
A forest ecosystem can support a limited number of bears. This is because

A) bears hibernate during the winter.

B) the base of the food chain is seasonal.
Producers, like this plant, take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide during __________________ , just like animals and other living things.

C) available energy is lost from one trophic level to the next.

D) light that supports photosynthesis is limited during certain times of the year.

A forest ecosystem can support a limited number of bears. This is because available energy is lost from one trophic level to the next.

B) the Exxon Valdez oil spill that destroyed the habitats and lives of many animals.
One negative effect of society’s need for energy would include

A) the invention of engines that can run on energy from the sun or corn.

B) the Exxon Valdez oil spill that destroyed the habitats and lives of many animals.

C) the limitations of non-renewable resources such as oil that are leading to the creation of cleaner fuels.

D) the discovery of oil that ended society’s dependence on whale oil for fuel, thereby ending whaling in the world.

Exxon Valdez oil spill destroyed the habitats and lives of many animals, is the correct answer. The others are not necessarily negative, some may actually be positive effects.

B) Amount of matter produced by the producers should be more than that of the consumers.
What statement holds true for the amount of matter in a successful food web?

A) Amount of matter contained in the producers and consumers should be equal.

B) Amount of matter produced by the producers should be more than that of the consumers.

C) Amount of matter contained in the consumers should be more than that of the producers.

D) Amount of matter produced by the producers should be negligible when compared to the consumers.

Matter and energy are lost with each successive step of the food chain. Therefore, for a food web to be functional and successful, the total amount matter produced by the producers be more than that of the consumers they support.

C) oceans become the final collection point for tons of pollution
As water drains off and eventually combines at a central point in a watershed, it picks up different types of surface pollution left over from agricultural, industrial, commercial, and other types of human activity. Taking a look at the big picture, where is the final resting point for all of the pollutants?

A) lakes become the final collection point for tons of pollution

B) rivers become the final collection point for tons of pollution

C) oceans become the final collection point for tons of pollution

D) marshes become the final collection point for tons of pollution

Oceans become the final collection point for tons of pollution is correct. The water keeps combining and traveling until it reaches the oceans.

B) There would be more iguanas with webbed feet and flat tails.
A population of green iguanas lived on a tropical island. Originally, most of the iguanas had feet without webbing between their toes and a long round tail. A few iguanas had webbed feet and a short, flat tail. As the years passed, the island became smaller and smaller because of flooding. Even the land areas were dotted with ponds and pools. The iguanas had a hard time finding the food they normally ate. To survive, the iguanas had to swim from island to island to find food.

How would you expect the iguanas to look many years after the island flooded and food became harder to find?

A) The iguanas will look the same but there will be less of them.

B) There would be more iguanas with webbed feet and flat tails.

C) There would be fewer iguanas with webbed feet.

D) The iguanas would no longer be green.

There would be more iguanas with webbed feet and flat tails. Because iguanas now had to swim to find food, the iguanas that had webbed feet and short, flat tails were able to survive and reproduce. Over time, more and more iguanas had webbed feet and flat tails.

C) Both involve the breakdown of carbon compounds.
The burning of coal, a fossil fuel, produces water and carbon dioxide. How is this similar to cellular respiration?

A) Both require high temperatures.

B) Heat energy is lost in both cases.

C) Both involve the breakdown of carbon compounds.

D) Some amount of carbon remains un-oxidized in both cases.

Both processes involve the breakdown of carbon compounds. Only the burning of coal requires a high ignition temperature and produces unburned carbon particles.

C) Explore alternative sources of energy, such as solar energy.
Nonrenewable mineral resources are often used as fuel. Which choice is a good way to conserve the nonrenewable resources we now use for fuel?

A) Use charcoal, obtained by burning wood for fuel.

B) Use coal in thermal power plants to obtain energy.

C) Explore alternative sources of energy, such as solar energy.

D) Extract minerals from the sea, leaving the resources on land untouched.

Of the various sources of energy mentioned, only solar energy is a renewable resource. Wood, coal, and minerals from the sea are nonrenewable resources. So reasonable ways of conserving nonrenewable mineral resources would be to explore alternative sources of energy, such as solar energy.

D) carbon dioxide and water
A mature pine tree can have a biomass of several tons yet begins its life as a tiny seed, with a biomass of not more than a gram. What contributes to the huge increase in the pine tree’s biomass?

A) water

B) fertilizer

C) absorbed minerals

D) carbon dioxide and water

An increase of a plant’s biomass is the result of photosynthesis. Therefore, carbon dioxide and water ultimately contribute to the huge increase in the pine tree’s biomass.

A) desert
Which biome is characterized by low annual rainfall, less than 26 centimeters (about 10-11 inches) per year?

A) desert

B) tundra

C) grassland

D) tropical rain forest

The desert biome gets very little annual rainfall. Vegetation is sparse and most animals are active at night.

C) mosses and short grasses
A logger clears a forest and the forest re-grows over many years. Which of the following choices is likely to represent pioneer species in succession?

A) pine trees

B) oak and hickory trees

C) mosses and short grasses

D) blackberry briers and weeds

Mosses and short grasses. Pioneer species are usually small plants that ready the soil for larger plants in succession.

B) phototropism.
Plants, such as sunflowers, contain specialized receptor cells that respond to light and grow in the direction of a light source. These specialized plant cells exhibit

A) gravitropism.

B) phototropism.

C) solartropism.

D) thigmotropism.

These specialized plant cells exhibit phototropism. “Photo” means light and “tropism” means “response.”

A) fungi
Plants and __________ formed a mutualistic relationship in the form of mycorrhizae and were the first multicellular organisms on land.

A) fungi

B) insects

C) bacteria

D) other plants

Fungi and plants help each other through a mutualistic relationship.

D) Secondary succession
Hurricane Andrew hit South Florida in 1992 causing over $25 million in damages. Biscayne National Park in the Florida Keys. Most of the deciduous and evergreen trees in the area were uprooted and the area was left with only a few smaller trees and some grasses. What type of succession took place in Biscayne National Park after Hurricane Andrew?

A) Primary succession

B) Tertiary succession

C) Successional growth

D) Secondary succession

Secondary succession takes place when there is soil present. Based on the question, there were still small trees and grasses still there, which indicates that soil was still there. Primary succession would occur when there is just bare rock, such as after a volcanic eruption.

C) increasing the concentration of carbon dioxide.
Burning of fossil fuels has changed the atmosphere by

A) producing a hole in the ozone.

B) reducing the CFCs in the atmosphere.

C) increasing the concentration of carbon dioxide.

D) increasing the concentration of ozone in the atmosphere.

Burning of fossil fuels, like gasoline, causes atmospheric change by increasing the concentration of carbon dioxide.

B) the highest between 25 and 50; the lowest: between 55 and 74
In high-income countries, which age range(s) contained the largest percentage of the population and which age range(s) contained the lowest?

A) the highest 75+; the lowest: between 55 and 74

B) the highest between 25 and 50; the lowest: between 55 and 74

C) the highest between 0 and 20; the lowest: between 55 and 75+

D) the highest between 50 and 75+; the lowest: between 0 and 19

the highest between 25 and 50; the lowest: between 55 and 74 First, be sure you are looking at the correct data. Then notice how the question is worded to figure the correct answer.

B) decomposers
The majority of Earth’s atmosphere is nitrogen, N2. The percentage of nitrogen in Earth’s atmosphere remains constant as prescribed by the law of conservation of matter and because it is a reasonably non-reactive gas. Like carbon, nitrogen is cycled through Earth’s spheres. However, nitrogen can be converted into forms usable by plants and animals, either by lightning or bacteria. Once converted to usable forms, nitrogen is able to cycle the rest of the way through the ecosystem. Much like carbon, the recycling of nitrogen through Earth’s spheres relies heavily on what type of organism?

A) autotrophs

B) decomposers

C) parasites

D) producers

decomposers The principal forms of decomposer are bacteria and fungi.
Decomposers act as recyclers in many biogeochemical cycles. Decomposition occurs when a compound is broken down into simpler compounds or into its constituent elements. This is achieved primarily by decomposers, organisms that obtain their energy from the chemical breakdown of dead organisms as well as from animal and plant waste products.

A) They improve survival rates.
Which is the primary advantage of instincts, such as the tendency of a mother bear to attack anything between herself and her cubs?

A) They improve survival rates.

B) They reduce predator contacts.

C) They improve food selection choices.

D) They allow for smaller brains and less wasted energy.

They improve survival rates.If this protective behavior was not present, it is possible that another large predator would have an easier time killing the cubs.

A) animal
_________ pollination is a reproductive advance found in angiosperm plants, and this type of pollination is aided by large colorful flowers.

A) animal

B) self

C) water

D) wind

Animal. The large colorful flowers are advertisements for nectar, which is a bribe offered in exchange for the transport of pollen.

C) are taller with long legs and are capable of great speed to escape predators.
The early ancestors of the horse (shown in the picture) were adapted to life in tropical forests. Gradually the forests disappeared and were replaced with open grasslands. Because of the gradual change in habitat, modern horses

A) have five toes that allow them to walk well on soft ground.

B) are herbivores instead of carnivores like their early ancestors.

C) are taller with long legs and are capable of great speed to escape predators.

D) have gradually grown larger, but show no major changes from the early ancestors.

Because of the gradual change in habitat, modern horses are taller with long legs and are capable of great speed to escape predators. No longer living in forests, early horses lived in the open grassland and in clear sight of predators. Over time the fastest horses survived and reproduced. Modern horses have also developed teeth that allow them to graze grass instead of browsing in the forest on leaves and insects.

C) snails and clams.
Sulfur emissions from industry combine with water in the atmosphere and form acid rain. A new factory is built very close to the lake that Josh visits often. By examining the table that shows what pH range different species can survive, Josh decides that the aquatic life will be affected by the changes in pH that the lake. Josh correctly decides that organisms that will be the most affected are

A) perch and frogs.

B) mayfly and bass.

C) snails and clams.

D) frogs and salamanders.

The answer is snails and clams. Organisms can live in narrow range of pH. The pH level of the lake will drop with the acid rain and only those organisms that can survive acidic pH environment will survive.

C) decreased biodiversity
The rapid growth of the human population during the last two centuries is INDIRECTLY responsible for which environmental concern, that in turn, will lead to future species extinction?

A) ozone depletion

B) habitat fragmentation

C) decreased biodiversity

D) fossil fuel consumption

Rapid human population growth has lead to a variety of environmental issues: habitat fragmentation, loss of habitat diversity, urbanization, desertification, and global climate change, to name a few. These all result in decreased biodiversity, which in turn, result in species extinctions.

A) climate.
Both the arctic fox and snowshoe rabbit have made species adaptations over time that enable them to survive. For example, both creatures have fur that turns white in winter and fur on the pads of their feet. These are examples of adaptations to

A) climate.

B) geographic isolation.

C) specific food sources.

D) interspecies competition.

Both the arctic fox and snowshoe hare have physically changed over time in ways that related species have not. These changes are adaptations to climate, specifically to cold and snow.

C) The biologists are worried that the cougar will be harmed or harm people in the cougar’s range.
A wildlife biologist suggests re-introducing the eastern cougar into southern Alabama, reasoning that besides bears, which can survive off of berries and grubs, there are no large natural predators, and that it would be good for the food chain. It is assumed that the eastern cougar would eat deer, which in turn, graze on tree bark, shrubs, and leaves. The average cougar weighs about 100 pounds, as does the average deer. The average cougar has a range of one square mile. A recent biological study showed that there were about 16 deer per square mile in Alabama, an average about 40,000 pounds of vegetation per square mile, and an average of 9.5 people per square mile in southern Alabama. Despite the biologist’s proposal, other biologists vote against re-introducing the cougar.

Which of these is a possible VALID reason for this?

A) The cougars would compete with bears for berries and grubs.

B) There are not enough deer per square mile, to support the cougar.

C) The biologists are worried that the cougar will be harmed or harm people in the cougar’s range.

D) There is not enough vegetation to support the deer, if they are pressured by hunting from cougars.

The biologists are worried that the cougar will be harmed or harm people in the cougar’s range. Any wildlife management plan has to consider the effects people will have on the animal and vice versa. There are clearly enough deer (1600 pounds per 100 pounds of cougar) and there is obviously enough vegetation to support the deer.

D) cellular respiration.
Producers, like this plant, take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide during __________________ , just like animals and other living things.

A) decomposition.

B) photosynthesis.

C) transformation.

D) cellular respiration.

Producers (plants) use the oxygen that is produced during photosynthesis during cellular respiration. Cellular respiration is the process that takes place within a cell to produce ATP.

C) the instructional print on the seed packets
Mr. Allison’s class was interested in conducting experiments to investigate plant responses to various external stimuli. They first planted pea seeds in sand. In the beginning days of the experiment, they watered the seeds. Once the seeds began to grow, they reduced the amount of water they gave the plants. Instead of watering, they placed a porous container of water close to the growing plant to see if the plant’s roots would grow towards the cup of water.

Only one reference listed below did not help the students with their experimental design. Which resources was of little or no help?

A) botany textbooks

B) current research on plant tropisms

C) the instructional print on the seed packets

D) irrigation system design in greenhouse plant production

the instructional print on the seed packets
The seed packet would tell you when to plant and how deep but it would tell you nothing about tropisms or watering/irrigation ideas.

D) Urbanization
__________ is a human activity that increases erosion.

A) Fencing

B) Seeding

C) Sliding

D) Urbanization

Urbanization is a process of organizing people, processes, activities, and industry in cities or towns. The new construction associated with urbanization is a major contributor to soil erosion.

C) They are waiting for the best conditions for growth.
Seeds are the source of the new plant. Some seeds do not germinate as soon as they are formed. Coconuts, for example, float on the ocean for extended periods of time. Why don’t some seeds germinate immediately after they are formed?

A) They need time to grow.

B) They are waiting to make it to shore.

C) They are waiting for the best conditions for growth.

D) They must first be eaten by birds before they can germinate.

Seeds need the perfect conditions for germination. That will maximize the chances of survival. They are waiting for the best conditions for growth. That could be an island, in the case of a coconut. That could be rain or warm soil conditions.

C) over-hunting by man.
Two species of marine mammals have become extinct in modern times: The Atlantic gray whale and the steller sea cow both joined the extinct species list back in the 1800’s. More recently, scientists have declared the Caribbean monk seal to be extinct.

The BEST explanation for the extinction of these three species is

A) deforestation.

B) global warming.

C) over-hunting by man.

D) a drop in sea level.

The extinction of these three sea mammals is due to over-hunting by man. Eventually, we will see more animal extinctions due to global warming and deforestation.

A) stays constant.
The amount of matter that cycles through a food web

A) stays constant.

B) continually increases.

C) continually decreases.

D) changes unpredictably.

The answer is stays constant. The amount of matter that cycles through a food web does not change.

C) The plants and animals are harmed.
Black smoke rises in the air from a factory in Georgia. The black smoke is a pollutant. When this pollutant returns to Earth it becomes acid rain. How does the acid rain change the plants’ and animals’ environment?

A) It helps clean up the pollution.

B) It helps them build a new habitat.

C) The plants and animals are harmed.

D) It adds nutrients to the environment

The plants and animals are harmed. When large factories release pollutants into the air, they return as acid rain. The acid rain is harmful to the plants and animals.

B) These fuels are available in a limited supply–when the fuel is used it is no longer available.
Oil, natural gas, and coal are considered to be nonrenewable resources. Why are these fuels considered to be nonrenewable?

A) The burning of these fuels does not allow the waste products to be recycled.

B) These fuels are available in a limited supply–when the fuel is used it is no longer available.

C) The amount of pollution released from the use of these fuels is much higher than with renewable sources.

D) The technology used to generate energy by the use of these fuels is much older and less efficient than current technology.

These fuels are available in a limited supply–when the fuel is used it is no longer available. Non-renewable means that the resource cannot be renewed or made larger over time. Consider this northern site of primary succession following the retreat of a glacier. As we move from left to right, describe some improvements in the abiotic factors that support plant growth.

C) biomass.
The total amount of organic matter present in any trophic level is called

A) bioassay.

B) biodiversity.

C) biomass.

D) detritus.

The total amount of organic matter present in any trophic level is called biomass.

C) Although there are annual fluctuations up and down, the global surface temperature is increasing.
The greenhouse effect is an important component of Earth’s natural climate system. It maintains higher average temperatures on Earth than would be expected from direct solar heating. The majority of incoming solar radiation is short wave, high frequency wavelengths. This heat energy is absorbed by atmospheric gases, including water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane. The greenhouse effect refers to the retention of heat in Earth’s atmosphere due to this absorption.

According to the graph, what trend is seen in the annual global surface temperature?

A) The annual global surface temperature is gradually but steadily increasing.

B) While there are annual fluctuations, the global surface temperature is decreasing.

C) Although there are annual fluctuations up and down, the global surface temperature is increasing.

D) While there are annual fluctuations, there has not been a substantial increase in global surface temperature.

Although there are annual fluctuations up and down, the global surface temperature is increasing. Fluctuations are evident in the up and down jagged look of the graph. Overall, the line has an upward slant.

A) Stanistan’s population is growing very rapidly.
The chart shows a population pyramid for the fictional county of Stanistan. Which conclusion is a correct about Stanistan?

A) Stanistan’s population is growing very rapidly.

B) Its population structure suggests that it is a modern industrialized country.

C) There is a long life expectancy in Stanistan, as most individuals survive into their 70s or 80s.

D) There are probably not many problems with poverty or limited resources in Stanistan, as there are many adults for each child.

Stanistan’s population is growing rapidly. The population pyramid shows a large demographic for children and a small demographic for adults, suggesting a high birthrate and rapid growth. The younger the age, the higher the population in that age group. So, in future years, more people will be born than those that die.

D) Run only full loads in the washing machine and dishwasher.
Which method would save the MOST water?

A) Turn off the water while brushing your teeth.

B) Remove plants and other vegetation from your yard.

C) Wash cars with a hose rather than a bucket of water.

D) Run only full loads in the washing machine and dishwasher.

Running only full loads in the washing machine and dishwasher can save 300 to 800 gallons of water per month.

D) parasitism.
Strep throat is caused by a species of bacteria that has adapted to living and reproducing in the human respiratory system. The relationship between this bacterium and people is known as

A) commensalism.

B) equilibrium.

C) mutualism.

D) parasitism.

In this relationship, the bacteria benefit while the humans are harmed. This type of interspecies interaction is called parasitism.

C) magnification
During the process of biological ______________, the concentration of pollutants, such as DDT or mercury, is multiplied as it passes up a food chain.

A) diversification

B) invasion

C) magnification

D) multiplication

Biological magnification leads to the increase in concentration of harmful substances at higher trophic levels in an ecosystem. The amount of the substance stays the same, but becomes closer together and more concentrated at each new trophic level. This can make it very dangerous for end consumers.

D) Grasshoppers use up much of their energy for life processes.
The snake does not get as much energy from eating the same amount of food as the grasshopper. The statement that best explains why this is true is

A) Grasshoppers are bigger than snakes.

B) Grasshoppers move around less than snakes.

C) Grasshoppers live on less energy than snakes.

D) Grasshoppers use up much of their energy for life processes.

As you move up the energy pyramid, the number of orgranisms decreases. Each organism must eat (or make it’s own)food to be able to live. Grasshoppers use up much of their energy for life processes.

A) Mold is a beneficial microorganism that can aid decomposition.
After a tree falls in the forest, it slowly decays until it eventually becomes part of the forest floor.

Many organisms are involved in this decomposition, what is an example of a microorganism that aids in this process?

A) Mold is a beneficial microorganism that can aid decomposition.

B) Mice are beneficial microorganisms that can aid decomposition.

C) Beetles are beneficial microorganisms that can aid decomposition.

D) Vultures are beneficial microorganisms that can aid decomposition.

Mold is a beneficial microorganism that can aid decomposition. Mold grows on the dead tree and helps to break it down.

D) Atmospheric carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, would cause rising ocean temperatures, which will cause an increase in evaporation. The added water vapor would further increase global warming.
There is much interdependence among the biogeochemical cycles on Earth. How is warmer ocean water involved in these cycles?

A) Warmer air temperatures mean warmer ocean temperatures. This results in more precipitation and less atmospheric carbon dioxide.

B) As ocean temperatures increase, evaporation increases. Increased evaporation results in lower amounts of all atmospheric gases, including oxygen.

C) Warmer ocean temperatures would result in increased evaporation, which in turn would lower the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, thereby reducing global warming.

D) Atmospheric carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, would cause rising ocean temperatures, which will cause an increase in evaporation. The added water vapor would further increase global warming.

Atmospheric carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, would cause rising ocean temperatures, which will cause an increase in evaporation. The added water vapor would further increase global warming.

D) The atmosphere has no significant role in the phosphorus cycle, but is an essential part of the sulfur cycle.
What is one of the main differences between the phosphorus and sulfur cycles?

A) Plants absorb phosphorus mainly from the air and sulfur mainly from the soil.

B) Animals get phosphorus by eating plants and sulfur from the air they breathe.

C) Human activities contribute only to the amount of sulfur in the atmosphere but not to that of phosphorus.

D) The atmosphere has no significant role in the phosphorus cycle, but is an essential part of the sulfur cycle.

Unlike sulfur, phosphorus is not found as a gas. Most of the phosphorus is found in solid form in or on Earth. One of the main differences between the phosphorus and sulfur cycles is that the atmosphere has no significant role in the phosphorus cycle, but is an essential part of the sulfur cycle.

A) It remains unconsumed forever.

B) It is stored by all consumers for use in the future.

C) It is recycled by producers and brought back into the food chain later.

D) It is decomposed by decomposers and brought back into the food chain later.

D) It is decomposed by decomposers and brought back into the food chain later.
What happens to any matter that is not used by consumers in a food chain?

A) It remains unconsumed forever.

B) It is stored by all consumers for use in the future.

C) It is recycled by producers and brought back into the food chain later.

D) It is decomposed by decomposers and brought back into the food chain later.

It is decomposed by decomposers and brought back into the food chain later. Decomposers like bacteria and fungi break down any amount of living and non-living organic matter that is left unconsumed in the ecosystem.

A) around 100 billion gallons
Clouds dump around 100 billion gallons of water on rainforests each year. How much rain is evaporated from the rivers, lakes and surface of rainforests each year?

A) around 100 billion gallons

B) unable to tell from the information given

C) significantly less than 100 billion gallons

D) significantly more than 100 billion gallons

Around 100 billion gallons of water must be evaporated from the local rainforest area. If it were significantly less, it woud eventually be a desert. If it were significantly more, it would eventually be a giant lake.

A) impervious surface, creating more runoff and less fresh water infiltration
Urbanization refers to the increase in population and the amount of industrialization of an area. Urbanization happens in rural areas because of the increase in the extent and density of population needing employment, food, and housing. Due to this demand, uncontrolled environmental degradation can occur very rapidly.

What is one of the major negatives factors from urbanization?

A) impervious surface, creating more runoff and less fresh water infiltration

B) impervious surface, creating less runoff and less fresh water infiltration

C) impervious surface, creating more runoff and more fresh water infiltration

D) impervious surface, creating less runoff and more fresh water infiltration

Impervious surface, creating more runoff and less fresh water infiltration is correct. Concrete replaces soil, which causes water runoff.

A) Temperatures changed.
Quaggas once lived in South Africa. They are now extinct. People hunted them for their hides and meat. Quaggas fed on grass, which people also used to feed their sheep and goats.

Based on these facts, what is the LEAST LIKELY reason the quaggas became extinct?

A) Temperatures changed.

B) They had no food to eat.

C) They had no space to live.

D) People hunted them too much.

People hunted quaggas for food and for the hides. They also hunted them to keep them from eating grass that their sheep and goats needed. The least likely reason for extinction is temperatures changed.

B) rising sea level.
Large-scale measurements of sea-ice became possible with the development of satellite technology. Scientists have determined that the September Arctic Sea ice cover has decreased between 1973 and 2007 at a rate of about 10% per decade.

All BUT ONE factor may be responsible for the gradual decline in sea ice. That is

A) global warming.

B) rising sea level.

C) increased atmospheric carbon dioxide.

D) increased average annual temperature.

All but rising sea level may be responsible for the gradual decline in sea ice. Both melting ice and rising sea level are consequences of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide. Scientists believe that an increase in this and other greenhouse gases are increasing the average annual temperature and therefore contributing to global warming.

B) consider fans instead of air conditioning.
How do commercial buildings, like offices, hospitals, schools, places of worship, warehouses, hotels, barber shops, libraries, shopping malls, use energy?According to data collected by the U. S. government, commercial building activities have unique energy needs but, as a whole, space heating accounted for about 25% of the total energy use in commercial buildings in 2012. Electricity and natural gas are the most common energy sources used in commercial buildings and most individual commercial buildings have their own heating and cooling systems. According to the data collected, school buildings use 10% of all energy resources.

Brown Middle School is trying to become a “green school”. To do this, parents, faculty and staff members are meeting to discuss ways to reduce their use of non-renewable natural resources, overall. After reviewing the government data in science classes, the faculty has asked for input from students. A list of good ideas was generated. Several students suggested things that might fall under the heading of “other” in their graph. All BUT ONE idea could fall under the “other” category. That is

A) buy energy efficient appliances.

B) consider fans instead of air conditioning.

C) reuse and recycle products as much as possible.

D) use compact fluorescent light bulb instead of
incandescent bulbs.

consider fans instead of air conditioning.
The U.S. Department of Energy estimates that more than 50 percent of energy used in American homes goes to heating and cooling. Cooling is one consideration in the bar graph. It would not fall into the “other” category.

D) Some plastics are biodegradable by organisms in the soil, but most are not and take hundreds of years to break down.
Which statement about plastics is most accurate?

A) All plastics are recyclable, since they are chemically the same.

B) Most plastic products used by people in the United States are recycled.

C) Since they are derived from fossil fuels, most plastics are renewable resources.

D) Some plastics are biodegradable by organisms in the soil, but most are not and take hundreds of years to break down.

Some plastics are biodegradable by organisms in the soil, but most are not and take hundreds of years to break down. Plastics do not occur naturally, so most of them are not easily digested by bacteria and other recyclers, and remain in the ecosystem for long periods of time.

READ:  Northern Renaissance Slides
A) altering of wetlands
How does population growth negatively impact water quality?

A) altering of wetlands

B) underground water supply is increased

C) decreased sedimentation in rivers and streams

D) more water is chemically treated for drinking

Altering of wetlands. Wetlands act as a filter for surface water and many times they are disturbed during the development of areas. This decreases the natural filtration of the water supply.

A) The population is aging and growing.
Life expectancy in Canada continues to steadily increase. By 2021, the life expectancy for a 65-year-old is expected to have increased by about five years from 1966. The population aged 85 and over is the fastest-growing segment of the overall senior population. How does this trend influence the projected population of Canada?

A) The population is aging and growing.

B) The population is aging and decreasing.

C) The population is leveling out with no change over time.

D) The population is decreasing to a higher mortality rate.

The population is aging and growing. There are fewer people dying; mortality rate is decreasing. The Aged population is growing in size as is the over-all population.

A) oil
The development and then refinement of the steam engine in the 1800’s helped bring about full scale industrialization in many countries. Later, a smaller and more efficient engine was developed, known as the internal combustion engine. This is the type of engine you find in modern cars.

Because of how it operates, this type of engine helped spread the use of this fossil fuel.

A) oil

B) coal

C) unleaded

D) natural gas

oil

Without the oil pumped from the ground for gas and engine oil, a car wouldn’t run.

B) a possible ice age.
For many years, the rain forests throughout the world were cut down to make way for farms, roads, and new villages. The immediate result of clear cutting the forests was obvious. But this practice lead to other consequences. All BUT one is a long term consequence of clear cutting the rain forests. That is

A) global warming.

B) a possible ice age.

C) decreased biodiversity.

D) desertification and erosion.

Clear cutting the rain forests will probably not result in a possible ice age. Deforestation aids in the increase of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere so we would expect an increase in the average annual temperature. That means global warming!

B) The farmers must be compensated for the loss of farmland.
Extensive deforestation was carried out on a piece of land to convert it into a farmland. What is the MOST SIGNIFICANT cost involved in converting the land back into a forest?

A) The soil quality must be improved using fertilizers.

B) The farmers must be compensated for the loss of farmland.

C) The local population must be educated Excessive nutrients in the Chesapeake Bay foster the growth of algae, which robs the aquatic life of sunlight and oxygen. The MAIN reason for the overabundance of nutrients is an increase in
on the need to conserve forests.

D) The climate must be studied to ensure that the place can support forests.

The region was deforested to make way for farmland. So before implementing a scheme to reforest a region that was converted to farmland, the farmers must be compensated for the loss of farmland.

C) I. and VI.
I. Increased immigration.
II. There is overall better nutrition.
III. People have more access to better health care.
IV. Females have access to educational resources.
V. Parental confidence in infant survival has increased.
VI. Epidemics spread rapidly through the population.

Compare the number of low income infants/toddlers to the number of high income infants/toddlers. What factor(s) listed above MIGHT NOT contribute to the decline in birth rate and the lower numbers in the high income category?

A) I.

B) IV.

C) I. and VI.

D) IV. and V.

I. and VI. Neither increased immigration or the rapid spread of disease accounts for the lower infant/toddler numbers in the high income category. In general, there is better health care, nutrition, and education.

D) The smoke would settle around cities, reducing visibility.
Human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels, result in air pollution. What could be an outcome if the amount of smoke released is not regulated?

A) Sunlight would not be able to reach Earth.

B) The temperature of the region would decrease.

C) Trees would begin to die, leading to habitat loss.

D) The smoke would settle around cities, reducing visibility.

When fossil fuels are burned, a large amount of smoke is released. If this is not regulated, the smoke would settle around cities, reducing visibility.

A) agricultural
Deforestation is the clearing of Earth’s forests on a massive scale, often resulting in damage to the quality of the land due to erosion. Deforestation occurs for many reasons, but probably the biggest reason for deforestation is _______________.

A) agricultural

B) recreational

C) industrial

D) domestic housing

Agricultural is correct. The demand for food production from the Earth’s lithosphere only increases as the world’s population increases; thus, requiring a great amount of farmland.

C) 8.1%
What percentage of low income people are between 25 and 29 years old?

A) 4.0%

B) 6.8%

C) 8.1%

D) 12.8%

8.1% The percentage of low income males between 25-29 is about 4.1%. The percentage of low income females between 25-29 is about 4.0%. Therefore the total percentage is 8.1%.

D) coal and petroleum
There are many methods used to obtain energy for use in our daily lives. Some of these methods have possible environmental consequences to rivers, groundwater, and organisms. One type of pollution involves excess carbon dioxide being released into the air. Some of the carbon dioxide reacts with water to form acid rain. Which energy sources can release carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide waste into the atmosphere?

A) wind and solar

B) wind and nuclear

C) solar and nuclear

D) coal and petroleum

The energy sources that release carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide are coal and petroleum.

B) Reduction of fossil fuel use through the incorporation of more green power sources.
To drill or not to drill? That is the big question as Americans face climbing gas prices. A group of research scientists employed by the Mobil Oil Company conducted a study on the feasibility of drilling for oil off the coast of California. They researched the impact of oil drilling on nearby ecosystems and investigated the likelihood of future oil spills. According to their data, coastal California would be an excellent location to drill for oil. After publishing the data in local newspapers, Mobil Oil sent out an opinion survey to area residents to check public opinion. Amazingly, every survey came back with a “NO” vote for off-shore drilling. The Public Relations firm for Mobil disputed the fairness of the survey, citing the fact that most Californians are in favor of reducing American dependency on foreign oil.

Given the controversy over drilling for oil as well as transporting oil, what is a viable option for the future?

A) Move the drilling sites to more remote locations in and around the United States.

B) Reduction of fossil fuel use through the incorporation of more green power sources.

C) Drill anyway; disregarding the wishes of the people living in the surrounding areas.

D) Reconsider the purchase and use of foreign oil in an effort to improve global relationships with the U. S.

Reduction of fossil fuel use through the incorporation of more green power sources. There is an increasing use of non-fossil fuel resources, as well as increased funding and research for fuel alternatives.

B) small and grow in clumps for protection from the wind and cold
The tundra is cold year-round. it has short cool summers and long, severe winters. The tundra has a permanently frozen sublayer of soil called permafrost. Like the desert, the tundra receives little precipitation, about 4 to 10 inches per year, and what does fall is usually in the form of snow or ice. It has long days during the growing season, sometimes with 24 hours of daylight, and long nights during the winter. Which adaptations would you expect to see in plants growing in the tundra?

A) leaves with hair help shade the plant, reducing water loss.

B) small and grow in clumps for protection from the wind and cold

C) deep roots to help capture nutrients from deep below the surface

D) tall plants with broad, thin, waxy leaves leaves so water easily runs off

In the tundra, we would expect plants to be small and grow in clumps for protection from the wind and cold. It is like the huddle together to stay warm! The plants are small and low-growing due to lack of nutrients, and because being close to the ground helps keep the plants from freezing.

C) leafless plants with an extensive, shallow root system
The desert is very dry and hot during the day. There is a lot of direct sunlight. Annual rainfall averages less than 10 inches per year, and that rain often comes all at the same time. The rest of the year it is very dry. The soil is sandy or rocky and unable to hold much water. Winds can be strong and dry out plants. Which adaptations would you expect to find in desert plants?

A) tall plants with broad, thin leaves

B) deep succulent tap roots and waxy leaves

C) leafless plants with an extensive, shallow root system

D) small, usually less than 12 inches tall, and low-growing

In the desert, we would expect leafless plants with an extensive, shallow root system. Some plants have no leaves or small seasonal leaves that only grow after it rains. The lack of leaves helps reduce water loss during photosynthesis. Leafless plants conduct photosynthesis in their green stems.

C) phototropism.
These sunflowers seem to follow the path of the sun as it travels across the sky during the day. Plants bending toward or following light is a response called

A) hydrotropism.

B) photosynthesis.

C) phototropism.

D) thigmotropism.

When plants bed toward or folow the path of the sun, this response to light is called phototropism. The prefix “photo” means light and “tropism” means the turning or bending movement of an organism or a part toward or away from an external stimulus.

B) It will probably not survive.
A cactus lives in a desert. It stores water in its thick stem and roots. This helps it survive in a very hot, dry habitat.

What will MOST LIKELY happen if this plant is brought to a cool, wet habitat?

A) It will grow much taller.

B) It will probably not survive.

C) It will grow round leaves instead of spines.

D) It will bloom more often than in the dry habitat.

Plants that grow in hot, dry deserts have adapted to the dry conditions. A cactus plant does not need much water. If the cactus is moved to a cool, wet habitat it will probably not survive.

A) lichens and low-growing moss
The tundra is characterized by extremely low temperatures as well as little precipitation, a rocky landscape, and permafrost. Because of these physical features, what type of producers would we expect to find in the tundra?

A) lichens and low-growing moss

B) conifers, trees with needles and cones

C) leafy plants like ferns and deciduous trees

D) deciduous trees, that lose their leaves in the fall

Because water is limited and the soil is rocky and lacks nutrients, we would expect to find low growing, simple producers like lichens and low-growing moss.

A) gravitropism.
How do plant roots “know” to grow downward? This is a plant response called

A) gravitropism.

B) hydrotropism.

C) phototropism.

D) thigmotropism.

When seeds germinate and plants grow, it always seems like shoots grow up and roots grow down. The fact that roots “know” to grow downward is called gravitropism. It is the plant’s response to gravity.

C) Tundra plants can only photosynthesize in bright light.
The small mammals, insects, and plants living in the tundra cannot migrate to warmer places to avoid the severe winter conditions. They have very specific adaptive strategies for survival. Identify the adaptation and purpose that is not seen among tundra plants.

A) Low growing plants to avoid the drying winds.

B) Waxy coating prevents evaporative water loss.

C) Tundra plants can only photosynthesize in bright light.

D) Silver-gray hairs on leaves provide a greenhouse effect so plants stay warm.

Tundra plants can only photosynthesize in bright light. First, this is not an advantage. Second, it is not true. Tundra plants can photosynthesize in various conditions, including low light an low temperatures.

A) drastic reduction in the animal population due to migration or death by starvation.
Wildfires are frequent In the Great Basin shrub steppe. Every time there is a fire outbreak, much of the natural vegetation is destroyed. What is the MOST LIKELY impact of fire on this ecosystem?

A) A drastic reduction in the animal population due to migration or death by starvation.

B) No impact, because the plants have only been temporarily removed from the ecosystem.

C) There would be no rainfall because there are no trees or shrubs in the region.

D) Non-native plants and animals would migrate into the region.

The animals present in the region depend on the native plants for food. If the vegetation is destroyed, there would be a drastic reduction in the animal population due to migration or death by starvation.

B) secondary succession
Weeds growing in a recently burned patch of forest represent the first stage in

A) primary succession

B) secondary succession

C) secondary colonization

D) biological magnification

Secondary succession is the regular progression of species replacement in an area once occupied by previous growth.

C) improved soil quality: increased humus and water retention
Consider this northern site of primary succession following the retreat of a glacier. As we move from left to right, describe some improvements in the abiotic factors that support plant growth.

A) change in climate over time

B) less competition for water resources due to biodiversity

C) improved soil quality: increased humus and water retention

D) increased population density resulting in decreased pathogens

improved soil quality: increased humus and water retention
Leaf litter, dead plants and animals, as well as the presence of some life forms like earthworms and fungus, impr The graphic shows the island of Krakatoa, which disintegrated in 1889, due to the largest volcanic eruption in recorded history. In the century since the eruption, the island has re-formed from lava flows. The table above shows the number of species of various plant types that were found on the island over a 30 year period, since the island re-surfaced above the ocean in the 1950’s.

ove soil quality over time. Improved soil quality results in increased plant nutrition as well as an increase in the soil water retention properties.

A) Small weeds began to grow and develop.
Farmer Scott is one of the best farmers in town. During the middle of the corn growing season, Farmer Scott had to travel out of town for two weeks, and he left his acres of corn plants alone with no chemicals or other protection.

In terms of succession, which of these best describes what Framer Scott returned to after the two weeks?

A) Small weeds began to grow and develop.

B) There was no distinct change in the corn fields.

C) All of the corn died due to a rampant corn disease.

D) The corn mutated to form a new species of vegetable.

In the corn field, small weeds began to grow and develop. Due to succession, plants that were otherwise controlled by Farmer Scott with labor and chemicals would now begin to find a way to grow. This of house where the front yard is mowed often versus the yard in an abandoned house. The weeds would be a major part of the growth cycle in the yard not taken care of.

C) soil type and available water
As one moves through the state of Michigan, there is a change in predominant trees species. There are hardwoods in the south (A.): pines and spruce in the north (C.). The opposite is true for the state of Georgia. There are pines in the south (coastal plains) and hardwoods in the north (piedmont). What is/are the key determining factors in this tree species distribution?

A) elevation and temperature

B) average annual precipitation

C) soil type and available water

D) biodiversity of animal species

soil type and available water
Conifers, like pine, are typical of poorer soils. Conifers also survive in areas of lower soil moisture, either because of excessive heat or because available water may be frozen.

D) Primary succession is the establishment of a community in an area with no soil, while secondary succession is the establishment of a new community in an existing ecosystem that was disturbed by some catastrophic event.
Compare primary and secondary succession of an ecosystem. What is the distinction between them?

A) Primary succession is the sequence of plants that colonize a new area, while secondary succession is the sequence of animals that move once plant life is established.

B) Primary succession is the sequence of species that become established early in a newly colonized area, while secondary succession is the sequence of species that move in much later.

C) Primary succession is the establishment of a new community in an existing ecosystem that was disturbed, while secondary succession is the establishment of a community in an area that was altered due to fire.

D) Primary succession is the establishment of a community in an area with no soil, while secondary succession is the establishment of a new community in an existing ecosystem that was disturbed by some catastrophic event.

Primary succession is the establishment of a community in an area with no soil, while secondary succession is the establishment of a new community in an existing ecosystem that was disturbed by some catastrophic event.

Primary succession exists in an area with no soil such as a newly formed volcanic island. Secondary succession occurs where there was once a viable ecosystem that has since been disturbed or destroyed by some catastrophic event, including but not limited to fire.

B) volcanic rock-lichen-mosses-sea grasses
The correct order of stages in the primary succession of a volcanic island environment is illustrated by

A) shrubs-mosses-coconut trees-sea grasses

B) volcanic rock-lichen-mosses-sea grasses

C) volcanic rock-shrubs-coconut trees-sea grasses

D) volcanic rock-sea grasses-coconut trees-shrubs

volcanic rock-lichen-mosses-sea grasses
In primary succession, an ecosystem must be created from scratch. The lichens and mosses in this example, erode the rock and create soil that the sea grasses can later grow in. Shrubs and coconut trees would not appear until much later.

D) cannot grow unless they are part of a larger, inter-connected community.
Large old-growth dominant forest trees, such as the redwoods, are part of a climax community. Such trees

A) can quickly re-establish themselves in a cleared area of forest.

B) are usually the first organisms to appear in an area after a fire.

C) do not strongly influence the animal fauna present in the ecosystem.

D) cannot grow unless they are part of a larger, inter-connected community.

Such trees cannot grow unless they are part of a larger, inter-connected community.

C) large trees
The graphic shows the island of Krakatoa, which disintegrated in 1889, due to the largest volcanic eruption in recorded history. In the century since the eruption, the island has re-formed from lava flows. The table above shows the number of species of various plant types that were found on the island over a 30 year period, since the island re-surfaced above the ocean in the 1950’s.

Which category of plants, given enough time, will probably form the climax community?

A) shrubs

B) small trees

C) large trees

D) moss and grasses

Large trees. A climax community is a mature ecosystem, such as deep forest. They form slowly after the soil has been conditioned through ecological succession.

D) monkeys swarm in and tear off all of the lower leaves to use for shelters
In any population there will be variations of certain characteristics. For example, in the giraffe population there is a variation in neck lengths among individuals. Some have longer necks and some have shorter necks. Giraffes with a longer neck variations would be more likely to survive than shorter-necked giraffes in which of these situations?

A) loggers come in a chop down all of the trees

B) insects can only eat the highest leaves due to the canopy

C) a plant disease infects the trees, resulting in total leaf death.

D) monkeys swarm in and tear off all of the lower leaves to use for shelters

For the longer-necked giraffes to have an advantage, there needs to be a scenario in which the leaves higher in the trees are more abundant than the lower leaves. When monkeys swarm in and tear off all of the lower leaves to use for shelters, this cuts off some of the food supply to the giraffes with the shorter necks.

D) pampas cat
Using the data in the table, which species of South American cats is likely to be well-adapted to the arid grasslands of Argentina and Chile?

A) kodkod

B) jaguar

C) ocelot

D) pampas cat

pampas cat
The pampas cat eats rabbits and locusts, which are typically found in grasslands, and has a sand-colored coat with stripes, indicating that it is camouflaged for grasslands.

C) Certhidia oliveacea; its tiny pointed bill is the best adapted to sip nectar.
Four species of finch arrive on a newly formed Galapagos island, which is covered with cacti growing in loose, dry sand. The cacti have honey-filled flowers and tiny seeds. The theory of evolution by natural selection would probably predict that ____________________ would most succesfully survive, because _________________________.

A) Geospiza magnirostris; its large size makes it the fittest.

B) Geospiza fortis; it will probably be able to dig up worms with its bill.

C) Certhidia oliveacea; its tiny pointed bill is the best adapted to sip nectar.

D) Geospiza parvula; animals with intermediate traits tend to have higher survival rates in new places.

Certhidia oliveacea; its tiny pointed bill is the best adapted to sip nectar. This finch is the most fit to survive in its new environment.

B) There is an abundance of seeds and nuts.
Finch species living on the Galapagos Islands exhibit a variety of beak types that favor different foods. Finches that eat seeds and plant parts have beaks of the shorter, thicker variety, while finches that eat insects and other small organisms have thin, pointed beaks.

78% of the finches on an island in the Galapagos have beaks that are identical to Finch 1. What does this tell you about the availability of food for the finches on this island?

A) There is an abundance of insects.

B) There is an abundance of seeds and nuts.

C) There is a wide variety of foods for the finches to eat.

D) Plants have died out and there are only insects for food.

There is an abundance of seeds and nuts. Finch 1 has a beak type that favors seeds and nuts as a food source. The majority of finches on this island, 78%, have this beak type. There must be a plentiful supply of food, seeds and nuts, for Finch 1 to survive and reproduce. Since the other beak types are not as numerous, we can infer that their food supplies are limited as are their numbers.

A) mimicry.
Suppose a species of nonpoisonous snake is dark-colored, and a species of poisonous snake is brightly colored. Predators recognize the bright colors of the poisonous snake and stay away from it, but they frequently feast on the nonpoisonous snake. Some nonpoisonous snakes, like the king snake look a lot like a poisonous variety. In this case, the king snake looks like the deadly coral snake. The king snake is not attacked by predators and survives.

This adaptation which allows for natural selection is called

A) mimicry.

B) evolution.

C) camouflage.

D) variation.

This adaptation that allows for natural selection is called mimicry. Predators avoid the king snake, even though it is nonpoisonous, and it survives to reproduce.

D) Individual birds with the mutation will be more likely to survive and reproduce than birds without the mutation.
A particular bird species found in North America obtains most of its food energy by catching and eating insects. A mutation arises in this bird population that increases the length of its beak. Although many mutations are harmful, this particular mutation has increased the ability of the bird to catch and eat certain insects. Which of these is the MOST LIKELY outcome of this mutation?

A) The insects that are eaten by this bird are likely to become extinct.
B) Sharp pointed beaks will result in the birds eating other more unusual food items.

C) Other bird species will be more likely to also develop pointed beaks in order to compete.

D) Individual birds with the mutation will be more likely to survive and reproduce than birds without the mutation.

Individual birds with the mutation will be more likely to survive and reproduce than birds without the mutation. In other words, the mutation has enhanced the fitness of the organisms that have more pointed beaks.

C) tolerate heat
Deserts (especially true deserts) are not easy places for animals to live. Animals who live in them often have special features that help them survive. Which adaptation would be helpful for this group of animals?

A) keen eye sight

B) short, narrow legs

C) tolerate heat

D) webbed feet

A) Within the population, the average leg length has increased over time.
Consider the following scenario:
A species of ancestral short-legged shore birds exists. Within the population in a given shoreline, there is a range of leg lengths, from a little bit shorter to a little bit longer than the average leg length. Leg length is hereditary. High average annual temperatures resulted in shallow shoreline waters and restricted food supplies. Competition for food among the birds increased. The birds with slightly longer legs could wade out into deeper water to find food. The longer-legged birds lived longer, were healthier, and therefore more chicks. The birds with the shortest legs did not survive.

It is many years in the future. The shoreline waters have remained shallow. What prediction would you make about the bird population in the area?

A) Within the population, the average leg length has increased over time.

B) Within the population, the range of leg length has remained constant over time.

C) According to Darwin, variation exists so we would expect a variety of leg lengths in the population.

D) The increase in long-legged birds led to increased competition and the number of birds dropped dramatically.

Within the population, the average leg length has increased over time. The passage suggests that the birds with longer legs survived due to an adequate supply of food. They reproduced and their offspring also had longer legs.

B) The beaks of each finch species were the result of natural selection.
While visiting the Galapagos Islands in 1835, Charles Darwin collected over thirteen different species of a type of bird called a finch. He later observed that the birds were similar in many ways but often differed in the size and shape of their beaks. Which statement BEST summarizes Darwin’s explanantion for the different beaks he observed in these finch species?

A) The beaks changed so they could eat different foods.

B) The beaks of each finch species were the result of natural selection.

C) The size and shape of the beaks differed because of the effects of artificial selection.

D) The size and shape of the beaks differed because of different climates found on the islands.

The beaks of each finch species were the result of natural selection. Darwin believed that the shape and size of the beak were best suited for the environment in which the bird lived.

D) competition
The graph MOST LIKELY represents which type of relationship between the two fish species?

A) mutualism

B) parasitism

C) symbiosis

D) competition

Extinction applies to an entire species. Organisms die naturally during the cycle of life, but when a whole species dies or becomes extinct, it disrupts an ecosystem.

If the snow leopard becomes extinct by the year 2018, what will MOST LIKELY happen to the prey populations in the areas in which it lived?

A) They will migrate.

B) They will increase.

C) They will decrease.

D) They will stay the same

The table shows the tolerance range of some common freshwater organisms to different pH ranges in water. Acid rain causes the pH of rivers, lakes, and streams on Earth to change. Based on the data table, which animal population will be the LAST to die out due to an increase in acid rain?

A) clams

B) frogs

C) snails

D) trout

B) plants or producers
Which organisms have the most energy available to them?

A) birds or omnivores

B) plants or producers

C) fungi or decomposers

D) animals or carnivores

C) prey
The shrew would be considered ____ for the snake and hawk.

A) offspring

B) predator

C) prey

D) producers

The shrew would be considered prey for the snake and hawk.

D) trophic
Ecological pyramids can be based on the numbers of individual organisms at each ________ level.

A) biomass

B) consumable

C) resource

D) trophic

C) ecosystems
Temperature and moisture are key factors in determining where each of the seven _______________ occur.

A) biomes

B) biospheres

C) ecosystems

D) niches

A) water cycle.
Precipitation and evaporation are important components of the

A) water cycle.

B) carbon cycle.

C) warming cycle.

D) nitrogen cycle

B) savanna
Which biome, typical of Africa, is home to many grazing animals?

A) desert

B) savanna

C) taiga

D) tundra

The savanna, typical of Africa, is home to many grazing animals. The tundra is frigid and can be found in Alaska. The taiga is a cold area characterized by evergreen forests and, finally, a desert, which can be found in Africa, does not support many grazing animals.

D) producers.
Organisms that use energy from the sun to make their own food are called

A) carnivores.

B) consumers.

C) omnivores.

D) producers.

Organisms that use energy from the sun to make their own food are called producers. Grass is a good example of a producer.

C) predator
A lion would be considered a ________ of a gazelle.

A) competitor

B) offspring

C) predator

D) prey

D) secondary succession
Ecological succession leads to the sustainability of life in an ecosystem. Succession is the observed process of change in the
species structure of an ecosystem. The community begins with relatively few pioneering plants and animals and develops
through stages of increasing complexity until it becomes stable. Succession may be initiated either by formation of new,
unoccupied habitat such as the formation of an island or by some form of disturbance such as fire in an existing ecosystem.
Succession that begins in new habitats, uninfluenced by pre-existing communities is called primary succession, whereas
succession that follows disruption of a pre-existing community is called secondary succession.

If a tornado destroys a deciduous forest, what kind of succession follows?

A) classic ecosystem

B) climax community

C) primary succession

D) secondary succession

Secondary succession is correct. Succession that follows disruption of a pre-existing community is called secondary succession

C) If a parasite kills its host, it will then have to find a new host in order to
survive.
Most successful parasites, such as this cat flea, weaken their host but do not kill it. Why is killing its host usually disadvantageous for a parasite?

A) Relatives of the host would then attack the parasites.

B) Lysosomes from the host would then attack the parasite.

C) If a parasite kills its host, it will then have to find a new host in order to
survive.

D) Parasitism is a relationship where both organisms benefit; killing the host
is not beneficial to the host.

D) habitat.
These polar bears can be found all around the North Pole. The natural environment where any species lives is called its

A) biome.

B) community.

C) ecosystem.

D) habitat.

C) nitrogen fixation
Plants need nitrogen in order to survive. The problem is they cannot take in the atmospheric nitrogen, but instead must rely on a certain class of bacteria that are able to turn atmospheric nitrogen into other nitrogen compounds, such as ammonia and nitrates. What is the name of this process?

A) nitrification

B) photo-oxidation

C) nitrogen fixation

D) nitrogen absorption

D) grass on level A, rabbit on level B
Examine the energy pyramid shown above. Suppose that your teacher hands you a clump of grass and a rabbit. You are told to place them on the correct level of the energy pyramid. On which levels would you place the grass and the rabbit?

A) grass on level B, rabbit on level A

B) grass on level D, rabbit on level E

C) grass on level E, rabbit on level D

D) grass on level A, rabbit on level B

B) mountain lions probably outcompete wolves for food.
The graph shows the populations of wolves and mountain lions in five different counties in Montana. Wolves and mountain lions compete for the same kinds of food resources. In Clay county,

A) mountain lions depend on wolves to survive.

B) mountain lions probably outcompete wolves for food.

C) mountain lions and wolves have a mutualistic relationship.

D) mountain lions and wolves survive independent of each other.

B) producers; decomposers.
In any ecosystem, land-based and aquatic, matter, in the form of atoms and molecules, is cycled among all organisms.
Organisms within every food web, have specific roles in continuing the cycle of nutrients.

In any food web, the organisms that are responsible for converting raw energy into usable chemical energy are collectively called ________ while organisms that recycle the nutrients trapped in dead organisms are collectively called

A) producers; consumers.

B) producers; decomposers.

C) heterotrophs; consumers.

D) heterotrophs; autotrophs.

In any food web, the organisms that are responsible for converting raw energy into usable chemical energy are called collectively called producers or autotrophs while organisms that recycle the nutrients trapped in dead organisms are collectively called decomposers.

B) 10%
In a typical food chain, about what percentage of energy is passed on to the next trophic level?

A) 1%

B) 10%

C) 20%

D) 40%

B) the sun.
The original source of energy in most ecosystems is

A) water.

B) the sun.

C) carbon in the carbon cycle.

D) the products of photosynthesis.

C) are usually more rich in species biodiversity than
Climax communities __________________communities that are undergoing primary succession.

A) occur before

B) are always the result of

C) are usually more rich in species biodiversity than

D) require more environmental disruption by disasters than

Climax communitiesare usually more rich in species biodiversity thancommunities that are undergoing primary succession. Climax communities are a mature ecosystem. Generally, they have had time to accumulate many species that could not live during the early stages of the ecosystem, along with some species that remain from earlier stages.

D) tropical rainforest
The greatest biodiversity on earth is found in the __________ biome.

A) taiga

B) grasslands

C) deciduous forest

D) tropical rainforest

B) the destruction of silversword plants by condominium and hotel developers.
The Hawaiian honeycreeper has a highly evolved, mutualistic relationship with the Hawaiian silversword, a native plant that grows on beach front cliffs and dunes. The honeycreeper feeds almost exclusively on silversword nectar, and is the only pollinator of the plant. Hawaii, as you know, is one of the most sought-after resort areas in the world. The honeycreeper is now endangered, as a consequence of resort development.

The major contributor to the endangered status of the honeycreeper is

A) over-hunting of honeycreepers by sportsmen.

B) the destruction of silversword plants by condominium and hotel developers.

C) introduction of another species of bird that also pollinates silversword
plants, by zoos and pet owners.

D) global climate change has made Hawaii too cold for the silverswords to
continue growing, and honeycreepers have nothing to eat.

C) ozone depletion.
All but one factor contributes to water pollution. That factor is

A) acid rain.

B) motor oil runoff.

C) ozone depletion.

D) fertilizer runoff.

B) A meadow replacing a pond in its flood plain.
Which describes an example of ecological succession?

A) A caterpillar developing into a butterfly.

B) A meadow replacing a pond in its flood plain.

C) A climate gradually changing over many eons and becoming colder.

D) The replacement of a native species of animal with an invasive species.

A meadow replacing a pond in its flood plain. This is an example of secondary succession.

C) Producers convert light energy into chemical energy.
What is an explanation of why producers are always found at the lowest trophic level?

A) Producers are larger than consumers.

B) Consumers are eaten by a variety of producers.

C) Producers convert light energy into chemical energy.

D) Producers are found in fewer numbers than consumers.

A) They occupy different niches.
One parrot species that feeds on large seeds nests is in the same tree as a parakeet that feeds on small seeds. How are the birds able to coexist?

A) They occupy different niches.

B) They occupy different habitats.

C) They occupy different ecosystems.

D) They occupy different communities.

A) mutualism
What type of relationship MOST LIKELY exists between the birds and the elephant?

A) mutualism

B) parasitism

C) predation

D) reproductive

B) an increase in predation
A population of mice occupies a tree stump in a forest. During the last decade, there has been little change in the number of mice in the population. Which of the following would likely cause the number of mice to decrease quickly?

A) a decrease in disease

B) an increase in predation

C) a decrease in competition

D) an increase in length of mating season

B) competition.
Bears and coyotes both consume large plant-eating mammals such as deer. When the deer are in short supply, bears and coyotes may fight over the prey. This type of biological interaction is called

A) commensalism.

B) competition.

C) mutualism.

D) rumination.

C) mutualism.
The relationship between humans and their digestive bacteria can be described as

A) commensalism.

B) competition.

C) mutualism.

D) predation.

A) global warming.
Students in Mrs. Nichols’ ecology class noted that coastal regions in the state were changing. Areas that had once been only occasionally submerged now remained underwater all year; even low tides did not uncover the once marshy areas. The ecology students hypothesized that the most likely reason for this change in sea level and therefore habitat was

A) global warming.

B) off-shore oil drilling.

C) increased sedimentation.

D) decrease in ocean density.

Raising the sea level is caused, both directly and indirectly, by global warming. An increase in sea level will cause once marsh areas to become totally submerged throughout the year.

B) The birds are unable to get calcium from the soil because the calcium has been leached out by the acid rain.
One of the known effects of acid rain is that it leaches calcium carbonate out of the soil. A study in a region that received significant amounts of acid rain showed that birds were laying eggs with highly porous shells. As a result, the bird population was declining. What is the MOST LIKELY cause of the observed quality of egg shells?

A) Acid rain leaches out the calcium that is the most significant component of egg shells.

B) The birds are unable to get calcium from the soil because the calcium has been leached out by the acid rain.

C) The birds are unable to get calcium from the soil because the calcium has been consumed by the snails to secrete their shells.

D) Calcium deficiency was caused because snails in the birds’ diets are unable to get enough calcium to secrete their shells.

Birds get calcium by eating snails that intake calcium directly from the soil. The highly porous shells of the eggs could be due to The birds are unable to get calcium from the soil because the calcium has been leached out by the acid rain..

C) biomagnification.
DDT was a highly effective insecticide developed in the 1940s. DDT was so good at killing mosquitoes and reducing malaria that its inventor, Paul Muller, won the Nobel Prize. But in the 1960’s it was discovered that DDT is taken up by algae in the water, increasing in concentration at each step of the food chain, because the pesticide remains in the fat tissues of organisms.

The ecological problem that resulted from DDT use is called

A) biohazard.

B) bioremediation.

C) biomagnification.

D) food chain interruption.

Biomagnification. Poisons such as DDT are magnified in concentration by about ten times, every time they move up a trophic level.

C) none; emissions increasing
Considering the trends world-wide in green energy resource development and usage, what impact has this field had on the overall carbon dioxide emissions?

A) little, if any impact

B) slow decline in emissions

C) none; emissions increasing

D) dramatic impact; emissions on the decline

none; emissions increasing Both graphs show a continued increase in carbon dioxide emissions.

A) 4.75
Suppose the percentage of high income women over age 75 increased to 4.5 percent in 2010. If this trend continues, what would be the percentage in 2015?

A) 4.75

B) 5.05

C) 5.75

D) 6.50

Solution: Given the initial amount in 2000 is 4%, the rate of change is (4.5-4)/(2010-2000)=0.05. Therefore in 2015 the percentage will be 4.0+(0.05)(15)=4.75

B) The photosynthesis carbon sink will decrease in gigatons; the carbon dioxide output due to combustion will increase.
Carbon dioxide is naturally present in the atmosphere as part of the Earth’s carbon cycle. Human activities are altering the carbon cycle, by adding more CO2 to the atmosphere and by influencing the ability of natural sinks, like forests, to remove CO2 from the atmosphere. While CO2 emissions come from a variety of natural sources, human-related emissions are responsible for the increase that has occurred in the atmosphere since the industrial revolution.

Consider the graph above. Notice the trend in atmospheric carbon dioxide as recorded at recording stations over Antarctica. Hypothesize how the schematic of the carbon cycle might change if urbanization and deforestation continues unchecked.

A) Both the carbon dioxide sinks and the carbon dioxide outputs will increase so the numbers should reach equilibrium.

B) The photosynthesis carbon sink will decrease in gigatons; the carbon dioxide output due to combustion will increase.

C) All of the carbon dioxide sinks will decrease in gigaton amounts; the carbon dioxide output due to combustion will increase.

D) Carbon dioxide outputs due to combustion of fossil fuels continues to increase; the rate of photosynthesis will also continue to increase to accommodate this.

The photosynthesis carbon sink will decrease in gigatons; the carbon dioxide output due to combustion will increase. Urbanization and deforestation indicates a decrease in the rate of photosynthesis. Combustion of fossil fuels does not show any decline.

C) Increase the efficiency of coal power stations.
Countries around the world are considering various possibilities to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. Which step would be a cost-effective and realistic measure for them to adopt?

A) Build more thermal power stations.

B) Use coal to heat buildings in winter.

C) Increase the efficiency of coal power stations.

D) Burn firewood, instead of fossil fuels, as a source of energy.

Fossil fuels are a major source of greenhouse gases. A cost-effective and realistic method of reducing the impact of this factor would be to increase the efficiency of coal power stations.

B) a hydroelectric power plant, lower oxygen levels in the water.
The most likely source of thermal pollution in a river ecosystem would be ______________. One harmful effect that this type of pollution has is to ___________________________________, killing fish and other native animals.

A) an automotive junkyard, fill the water with oil and gasoline.

B) a hydroelectric power plant, lower oxygen levels in the water.

C) a large farm, poison the water with fertilizers and pesticides.

D) a nuclear power plant, place radioactive materials in the water.

A hydroelectric power plant, lower oxygen levels in the water. Hydroelectric dams produce heat. Warmer water contains less oxygen, making it impossible for sensitive animals to live near the plant.

C) There was less grass for the buffalo to eat.
As Americans moved west, they built the railroad and then many new towns and cities. Also, as Americans moved west, the buffalo population declined. Why?

A) Trains killed many of the buffalo.

B) The buffalo moved further west to survive.

C) There was less grass for the buffalo to eat.

D) Climate change caused the buffalo to become extinct.

There was less grass for the buffalo to eat. The growth of towns and cities and the building of the railroad all cut into pasture land. Without grass to eat, the buffalo began to die out.

C) Over time, these cans could contaminate groundwater.
Aluminum cans are a common part of solid waste. Why are these cans recycled, rather than disposed in landfills?

A) Recycling is less tedious and cheaper.

B) Recycling improves the quality of the cans.

C) Over time, these cans could contaminate groundwater.

D) Only non-biodegradable materials are disposed in landfills.

Aluminum cans are not easily biodegradable. However, over time, these cans could contaminate groundwater. This is one reason why these cans are recycled, rather than disposed in landfills.

C) Of greatest concern is carbon dioxide emissions as seen in the top graph. In the second graph, the electricity generation and transportation sectors have reduced the emissions slightly.
Although the Earth’s atmosphere consists mainly of oxygen and nitrogen, neither plays a significant role in enhancing the greenhouse effect because both are essentially transparent to terrestrial radiation. The greenhouse effect is primarily a function of the concentration of water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other trace gases in the atmosphere that absorb terrestrial radiation leaving the surface of the Earth. Changes in the atmospheric concentrations of these greenhouse gases can alter the balance of energy transfers between the space and the earth system. The graph above illustrates the amounts and trends of these important greenhouse gases.

The EPA has published a report that indicates what economic sector these emissions come from:

Because of the connection between greenhouse gases and climate change, there has been a concerted to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. How does this second graph, published by the EPA, support the growing trend in reducing these emissions?

A) The second graph shows that the electricity generation sector has done a good job at substantially reducing the emission of all greenhouse gases.

B) The top graph shows the greatest fluctuations in carbon dioxide. The second graph shows that there has been little change if any in the emissions by each sector.

C) Of greatest concern is carbon dioxide emissions as seen in the top graph. In the second graph, the electricity generation and transportation sectors have reduced the emissions slightly.

D) It does not support the idea that there is a great reduction in any sector of greenhouse gases. The lines in the second graph remain reasonably flat throughout the sectors in the graph.

Of greatest concern is carbon dioxide emissions as seen in the top graph. In the second graph, the electricity generation and transportation sectors have reduced the emissions slightly. The top graph shows the fluctuations in carbon dioxide emissions. The second graph illustrates some changes in the amount of emissions in the top two sector.

D) increased invasive species.
An immediate result of over-population and modernization in any area on Earth is habitat destruction, which in turn, contributes to all of these conservation issues EXCEPT

A) climate change.

B) species extinction.

C) reduced biodiversity.

D) increased invasive species.

An immediate result of over-po

pulation and modernization in any area on Earth is habitat destruction, which in turn, contributes to all of these conservation issues EXCEPT increased invasive species. This IS a concern, but is not an immediate result of habitat destruction. Instead it is a result of artificial habitat construction.

B) soil erosion
Throughout history, which of these is an ecological impact associated with agriculture?

A) brush fires

B) soil erosion

C) air pollution

D) domestication of wild plants

Trees and other plants have been cleared to obtain land for agriculture. The roots of trees play a major role in holding soil in place. With the removal of trees, soil erosion becomes a major ecological issue associated with agriculture, especially if the land is left fallow for any length of time.

D) It increases the greenhouse effect.
When the combustion engine was invented it had many positive effects on society, but years later it has been discovered that the burning of oil and coal has one major negative effect on the environment. What is that negative effect?

A) It improves air quality.

B) It uses renewable resources.

C) It causes a hole in the ozone.

D) It increases the greenhouse effect.

Increasing the greenhouse effect is the correct answer. Burning of fossil fuels such as oil and coal releases carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and nitrous oxides increases the greenhouse effect which is potentially very dangerous for everyone.

B) Antarctic’s temperature will rise well above 0C.
The EPA presented information concerning atmospheric greenhouse gases. In 2014, they estimated that there were 6,870 Million Metric Tons of CO2 in Earth’s atmosphere. Based on this information, how will previous Antarctic temperature data, as seen in this model, change, if at all?

A) The Antarctic temperature should drop below 0C.

B) Antarctic’s temperature will rise well above 0C.

C) The temperature in the Antarctic will slowly rise over time.

D) Antarctic’s temperature will continue to fluctuate, above and below 0C.

Antarctic’s temperature will rise well above 0C. The amount of carbon dioxide almost doubles from 2006 through 2014. In 2006, the Antarctic temperature is already above 0C.

A) exponential population growth.
The graph represents

A) exponential population growth.

B) the decline of the human population.

C) continued, slow growth of the human population.

D) a population that has reached carrying capacity.

The graph represents exponential growth of the human population.

C) Before leaving for their trip, turn the central heating system off, along with lights and electrical household appliances that will not be in use.
One way for a family to determine their energy use is by analyzing their electric bill each month. Most energy bills include a graph displaying energy use over the last 12 months. This allows people to consider their energy use and make adjustments if needed. Mr. Hernandez noticed his family’s usage for this December was about the same as last December, even though they were gone on vacation for about a week and a half this year. Since they were not home for a portion of the month, he expected their energy usage would be significantly lower. He calls a family meeting to discuss how they can reduce their energy bill next December, when they take another family vacation.

Which idea will reduce their energy usage the most, while also reasonable to follow?

A) For the time they are home during December, cook meals outside on the charcoal grill instead of inside with the electric stove/oven.

B) When they return from their trip, leave the television off for a week, and hang clothes up outside to dry instead of using their electric dryer.

C) Before leaving for their trip, turn the central heating system off, along with lights and electrical household appliances that will not be in use.

D) While they are home in December, they can use candles instead of electric lights, and put their food in coolers so they can unplug their refrigerator.

Before leaving for their trip, turn the central heating system off, along with lights and electrical household appliances that will not be in use. This would take little effort, but make a big impact because very little energy would be used while they are gone.

B) burning wood
In 2015, about ten percent of total U.S. energy consumption was from renewable energy sources. Renewable energy plays an important role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. When renewable energy sources are used, the demand for fossil fuels is reduced.

Sanjay and his family want to cut back on their use of non-renewable resources at home. They are thinking of an alternate way to heat their home without adding more greenhouse gases or pollutants to the environment. Which renewable resource would NOT fit into their plan?

A) solar power

B) burning wood

C) constructing a wind turbine

D) generating hydroelectric power

Non-biomass renewable sources of energy (hydropower, geothermal, wind, and solar) do not directly emit greenhouse gases. Biomass resources do contribute to greenhouse gases and/or particulate matter.

C) malleable.
Reduce, reuse, recycle! Soft drinks come in aluminum cans that are readily recycled. Storage of empty cans is never a problem, since aluminum cans are easily crushed because they are very

A) conductive.

B) magnetic.

C) malleable.

D) soluble.

You can stores many aluminum cans because they are easy to crush since they are malleable. This is a property of metals: metals can be hammered into another shape.

D) Recycling reduces the need to mine more aluminum and helps conserve this mineral.
Why is recycling aluminum cans beneficial?

A) The quality of the aluminum can improves each time it is recycled.

B) Aluminum is rarely used and it makes no sense to produce new cans.

C) Aluminum is a very available mineral and commonly used for making cans.

D) Recycling reduces the need to mine more aluminum and helps conserve this mineral.

Minerals are non-renewable resources. Recycling reduces the need to mine more aluminum and helps conserve this mineral. So recycling aluminum cans is a good idea.

D) a solution
Dissolved Oxygen (DO) is critical to the ecology of an aquatic ecosystem. It can be affected by temperature, pollution, and numerous other factors. When the oxygen produced by photosynthetic plants in the water dissolves in the water, which of these is being formed?

A) atoms

B) a compound

C) an element

D) a solution

When oxygen is dissolved in water, it becomes a solution. The solute is the liquid water and the solvent is the oxygen gas. The amount of oxygen that dissolves is a known as Dissolved Oxygen, and it is critical that dissolved oxygn levels are controlled in order to maintain a stable aquatic ecosystem.

D) 10,000
In this food chain, we could hypothetically assume that for every kilogram of biomass in the osprey eagle, it would require __________ kilograms of shrimp to keep the food chain balanced.

A) 10

B) 100

C) 1,000

D) 10,000

Solar energy is utilized to convert inorganic carbon, in the form of carbon dioxide, into organic carbon compounds, such as glucose. This is part of the carbon cycle on Earth; a cycle which demonstrates the law of conservation of matter. What process is responsible for inititating this cycle?

10,000. The shrimp are the primary consumers. The osprey is a fifth order consumer. Therefore, for every kilogram of osprey, there must be 10 kg of pike, 100 kg of perch, 1000 kg of minnows, and 10,000 kg of shrimp.

B) Photosynthesis
Solar energy is utilized to convert inorganic carbon, in the form of carbon dioxide, into organic carbon compounds, such as glucose. This is part of the carbon cycle on Earth; a cycle which demonstrates the law of conservation of matter. What process is responsible for inititating this cycle?

A) Decomposition

B) Photosynthesis

C) Precipitation

D) Respiration

The Sun is the ultimate source of all energy in the universe. Plants being the main primary producers or autotrophs, use solar energy to make their own food through photosynthesis, thus converting energy into organic matter that can be consumed by all organisms. They form the basis of almost all food chains from where consumers derive their food.

D) cellular respiration.
Most organisms break down sugar to produce usable energy through the process of

A) diffusion.

B) chemosynthesis.

C) photosynthesis.

D) cellular respiration.

Most organisms use the process of cellular respiration and produce energy in the form of ATP. Photosynthesis produces usable chemical energy by the conversion of sunlight. Chemosynthesis produces energy through other chemical reactions.

D) producers.
MOST organisms in any ecosystem are

A) consumers.

B) herbivores.

C) heterotrophs.

D) producers.

Producers have the largest number of organisms because they receive their energy directly from sunlight. They also provide the food and energy for all consumers either indirectly or directly.

C) proteins
Which biological molecule contains a large amount of the element nitrogen?

A) carbohydrates

B) lipids

C) proteins

D) starches

Proteins have a lot of nitrogen.

B) 3/8
Three parts of nitrogen and five parts of phosphorus were mixed as a fertilizer for farmer Ted’s pasture. Which fraction represents the ratio of nitrogen in farmer Ted’s fertilizer?

A) 3/5

B) 3/8

C) 5/3

D) 8/3

3/8
Farmer Ted’s fertilizer has three parts of nitrogen for ever five parts of phosphorous. Therefore, there are three parts of nitrogen for every 8 parts of combined fertilizer.

C) nitrogen
Which nutrient cycle is most affected by the over-use of ammonia fertilizers on commercial farms, as well as by the accumulation of waste on cattle farms and feed lots?

A) water

B) carbon

C) nitrogen

D) phosphorus

Nitrogen cycle. Over-use of nitrogen fertilizers, such as those that contain ammonia, along with manure from farms, causes too much nitrogen to enter the soil and upsets the balance of the nitrogen cycle.

C) as carbon dioxide.
In the carbon cycle, carbon is transferred from animals to decomposers in all of the following ways EXCEPT

A) as waste.

B) in dead carcasses.

C) as carbon dioxide.

D) in scraps of discarded food.

As carbon dioxide.Bacteria use larger carbon containing biomolecules, such as fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. Carbon dioxide goes back into the atmosphere, or is used by plants.

A) remains constant.
In the food web the amount of matter

A) remains constant.

B) remains unstable.

C) is all converted to heat.

D) increases with each trophic level.

In any ecosystem, or ecological interaction, the amount of matter remains constant. The location of the matter may change, but its total amount remains constant. If you eat a quarter-pounder, you may gain a quarter pound.

B) atmosphere
Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for plants and animals. Phosphorus normally occurs in nature as part of a phosphate ion (PO4)3. As you can see from the diagram of the phosphorus cycle, unlike many other biogeochemical cycles, the _____________ does/do not play a significant role in the movement of phosphorus.

A) oceans

B) atmosphere

C) groundwater

D) food chains

Unlike many other biogeochemical cycles, the atmosphere does not play a significant role in the movement of phosphorus. Phosphorus and phosphorus-based compounds are usually solids at the typical ranges of temperature and pressure found on Earth.

D) oxygen, carbon dioxide
The process of respiration is essential in the oxygen/carbon dioxide cycle. Respiration removes ______ from the atmosphere and produces and releases ______ to the atmosphere.

A) glucose, oxygen

B) oxygen, glucose

C) carbon dioxide, oxygen

D) oxygen, carbon dioxide

The answer is oxygen, carbon dioxide. In the process of cellular respiration, organisms use oxygen in a chemical reaction to produce energy, carbon dioxide and water.

C) bacteria located in the soil trap excess nitrogen and help to remove it from plant roots.
All of the statements about the nitrogen cycle are true EXCEPT one. That is

A) lightning breaks nitrogen molecules so it can combine with oxygen.

B) putting man-made fertilizers on farm fields exceeds natural nitrogen levels in the soil.

C) bacteria located in the soil trap excess nitrogen and help to remove it from plant roots.

D) although nitrogen is the most abundant atmospheric gas, plants cannot use it from the air.

Bacteria located in the soil trap excess nitrogen and help to remove it from plant roots. The opposite situation is true. Bacteria help ADD nitrogen to the soil and to plant roots.

B) Lithosphere. Although the lithosphere is the greatest oxygen reservoir, it has the lowest amount of flux and the highest residence time.
Oxygen, the element, is recycled in a biogeochemical cycle within its three main reservoirs: the atmosphere, the total content of biological matter within the biosphere, and the Earth’s crust. The driving force of the oxygen cycle is photosynthesis, which is responsible for modern Earth’s atmosphere and life on Earth. Using the data collected, hypothesize as to which reservoir contributes least to the recycling of oxygen from year to year. Explain.

A) Biosphere. It shows the lowest oxygen capacity as well as the shortest residence time.

B) Lithosphere. Although the lithosphere is the greatest oxygen reservoir, it has the lowest amount of flux and the highest residence time.

C) Atmosphere. Although the main source of atmospheric free oxygen is photosynthesis, this oxygen is quickly depleted by the respiration of organisms on Earth.

D) Biosphere. Although the flux in the biosphere is comparable to the atmosphere, its residence time is so short that the amounts are insignificant to the recycling process.

Lithosphere. Although the lithosphere is the greatest oxygen reservoir, it has the lowest amount of flux and the highest residence time. By far the largest reservoir of Earth’s oxygen is within the silicate and oxide minerals of the crust and mantle (99.5%). Only a small portion has been released as free oxygen to the biosphere (0.01%) and atmosphere (0.36%). Oxygen is continuously recycled between the other two reservoirs.

B) they are having a positive impact on the environment by acting as decomposers.
Organisms are constantly interacting with their environment. Sometimes this interaction has a positive effect on the environment, other times a negative impact. Beetles in the forest infest and eat limbs of trees that have fallen to the forest floor.

The best way to describe the beetles impact is to say that

A) they are having a neutral impact on the environment by acting as decomposers.

B) they are having a positive impact on the environment by acting as decomposers.

C) they are having a negative impact on the environment by acting as decomposers.

D) they are having a predatory impact on the environment by acting as decomposers.

The best way to describe the beetles is to say that they are having a positive impact on the environment by acting as decomposers. Breaking down dead material is an important job.

D) upwelling currents bringing deep, cold ocean water to the surface to warm and release carbon back to the atmosphere.
The ocean’s biological carbon pump is driven by organisms that live in there. Just like the terrestrial carbon cycle, the oceanic biological carbon pump is all about photosynthesizing, respiring, eating, producing waste products, dying and decomposing. The biological pump plays a major role in all BUT ONE of the processes involved in oceanic carbon cycling.

A) moving carbon throughout the ocean via food webbing.

B) moving carbon down to sea floor sediments via the processes of death and decomposition.

C) transforming carbon compounds into new forms of carbon compounds like calcium carbonate in shells.

D) upwelling currents bringing deep, cold ocean water to the surface to warm and release carbon back to the atmosphere.

That is upwelling currents bringing deep, cold ocean water to the surface to warm and release carbon back to the atmosphere. This processes releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. It is to a process that helps to store carbon dioxide.

D) Decomposers that recycle matter back into the food chain.
This food chain is incomplete. Two groups of organisms are missing. One group of organisms that is missing are the producers, plants and other photosynthetic organisms. They turn sunlight into chemical energy. What is the other missing group and what do they do?

A) Carnivores that eat only meat.

B) Herbivores that eat only plants.

C) Predators that prey on all other levels of consumers.

D) Decomposers that recycle matter back into the food chain.

All dead organisms are food for decomposers. Decomposers that recycle matter back into the food chain.

D) inversely proportional.
The relationship between the number of organisms in the food chain and the size of the individual organisms within each level of the food chain is

A) unpredictable.

B) not proportional.

C) directly proportional.

D) inversely proportional.

The answer is inversely proportional. As the size of the organism increases in the food chain, the number of organisms supported by the food supply decreases. This forms a biomass pyramid.

B) atmospheric nitrogen?bacteria?plants?animals
Which is the correct sequence of events in the nitrogen cycle?

A) soil nitrogen?animals?plants?fungi

B) atmospheric nitrogen?bacteria?plants?animals

C) soil nitrogen?atmospheric nitrogen?plants?animals

D) atmospheric nitrogen?plants?animals?Soil nitrogen

atmospheric nitrogen?bacteria?plants?animals Nitrogen must be fixed by bacteria, before it can be made available to plants, then to animals.

B) It decreases by a factor of about 90%.
The figure shows an energy pyramid for an ecosystem. What happens to the amount of energy in the pyramid as it moves up through the different levels?

A) It increases by a factor of about 10%.

B) It decreases by a factor of about 90%.

C) It increases by a factor of about 90%.

D) It decreases by a factor of about 10%.

It decreases by a factor of about 90%.Only about 10% of the energy makes it from one level of an energy pyramid to the next. 90% of the energy is used for metabolism, etc.

A) Planting a field of wheat
This is a typical grassland food web. It is also a small picture of an important cycle on Earth: the carbon cycle. Man can impact the carbon cycle in a negative way. All but one example below would negatively impact the carbon cycle. Identify it.

A) Planting a field of wheat

B) A factory with smoke stacks

C) The local landfill burning trash

D) Paved streets with many cars on the roads

Planting a field of wheat would not negatively impact the carbon cycle. More plants mean more food for consumers.

C) precipitation.
During the water cycle, the sun’s energy evaporates water from the surface of Earth. This water is the source of

A) respiration.

B) transpiration.

C) precipitation.

D) ozone epletion.

Precipitation results from water that evaporates from Earth.

D) Decomposers break down the remains of producers and consumers.
How do sulfur and phosphorus move from the biotic to the abiotic pools during their cycles?

A) Primary consumers eat producers.

B) Secondary consumers eat primary consumers.

C) Tertiary consumers eat primary and secondary
consumers.

D) Decomposers break down the remains of producers and consumers.

Abiotic factors in a biogeochemical cycle include the atmosphere and soil. Producers, consumers, and decomposers are the biotic components of the ecosystem. Sulfur and phosphorus move from the biotic to the abiotic pools when decomposers break down the remains of producers and consumers.

A) Some energy is wasted as heat.
A plant absorbs 200 J/g of energy from the sun. A cow eats the plant and absorbs 120 J/g of energy. The cow is fed to a group of humans who absorb 70 J/g from the meat. What is the main reason the energy consumption decreases from one consumption to the next?

A) Some energy is wasted as heat.

B) The humans use some energy chewing.

C) The plant uses the energy to make sugar.

D) The cow uses some energy to make proteins.

The correct answer is Some energy is wasted as heat. In any energy transformation some energy is wasted as heat.

C) biosphere; hydrosphere
In any marine biome, the major interaction of Earth’s spheres is the _________ with the _____________.

A) biosphere; atmosphere

B) cryosphere; biosphere

C) biosphere; hydrosphere

D) hydrosphere; geosphere

The correct answer is biosphere; hydrosphere. The ocean biome shows the interaction of life biosphere with the ocean water hydrosphere.

D) There would be less energy transferred to the higher trophic levels.
An aquatic ecosystem was rich in benthic microalgae and sea grasses. Over the years, industrial pollutants have reduced these populations considerably. How would this affect the ecosystem?

A) There would be no energy produced in the system.

B) There would be more energy available in the
ecosystem.

C) It will increase the number of organisms at higher trophic levels.

D) There would be less energy transferred to the higher trophic levels.

Algae and sea grasses are producers. If their numbers are reduced, the primary productivity of the ecosystem will decrease. There would be less energy transferred to the higher trophic levels.

D) There would be a decrease in the population of marine organisms.
Green sea turtles eat sea grass that grows on the sea floor. Sea grass, a foundation species, provides an important breeding ground for fish and other marine organisms. A conservation program for the green sea turtles plans to introduce more turtles into an ecosystem. What could be the immediate effect of this on the ecosystem?

A) More species of fish would migrate to the region.

B) The new turtles would drive out the existing population.

C) The region would witness a spurt in the growth of sea grass.

D) There would be a decrease in the population of marine organisms.

Populations are effected not only because of predation but also due to habitat loss caused by the introduction of a new species into the ecosystem. If more sea turtles are added into the region they would deplete the sea grass, causing a decrease in the population of marine organisms due to the loss of breeding grounds and food source.

C) Algae live only in the epipelagic zone because it is the only zone with enough light for photosynthesis.
Although we think of land when we hear the word biome, there are also aquatic biomes. The abiotic factors that influence life forms vary with location within ocean systems. Oceanographers divide the ocean into five broad vertical zones as seen in the chart above. Compare the characteristics of the five zones. Where would you expect to find the kelp forest, a type of algae, pictured here and why?

A) Algae live in the top two zones in the ocean because light penetrates both zones.

B) Algae can live in the three top zones. The abyss is too dark for the algae to survive.

C) Algae live only in the epipelagic zone because it is the only zone with enough light for photosynthesis.

D) Algae live throughout the five oceans zones because they are the producers that are the base of all food webs.

Algae live only in the epipelagic zone because it is the only zone with enough light for photosynthesis. Algae are photosynthetic. If you read the chart, there is not enough light in the mesopelagic zone for photosynthesis.

A) competition.
Bluebirds and blue jays, two bird species live in a small wooded area. The blue jays are very aggressive and eventually take over the nests of the bluebirds. This is an example of interspecific

A) competition.

B) control.

C) exclusion.

D) predation.

This is an example of interspecific competition. Both bird species need space, shelter, and a place to raise young. They are competing for the nesting sites. Eventually, the blue jays win and drive the bluebirds from the woods.

C) late spring.
The graph shows the changes in population of black bears in rural Michigan during a single year. Competition for food among the black bear population was most likely the greatest during the

A) winter.

B) late summer.

C) late spring.

D) month of June.

The bear population was highest during the late spring, April, May, and June. We would expect competition for food to be greatest then. In fact, the population begins to decline and reaches it’s lowest level, 100 bears, two months later.

C) Predators typically kill their victim, while parasites mostly want to keep the victim alive for continued resources.
What is the BEST description of the difference between predation and parasitism?

A) Predation and parasitism are largely the same.

READ:  Review

B) Predators are always larger than their victims, while parasites are always smaller than their victims.

C) Predators typically kill their victim, while parasites mostly want to keep the victim alive for continued resources.

D) Parasites feed slowly, and kill their victim slowly, but intentionally, while predators quickly kill their prey and eat their fill.

Predators typically kill their victim, while parasites mostly want to keep the victim alive for continued resources. Parasites usually prefer a permanent situation, and the death of the victim is often an accident.

C) temperature and rainfall
Which of these physical factors most shapes the characteristics of a ecosystem?

A) soil type

B) longitude

C) temperature and rainfall

D) air circulation patterns

Temperature and rainfall are factors which give a ecosystem its unique characteristics. Any change in these factors will change the characteristics of the area.

C) water temperature.
In an aquatic ecosystem, the algae and phytoplankton are responsible for primary productivity. All BUT ONE factor usually influences the primary productivity of a marine ecosystem. That is

A) water salinity.

B) light intensity.

C) water temperature.

D) available nutrients.

Water temperature does not vary enough in marine environments to greatly influence primary productivity. In marine environments, where algae and phytoplankton are responsible for primary productivity, water depth, light intensity, available nutrients, and salt in solution can all influence the rate of photosynthesis, and therefore influence primary productivity. Water temperature varies less in the ocean than on land because the heat capacity of water buffers temperature changes.

D) The wolf carrying-capacity rises as moose populations increase, but with a delayed effect.
The graph shown above is from one of the most well-known and on-going ecological studies ever performed. Isle Royal National Park, an island on Lake Superior, keeps data of populations of wolves and moose living there. The moose are a major food source for the wolves.

Based on the graph, how does the moose population affect the population of wolves?

A) As moose populations increase, wolf populations immediately increase.

B) As wolf population falls, moose populations fall with a delayed effect.

C) Moose populations don’t really show any relationship to wolf carrying capacity.

D) The wolf carrying-capacity rises as moose populations increase, but with a delayed effect.

The wolf carrying-capacity rises as moose populations increase, but with a delayed effect. More resources mean that the environment can support more organisms (carrying capacity). In the graph, one can see that wolf populations rise and fall several years after the moose populations rise and fall.

D) If the insect benefits and the tree neither benefits nor is harmed, the relationship is commensalism.
A species of insect is newly introduced into the United States from the Philippines. This insect becomes established, laying its eggs on the leaves of oak trees. How can a biologist determine if the relationship between the insect and the oak tree is commensalism, mutualism, or parasitism?

A) If the insect benefits, the relationship is parasitism.

B) If both the insect and the tree benefit, the relationship is commensalism.

C) If the insect benefits and the tree neither benefits nor is harmed, the relationship is mutualism.

D) If the insect benefits and the tree neither benefits nor is harmed, the relationship is commensalism.

If the insect benefits and the tree neither benefits nor is harmed, the relationship is commensalism. If both species benefit, the relationship is mutualism. If one species benefits while the other is harmed, the relationship is parasitism.

A) The impala population will decrease.
An isolated African canyon community in which cheetahs and leopards consume only impala antelopes is being observed. If the number of leopards increases, which change is MOST LIKELY to be the first to occur after the leopard population increase?

A) The impala population will decrease.

B) The cheetah population will increase.

C) The cheetah population will decrease.

D) The impala population will remain the same.

The impala population will decrease. The first result would probably be increased hunting pressure on the impala, due to more mouths to feed. From there, competition would lead to starvation or migration of some of the cheetahs.

C) In any zone in the ocean, provided it was not too cold and there is enough oxygen in the water.
Although we think of land when we hear the word biome, there are also aquatic biomes. The abiotic factors that influence life forms vary with location within ocean systems. Oceanographers divide the ocean into five broad vertical zones as seen in the chart above. Compare the characteristics of the five zones. The giant tube worms, Riftia pachyptila, pictured here, have a red “plume” at the tip of their free end which is an organ for exchanging compounds with the environment. The tube worm does not have many predators. If threatened, the plume may be retracted into the worm’s protective tube. The plume provides essential nutrients to bacteria living inside the worm. Tube worms have no digestive tract, but the bacteria, which may make up half of a worm’s body weight, convert the oxygen, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, taken in by the plume, into organic molecules on which their host worms feed. Compare this information with the information in the chart. Where could these worms live?

A) The tube worms can only live where there is no light: zones 3, 4, and 5.

B) Only in the top-most two zones so the bacteria can use the light for photosynthesis.

C) In any zone in the ocean, provided it was not too cold and there is enough oxygen in the water.

D) They tube worms are suited to live in the halad zone only, where there is no light and it is extremely cold.

In any zone in the ocean, provided it was not too cold and there is enough oxygen in the water. Photosynthesis is not an issue because the bacteria use chemicals to make food that the tube worms then use for energy.

A) fungi.
Lichens represent a symbiotic relationships between algae and

A) fungi.

B) diatoms.

C) protists.

D) microscopic animals.

Fungi and algae often form mutualistic relationships called lichens.

C) photosynthesis.
CO2 is returned to the atmosphere by all methods EXCEPT

A) combustion.

B) decomposition.

C) photosynthesis.

D) respiration.

Photosynthesis.Carbon dioxide is removed from the atmosphere via photosynthesis, not added.

A) ATP
Energy from food must be transformed into the bonds of _________ before it can be used by cells.

A) ATP

B) GNC

C) NADP

D) cellulose

ATP is the universal energy source for all cellular chemical reactions. The energy from carbon bonds in food is converted to energy rich bonds in ATP.

C) sunlight
What is the source of nearly all of the energy for producers and consumers?

A) oxygen

B) plants

C) sunlight

D) water

Sunlight is the source of all energy for producers and consumers because the sun provides energy to plant life, which then sustains consumers.

C) break down dead organisms and recycle nutrients.
The fungi in the picture are an important part of any ecosystem because they

A) add oxygen to the atmosphere.

B) use sunlight to make food for other organisms.

C) break down dead organisms and recycle nutrients.

D) are important producers for consumers in the food web.

The fungi in the picture are an important part of any ecosystem because they break down dead organisms and recycle nutrients. Fungi are decomposers in any food web.

D) mesquite shrubs V
Which population of organisms would begin the flow of energy through a desert food web?

A) coyotes

B) cactus finch

C) beaded lizards

D) mesquite shrubs

Mesquite shrubs. They are producers in a desert ecosystem.

B) grasses and weeds
The graphic shows the island of Krakatoa, which disintegrated in 1889, due to the largest volcanic eruption in recorded history. In the century since the eruption, the island has re-formed from lava flows. The table above shows the number of species of various plant types that were found on the island over a 30 year period, since the island re-surfaced above the ocean in the 1950’s.

Which groups of plants were probably most active in secondary succession and re-establishing the native habitat?

A) moss and grasses

B) grasses and weeds

C) small and large trees

D) shrubs and small trees

Grasses and weeds. Secondary succession occurs AFTER a pioneer species (primary succession) has conditioned the soil. They are not the first type of plant growth there.

D) bare rock, lichens, small annual plants, perennial herbs and grasses, shade intolerant trees
A newly formed volcanic island has appeared in the Pacific Ocean. Analyze each of the sequences in the primary succession of species colonizing a newly formed island and select the answer choice that reflects the correct sequence.

A) bare rock, small annual plants, lichens, shade-intolerant trees, shade tolerant trees

B) bare rock, lichens, small annual plants, perennial herbs and grasses, shade tolerant trees

C) bare rock, lichens, perennial herbs and grasses, small annual plants, shade intolerant trees

D) bare rock, lichens, small annual plants, perennial herbs and grasses, shade intolerant trees

bare rock, lichens, small annual plants, perennial herbs and grasses, shade intolerant trees

Primary succession begins with soil formers, usually lichens and/or moss. Succession ends with the tallest trees, which due to their height, we can classify as shade intolerant.

B) small, wind born seeds; survive in poor soils
Consider this northern site of primary succession following the retreat of a glacier. What characteristics would you expect to see among the plant comprising the pioneer species?

A) variable temperature and light requirements

B) small, wind born seeds; survive in poor soils

C) highly competitive; can survive in low light

D) little root competition; low moisture requirements

small, wind born seeds; survive in poor soils
There is just the beginnings of soil thanks to the action of moss and lichens. Seeds blow in on the wind and then can survive in the poor soil. Eventually, the soil improves as the organic matter builds.

B) mosses
The graphic shows the island of Krakatoa, which disintegrated in 1889, due to the largest volcanic eruption in recorded history. In the century since the eruption, the island has re-formed from lava flows. The table above shows the number of species of various plant types that were found on the island over a 30 year period, since the island re-surfaced above the ocean in the 1950’s.

Which of these plants is likely to be a pioneer species?

A) weeds

B) mosses

C) shrubs

D) small trees

Mosses. Mosses were the first group of plants (along with one type of grass) to colonize the island in 1959. Pioneer species are the first species in an area.

A) being shaded out by taller species
Consider this northern site of primary succession following the retreat of a glacier. Plant species at location B. would eventually change to the species seen at location C. because of what factor?

A) being shaded out by taller species

B) competition for water resources

C) competition for root space

D) pathogens and disease

being shaded out by taller species
Low growing shrubs and small trees eventually give way to larger tree species. Notice there is little understory because of light restrictions.

D) grass plants die after a long period of no rainfall
Ecological succession leads to the sustainability of life in an ecosystem. Succession is the observed process of change in the species structure of an ecosystem. The community begins with relatively few pioneering plants and animals and develops through stages of increasing complexity until it becomes stable. Succession may be initiated either by formation of new, unoccupied habitat such as the formation of an island or by some form of disturbance such as fire in an existing ecosystem. Succession that begins in new habitats, uninfluenced by pre-existing communities is called primary succession, whereas succession that follows disruption of a pre-existing community is called secondary succession.

What natural event would most likely cause succession in a grassy field?

A) grass leaves injured by a frost

B) grass is blown flat by a strong wind

C) soil remains wet for several days after a heavy rain

D) grass plants die after a long period of no rainfall

Grass plants die after a long period of no rainfall is correct. The loss of many grass plants would allow new plants to take their place, thus a succession of new plants and sustainability of life in the ecosystem.

D) ecological succession.
Krakatoa was an Indonesian island that was completely obliterated in 1886, when a massive volcano exploded on the island. Underwater lava flows slowly rebuilt a new island, called Surtsey, by 1970. On Surtsey, the first organisms to arrive were small weeds. The weeds then gave way to coconut trees. Land crabs, seagulls, and rats began to colonize the island. By the 1980’s, coconut trees gave way to tropical Eucalyptus trees inland. Wild pigs and large lizards colonized the island. In the future, a mature rainforest will re-grow.

The paragraph is a description of

A) speciation.

B) niche formation.

C) primary productivity.

D) ecological succession.

The paragraph is a description of ecological succession. Ecosystems naturally cycle through changes, from a beginning to a mature phase.

D) secondary succession
Ecological succession leads to the sustainability of life in an ecosystem. Succession is the observed process of change in the species structure of an ecosystem. The community begins with relatively few pioneering plants and animals and develops through stages of increasing complexity until it becomes stable. Succession may be initiated either by formation of new, unoccupied habitat such as the formation of an island or by some form of disturbance such as fire in an existing ecosystem. Succession that begins in new habitats, uninfluenced by pre-existing communities is called primary succession, whereas succession that follows disruption of a pre-existing community is called secondary succession.

What process is occurring in the illustration?

A) classic ecosystem

B) climax community

C) primary succession

D) secondary succession

Secondary succession is correct. Succession that follows disruption of a pre-existing community is called secondary succession

C) primary succession.
When a large volcano like Mt. St. Helen erupts, all life in the surrounding area is destroyed. The lava flows and forms new rock in the surrounding area. After several years, organisms, such as lichens and moss begin to recolonize the area.

This recolonization of an area that has been totally destroyed (as in the above example), is an example of

A) climax succession.

B) pioneer succession.

C) primary succession.

D) secondary succession.

Primary succession occurs in new habitats that are without life and soil. Examples can include cooled lava fields.

C) succession
Ecological succession leads to the sustainability of life in an ecosystem. Succession is the observed process of change in the species structure of an ecosystem. The community begins with relatively few pioneering plants and animals and develops through stages of increasing complexity until it becomes stable. Succession may be initiated either by formation of new, unoccupied habitat such as the formation of an island or by some form of disturbance such as fire in an existing ecosystem. Succession that begins in new habitats, uninfluenced by pre-existing communities is called primary succession, whereas succession that follows disruption of a pre-existing community is called secondary succession.

What is a series of predictable changes that occur in an ecosystem that lead to the sustainability of life?

A) biotic

B) abiotic

C) succession

D) climax community

Succession is correct. Succession is the observed process of change in the species structure of an ecosystem.

D) Sometimes people who lived along the banks of the river are displaced.
Changing a river into a lake is basically what a large dam does. One reason we do this to create reservoirs of fresh water. However, dams change the local ecosystem in a big way.

What is one negative impact of building a dam?

A) Dams are needed to create hydroelectricity.

B) Dams can create smog that pollutes the lake.

C) Dams can help reduce the intense heat of summer.

D) Sometimes people who lived along the banks of the river are displaced.

Sometimes people who lived along the banks of the river are displaced. There is a change in water level and their land may be underwater!

A) 4.75
Suppose the percentage of high income women over 75 increased to 4.5 percent in 2010. If this trend continues, what would be the percentage in 2015?

A) 4.75

B) 5.0

C) 5.5

D) 9.0

4.75 Given the initial amount in 2000 is 4%, the rate of change is (4.5-4)/(2010-2000)=0.05. Therefore, in 2015 the percentage will be 4.0+(0.05)(15)=4.75

C) increased acid rain.
Modern-day intensive crop production means the application of greater and greater amounts of nitrogen fertilizers. This is turn means more nitrogen in the atmosphere, which then leads to

A) plant death.

B) global warming.

C) increased acid rain.

D) the greenhouse effect.

An increase in atmospheric nitrogen can lead to increased acid rain. The nitrogen in the air combines with water vapor to produce nitric acid. The greenhouse effect and global warming are more influenced by carbon in the atmosphere.

C) accumulate in animals and build up in toxic concentrations as they pass through the food chain.
Pesticides, such as DDT, often have harmful effects on aquatic ecosystems. One harmful effect would be that these pesticides

A) cause fish to become sterile and unable to lay eggs.

B) cause algae and plants to overgrow and pollute the water when they die.

C) accumulate in animals and build up in toxic concentrations as they pass through the food chain.

D) eliminate most of the algae and plants in the food chain, causing animals to starve, at higher levels of the food chain.

These pesticides accumulate in animals and build up in toxic concentrations as they pass through the food chain. This is called biomagnification, and animals higher in the food chain are more affected by the pesticides.

D) rechargeable
Reduce, reuse, recycle! These buzz words fuel the green movement that keeps tabs on Earth’s environmental health. We can help by using ______________ batteries, an alternative that keeps toxic heavy metals out of landfills and Earth’s water system as well as being a good idea economically.

A) alkaline

B) disposable

C) primary

D) rechargeable

We can help by using batteries, an alternative that keeps toxic heavy metals out of landfills and Earth’s water system as well as being a good idea economically. Disposable batteries are also called primary batteries or cells and one type of disposable battery is an alkaline battery.

A) Desert
In the ___________ biome, plants typically have deep roots, reduced leaves, and photosynthetic stems.

A) Desert

B) Aquatic

C) Epiphytic

D) Salt-tolerant

Desert plants have adapted to drought and intense sunlight by developing long roots, small leaves, and stems capable of photosynthesis.

D) Hummingbirds are attracted to bright colors.
Hummingbirds are pollinators.

Why might the flower in the image have adapted a bright pink color?

A) The soil is basic.

B) The soil is acidic.

C) Hummingbirds are attracted to dull colors.

D) Hummingbirds are attracted to bright colors.

The correct choice is D, hummingbirds are attracted to bright colors. If the flower is bright it will attract hummingbirds that will pollinate the flower.

D) temperature and rainfall
Which of these physical factors would have the GREATEST effect on the types of plants that could thrive in an ecosystem?

A) air patterns

B) animal populations

C) soil characteristics

D) temperature and rainfall

Temperature and rainfall are the physical factors that would have the GREATEST effect on the types of plants that could thrive in an ecosystem. They are the factors that help make each biome unique. Animal populations are not physical factors.

D) tundra
I. small and close to the ground
II. dark color, sometimes red
III. grow in clusters
IV. hairy leaves and stems
V. heliotropic

Plant adaptations are suited to the habitat in which plants live. The list of adaptations above would help plants in the __________ survive.

A) desert

B) taiga

C) tropics

D) tundra

The list includes adaptations for plant survival in the tundra. The tundra is cold year-round. The tundra has a permanently frozen sublayer of soil called permafrost. Plant adaptations maximize the available sunlight and help keep the plants warm.

A) gravitropism.
Specialized cells in plant roots ensure that they grow down into the soil to find water and nutrients. This plant response by specialized cells is called

A) gravitropism.

B) phototropism.

C) roottropism.

D) thigmotropism.

This plant response by specialized cells is called gravitropism.
Gravitropism is the response of specialized plant cells that directs the roots to grow down (negative-tropism) and the shoots to grow up (positive-tropism).

B) The photobionts are protected and able to grow in conditions in which they could not grow alone and in return release glucose in some form to the mycobiont.
Lichens are among the slowest-growing organisms, but their tolerance of environmental extremes enables them to colonize habitats where few other macroscopic organisms can grow. They grow where neither the fungal partner (mycobiont) or the photosynthetic partner (photobiont) could survive alone, because they benefit from their unique symbiotic association.

What mutualistic behaviors aid in the survival of both organisms?

A) The photobiont processes and provides nitrogen and carbon products to the mycobiont.

B) The photobionts are protected and able to grow in conditions in which they could not grow alone and in return release glucose in some form to the mycobiont.

C) The photobionts absorb mineral nutrients from the underlying surface or from minute traces of atmospheric contaminants while the mycobionts synthesize organic nutrients from carbon dioxide.

D) The photobionts produce ammonium and organic sodium compounds from N2 gas by sodium fixation; that in turn, aids the mycobionts in producing enzymes to decompose the substrate on which they live.

The photobionts are protected and able to grow in conditions in which they could not grow alone and in return release glucose in some form to the mycobiont..
The mycobionts help retain moisture for the algae. The algae undergo photosynthesis to produce-carbon based compounds, such as glucose, which is shared with the fungus.

C) the instructional print on the seed packets
Mr. Allison’s class was interested in conducting experiments to investigate plant responses to various external stimuli. They first planted pea seeds in sand. In the beginning days of the experiment, they watered the seeds. Once the seeds began to grow, they reduced the amount of water they gave the plants. Instead of watering, they placed a porous container of water close to the growing plant to see if the plant’s roots would grow towards the cup of water.

Only one reference listed below did not help the students with their experimental design. Which resources was of little or no help?

A) botany textbooks

B) current research on plant tropisms

C) the instructional print on the seed packets

D) irrigation system design in greenhouse plant production

the instructional print on the seed packets
The seed packet would tell you when to plant and how deep but it would tell you nothing about tropisms or watering/irrigation ideas.

D) a beneficial mutation that increased survival of certain plants that reproduced and passed the mutated gene to offspring.
In the early days of life on Earth, plants were exposed to extremely high doses of ultraviolet radiation. Constant UV exposure resulted in some land plants developing narrow leaves with thick, waxy cuticles. Over many, many generations, these narrow leaves evolved into needles.

Plant needles are PROBABLY initially the result of

A) adaptations for survival that some plants developed due to high temperatures on Earth.

B) somatic mutations that made some leaves thick and waxy, while other leaves did not change.

C) neutral mutations to leaf tissue that would neither help nor harm the plants living in such a harsh environment.

D) a beneficial mutation that increased survival of certain plants that reproduced and passed the mutated gene to offspring.

The best explanation would be that it was a a beneficial mutation that increased survival of certain plants that reproduced and passed the mutated gene to offspring. Darwin stated that genetic variation is the driving force behind evolution. Variation is enhanced by mutations, no matter how they occur. Mutations caused the leaf variation; the variation allowed some plants to survive and then reproduce, passing the allele for thinner leaves with a thick cuticle to the next generation.

C) food storage; deciduous.
Enlarged roots and stems in plants are adaptations for _________________ and are often found in _______________ plants that must endure winter.

A) support; evergreen.

B) food storage; evergreen.

C) food storage; deciduous.

D) water storage; deciduous.

food storage; deciduous. Plants typically store starches in enlarged stems and roots for use during periods of limited resources, such as winter. This is especially true for trees that drop their leaves (deciduous).

D) to grow high off the ground in order to maximize sunlight exposure
Some plants exhibit a behavior called thigmotropism that causes the plant to grow or move in response to touch or contact. Climbing vines use this behavior to grow tendrils that curl around other plants for support. What is the MOST likely reason a climbing vine would evolve this ability?

A) to help ensure seeds are widely dispersed

B) to absorb water and food from the host plants

C) to grow roots needed to absorb water and nutrients

D) to grow high off the ground in order to maximize sunlight exposure

to grow high off the ground to maximize sunlight exposure

Thigmotropism allows the plant to climb higher, where the plant can receive better exposure to sunlight which will make photosynthesis more efficient.

D) thigmotropism.
This plant needs to grow high up in the canopy of the rainforest. It needs support as it moves up the stems and branches of larger trees. The tendrils here know when to cling to their support. This response by the climbing plant is called

A) gravitropism.

B) hydrotropism.

C) phototropism.

D) thigmotropism.

These tendrils exhibit a response called thigmotropism. The plant senses the presence of the stems and branches and wraps the tendrils around them for support to climb upwards.

D) tropism
This is a survival technique where an organism, usually a plant, is capable of directed physical movement or growth in response to a specific stimulus; such as light, gravity, water, or contact.

What is the survival technique described above that is used by plants?

A) locomotion

B) migration

C) pseudopodia

D) tropism

Tropism is correct. For example; movement towards water is hydrotropism and movement towards light is phototropism.

C) The plants use other colors of light in photosynthesis that green plants cannot use.
Which is a plausible explanation of why some plants, such as the Japanese red maple, are not green in color?

A) The plants are camouflaged to avoid predators.

B) The plants use some other system to make their food, besides photosynthesis.

C) The plants use other colors of light in photosynthesis that green plants cannot use.

D) All plants like this are genetically engineered by people to artificially make them red in color.

The plants use other colors of light in photosynthesis that green plants cannot use. This reduces competition for sunlight.

B) camouflage
This lizard looks just like another tree branch. This helps the lizard hide from predators and sneak up on the insects they hunt for food. What do we call the adaptation seen here?

A) mimicry

B) camouflage

C) imprinting

D) fight or flight

The lizard blends in with its background. This adaptation is called camouflage.

C) small needle-like evergreen leaves
Which plant adaptation would likely be found in the taiga?

A) aerial roots to avoid flooding

B) extremely large and broad leaves

C) small needle-like evergreen leaves

D) large fleshy stems that store water

Small needle-like evergreen leaves. Evergreen forests of pine, spruce, fir, and juniper are found in the taiga. The other adaptations are for B= rainforest, A= swamp, D= desert.

C) tropical rainforest
In which habitat is one likely to find plants that have developed extremely large, broadleaf, evergreen leaves for gathering light, epiphytes, and climbing vines that strangle other plants?

A) taiga

B) kelp forest

C) tropical rainforest

D) temperate deciduous forest

A tropical rainforest. This is the only habitat with those combination of things.

B) Prairie grasses have narrow leaves.
The temperate grasslands, also called prairie, feature hot summers and cold winters. Rainfall is uncertain and drought is common. The temperate grasslands usually receive about 10 to 30 inches of precipitation per year. The soil is rich in organic matter because the above-ground portions of grasses die off annually, enriching the soil. The area is well-suited to agriculture, and few original prairies survive today.

All but one adaptation would help grasses survive grazing and other disruptions. Identify that adaptation.

A) Grasses grow from near their base.

B) Prairie grasses have narrow leaves.

C) Prairie grasses have extensive root systems.

D) Grass roots survive even when above ground parts a destroyed by fire.

Prairie grasses have narrow leaves. This is an adaptation to help reduce water loss in windy conditions.

A) mimicry.
Monarch butterflies lay their eggs on milkweed plants and then the caterpillars eat the milkweed. The milkweed plant contains a toxin that is not poisonous to the caterpillars. When the caterpillars change into butterflies, the toxin in their systems make them poisonous to predators like birds so natural predators avoid eating the Monarch butterflies.

Viceroy butterflies look much like the Monarch. Because of this, they are saved from predators also. This protective mechanism is BEST called

A) mimicry.

B) camouflage.

C) evolution.

D) natural selection.

This adaptation is BEST called mimicry. Mimicry helps natural selection, since the Monarch butterflies and those that look like them, are the butterflies that survive, reproduce, and pass along their traits.

D) are small in size, and have highly effective means of dispersing their seeds.
Pioneer plant species could be described as those that

A) sprout from seeds after a forest fire.

B) form large forest trees that shade understory plants.

C) are slow to mature, and require a soil with well-balanced nutrients.

D) are small in size, and have highly effective means of dispersing their seeds.

Pioneer plant species are small in size, and have highly effective means of dispersing their seeds. Most pioneer species are wind-pollinated plants such as grasses, or are reproduce with rain, such as mosses.

A) tundra

B) desert

C) glacier

D) deciduous forest

A) tundra
Many plants are dwarfed, but their few blossoms may be full-sized. Cushion plants, looking like ground-hugging clumps of moss, escape the strong winds blowing a few inches above them. Cushion plants may also have long taproots extending deep into the rocky soil. Many flowering plants of the __________ have dense hairs on stems and leaves to provide wind protection or red-colored pigments capable of converting the sun’s light rays into heat. Some plants take two or more years to form flower buds, which survive the winter below the surface and then open and produce fruit with seeds in the few weeks of summer.

The plant adaptations described in the paragraph above would be found in what biome on Earth?

A) tundra

B) desert

C) glacier

D) deciduous forest

The plant adaptations would be found in the tundra, the land beyond the trees. No trees grow in the tundra. It is windy, cold, has very low available water, and long periods with low light intensity.

C) natural selection.
The organism displays a yellow and black banding pattern that is referred to as cryptic coloration. The banding pattern serves as a warning to predators to keep away.

Scientists think that the development of warning coloration in insects is the result of

A) parasitism.

B) succession.

C) natural selection.

D) selective breeding.

The development of specialized warning color patterns results from the pressure of natural selection. The insects that are less affected by predators will survive and leave the most offspring.

B) II. and V.
I. small and close to the ground
II. dark color, sometimes red
III. grow in clusters
IV. hairy leaves and stems
V. heliotropic

Plant adaptations are suited to the habitat in which plants live. Which adaptation(s) found in tundra plants would BEST help them maximize the available sunlight?

A) V.

B) II. and V.

C) I. and II.

D) II. and III.

II. and V. Some plants have dish-like flowers that follow the sun, focusing more solar heat on the center of the flower, helping the plant stay warm (heliotropic). Others are dark in color, even red, to absorb solar radiation.

C) They adapted to the type of food available.
Why are the beak sizes and shapes of Darwin’s finches different?

A) They had different ancestors.

B) They adapted to the type of predators.

C) They adapted to the type of food available.

D) They crossbred with different bird species.

The beaks of Darwin’s finches are different because of the type of food available. Large beaks are better for islands with larger seeds, while pointed beaks are better for getting insects out of trees.

A tapeworm is an organism that lives inside the intestines of larger animals, including man, and absorbs nutrients from its host. This type of symbiotic relationship is called

A) commensalism.

B) mutualism.

C) parasitism.

D) predation.

This kind of symbiotic relationship is called parasitism.. A parasite lives in or on another organism called a host. The parasite benefits from the host by draining nutrients and the host is harmed by the interaction with the parasite.

B) recyclable
Aluminum cans may be collected and processed into new aluminum products over and over again. This illustrates that aluminum is a ___________ resource.

A) non-renewable

B) recyclable

C) renewable

D) worthless

Using and reusing a material over and over again, like aluminium, illustrates that aluminum is a recyclable resource.

B) brown
As lions hunt for food, they must not only be strong and quick, but they must also have the correct fur coloring in order to not be noticed by potential prey. Which mane color would be BEST suited for hunting in the grasslands during a period of drought, when most of the grasses were beginning to die?

A) black

B) brown

C) green

D) white

During aperiod of drought, a lion with a brown mane would most likely succeed in huting. As the grasses die due to lack of water, they turn from green to brown. The brown mane would be able to camouflage in the grasses as the lion stalked its prey.

C) The particular shape of the shell was best suited for the island on which the tortoise was living.
In 1831, Charles Darwin visited the Galapagos Islands. While observing the giant land tortoises that lived on these islands, Darwin noted that the shape of the tortoise shell varied depending on which island the tortoise lived. Tortoises on one island had round shells, for example, whereas tortoises on a neighboring island had more flattened, saddle-shaped shells. Which statement BEST summarizes Darwin’s explanation for these differences?

A) Random mutations caused the shape of the shells to fluctuate periodically.

B) The shape of the tortoise shell varied because the predators on the islands were all similar.

C) The particular shape of the shell was best suited for the island on which the tortoise was living.

D) Tortoises who used their shells in special ways caused the shells to become larger, rounder, or flatter.

The particular shape of the shell was best suited for the island on which the tortoise was living. Darwin reasoned that the particular shape of the shell was related to the ability of the tortoise to survive and reproduce.

C) Allow natural vegetation to grow.
What could people do to DECREASE erosion of the Earth’s surface?

A) Cut down more trees.

B) Use more land to plant crops.

C) Allow natural vegetation to grow.

D) Allow cattle to graze more often.

To decrease the erosion of the Earth’s surface, people should allow natural vegetation to grow. Land used to grow crops experiences much more erosion than land with natural vegetation. Human interference with land frequently causes erosion.

B) climate change due to the greehouse effect
What environmental disaster can be attributed to over-population and over-use of resources by humans?

A) the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska

B) climate change due to the greehouse effect

C) the explosion of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Russia

D) severe contamination of the Danube River in Germany, by industrial chemicals

Climate change due to the greenhouse effect. Increased populations have caused increased consumption of fossil fuels, releasing more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, and warming the climate over the entire world.

A) concentration of industrial factories
The map shows levels of air quality in parts of the United States and Canada. What is a contributing factor to the areas with unhealthy levels?

A) concentration of industrial factories

B) large farming populations

C) exposure to ocean water

D) erosion of beach sand

The concentration of industrial factories has greatly contributed to the unhealthy levels of air quality. Car emissions and other factors adding to ozone loss also affect air quality.

B) hormonal
Birds migrate great distances each year and the primary cue for migration are changes in day length. These changes in day length in turn trigger ___________ changes in the birds. Behavior and body changes follow as the birds prepare for their seasonal migrations.

A) genetic

B) hormonal

C) physical

D) reproductive

Changes in day length trigger hormonal changes and these changes, in turn, cause birds to change their eating and behavior patterns to prepare for migration. Hormones, in this case, act as chemical signals.

B) Disposing wastes in landfills, instead of burning them.
Which of these is an example of conserving a non-renewable resource?

A) Using electricity to fuel cars, instead of gasoline.

B) Disposing wastes in landfills, instead of burning them.

C) Traveling in individual cars instead of taking the bus.

D) Getting rid of old aluminum cans instead of recycling them.

Non-renewable resources can be conserved by developing alternatives or substitutes for the original material. Using electricity to fuel cars, instead of gasoline is an example of conserving a non-renewable resource.

D) protective coloration.
The evolutionary advantage depicted by the rabbit in the picture is

A) mimicry.

B) warning coloration.

C) adaptive radiation.

D) protective coloration.

The evolutionary advantage seen in the rabbit is protective coloration. The white rabbit on the white snow is a good hint.

D) gut with four stomach chambers
Which trait is an adaptation that a temperate grassland animal might possess?

A) gripping tail

B) complete absence of fur

C) large fat storage reserves

D) gut with four stomach chambers

A gut with four stomach chambers. Grazing animals, such as deer and cattle are common in grasslands, and these animals must chew their cud to digest the grass. They need 4 stomachs. The other adaptations are for rain forests, cold climates, and deserts.

A) oxygen.
In the formation of Earth’s atmosphere throughout its history, each of the following gases have, at one time or another, been the dominant gas in the atmosphere, EXCEPT

A) oxygen.

B) nitrogen.

C) water vapor.

D) carbon dioxide.

Oxygen is currently as dominant a gas as it has ever been in our atmosphere. Originally, there was much water vapor. The rains then released this to fill the oceans. Then, the carbon dioxide was dissolved in the water and used by plants for photosynthesis to produce oxygen. We currently have more nitrogen than any other gas, likely from many volcanic eruptions.

C) Insects become resistant to pesticides after being exposed to it for some time.
Pesticides are used to protect crops from insects and other pests. But sometimes pesticides can be as harmful as they are useful. How can pesticides be harmful?

A) Pesticides are usually mild and most insects are not affected by it.

B) Pesticides are very expensive and few farmers can afford to use them.

C) Insects become resistant to pesticides after being exposed to it for some time.

D) Pesticides kill all the crops affected by insects, causing huge losses to farmers.

Insects become resistant to pesticides after being exposed to it for some time. Over time, the insects are not killed by the pesticides and they can become “super bugs”. It becomes very difficult to kill them.

A) ectothermic metabolism.
All of the following adaptations are evolutionary adjustments made by at least one mammal, EXCEPT

A) ectothermic metabolism.

B) live birth into a pouch.

C) nourishment of young with milk.

D) specialized, varied teeth in the same mouth.

Ectothermic metabolism. Ectotherms are cold-blooded, and there are no mammals that cannot control their internal body temperature. This is a primitive trait.

C) There would be mostly striped snails.
Sea gulls prey on snails on the rocky sea coast. The snails vary in color from solid brown to brown and tan striped. The birds suck the soft snail bodies out of the shells and leave the shells behind on the rocks. Scientists picked up 500 empty shells and found that 400 of the shells were solid brown and only 100 were striped. Over the years, what would you expect to happen to the snail population?

A) The snails would become extinct.

B) There would be mostly brown snails.

C) There would be mostly striped snails.

D) There would be an even number of brown snails and striped snails.

There would be mostly striped snails. Since the birds ate mostly brown snails, we can assume the birds could see the brown snails and not the striped snails. Over time, the striped snails would survive and reproduce.

B) decrease in population until they possibly become extinct.
Suppose orange beetles and green beetles live in the same environment. Green beetles are harder to see on leaves, so birds eat primarily orange beetles. According to the theory of natural selection, in the future orange beetles will

A) move to a place without green beetles.

B) decrease in population until they possibly become extinct.

C) reproduce to their full potential until they increase in number.

D) breed with green beetles until there are no longer orange beetles.

According to the process of natural selection, since the birds are eating mainly orange beetles, the orange beetles will not be able to reproduce at the same rate as the green beetles, and they will decrease in population until they possibly become extinct.. Over time, there will be only green beetles as the birds eat the more visible, orange beetles.

D) courtship behavior
In which of these behaviors is it critical that members of the same species be able to recognize one another?

A) migration

B) hibernation

C) territoriality

D) courtship behavior

Courtship behavior.While it might be helpful to recognize members of ones own species in the other instances, it is absolutely critical for the survival of a species, that they be able to tell their own individuals apart from others that would result in matings with no offspring.

C) mimicry
A milk snake looks similar to the deadly coral snake. This is an example of

A) warning coloration
adaptive radiation

B) cryptic coloration

C) mimicry

D) warning coloration

Mimicry helps harmless organisms to be protected from predators by resembling another more dangerous or less tasteful species. The milk snake looks similar to the deadly coral snake and the similar colorations confuse predators, allowing the milk snake to remain safe.

C) Its tail may have thinner fur.
The arctic fox has adapted to its environment in a number of ways. Its fur turns white in winter and it does not begin to shiver until temperatures plunge below 10 degrees Fahrenheit. Global warming is likely to bring many changes, including an increase in mean air temperature. Over time, the arctic fox will have to adapt to this change. Which adaptation is MOST LIKELY to occur?

A) Its paw pads may thicken.

B) Its fur may stay white longer.

C) Its tail may have thinner fur.

D) Its ears may be shorter and rounder.

The arctic fox uses its bushy tail to stay warm. It wraps its tail around its body when it sleeps. If the temperature increased, over time its tail may have thinner fur.

D) It is a way to camouflage the squirrel in a changing habitat.
The Eastern grey squirrel lives mostly in oak trees that have a medium gray bark. In some cities, oak tree bark is darkening due to air pollution. This Eastern grey squirrel shows melanism, or the increase in black pigment in its fur. What is MOST LIKELY the reason for the change in fur color?

A) With age; this is a very old squirrel.

B) Squirrels from another region moved into the area.

C) It is a way to help the grey squirrel attract a mate.

D) It is a way to camouflage the squirrel in a changing habitat.

The change in fur color would occur over time as a way to camouflage the squirrel in a changing habitat. This is similar to the change in moth color in England due to an increase in soot on trees during the Industrial Revolution. The darker squirrels survive as the trees darken. These are the squirrels that reproduce.

B) Its fur will be brown both before and after the snowfall.
The fur of the snowshoe rabbit is brown most of the year and turns white in winter. The change begins in the fall and is a chemical response to the lessened amount of daylight, which is the same every year. Suppose there was an unusually early snowfall at the beginning of the fall. Describe the color of the rabbit’s fur before and immediately after the early snowfall.

A) Its fur will be white both before and after the snowfall.

B) Its fur will be brown both before and after the snowfall.

C) Its will be white before the snowfall and turn brown in response to the snow.

D) Its fur will be brown before the snowfall and turn white in response to the snow.

The snowshoe rabbit’s fur changes color in response to the amount of daylight. The presence or absence of snow does not affect the rabbit’s fur color. In early fall, the snowshoe rabbit’s fur color is still brown. If snow falls in early fall, the rabbit’s fur will be brown both before and after the snowfall.

C) reptiles
Which group of animals was the first to adapt to life on land by developing large lungs, eggs with a waterproof shell, and scaly, waterproof skin?

A) amphibians

B) birds

C) reptiles

D) worms

Reptiles. Reptiles are the first group of animals where large lobed lungs are seen. They also enclosed a “pond in an egg”, by developing an amnion and keeping their babies moist and fed inside of an egg.

D) larger horses had longer legs and could run faster to escape predators.
Horses are much larger today than their two-foot tall ancestor, mesohippus. Geologists believe the change in size was the result of changing environmentD) larger horses had longer legs and could run faster to escape predators.
s, from tropical forests to a grassland habitat.

Larger size would be an advantage for survival in this new habitat because

A) taller horses could reach the leaves that grow high on trees.

B) larger horses could find food easier than the shorter horses.

C) the larger horses were better camouflaged than the smaller horses.

D) larger horses had longer legs and could run faster to escape predators.

B) darken in the winter.
Suppose that pollution caused snow in the arctic to quickly turn black, which happens sometimes in today’s urban areas. To adapt to this change over time, the arctic fox’s fur would

A) darken in the summer.

B) darken in the winter.

C) lighten in the summer.

D) lighten in the winter.

The most evolutionarily advantageous adaptation for the fox would be if its fur would turn darker in the winter. This would both help the fox sneak up on its prey and hide from its predators.

B) the inability to leave the reef and swim after prey.
Polyp animals that form coral reefs have many unique adaptations for survival. One polyp feature that is detrimental rather than beneficial is

A) secretions that produce a hard protective skeleton.

B) the inability to leave the reef and swim after prey.

C) stinging cells that kill prey and discourage predators.

D) symbiotic relationships with algae that photosynthesize and feed them.

The inability to leave the reef and swim after prey. Coral animals are stationary benthic (bottom) animals that can only swim during the larval stage.

A) breeding spring when pesticides are used
The swallowtail butterfly population is declining in some state parks. What adaptation would probably not help their numbers increase?

A) breeding spring when pesticides are used

B) evolve eye spots that look like the eyes of a larger species

C) bright warning coloration tells birds that it may be poisonous

D) migratory patterns to warmer climates during long cold winters

breeding during spring when pesticides are used . Pesticides are used to kill harmful insects but they may also kill other insects, including butterflies, in the area being sprayed. All of the other choices are adaptations that would benefit the species.

C) the amount of snow cover varied over the years.
In 1850 there was a large snowshoe rabbit population in Manitoba, Canada. Over the years, the winter coloration (the color of the rabbit’s fur) of the surviving rabbit population changed. The graph shows the change in winter coloration of rabbits between 1850 to 2000. Based on the data, we could hypothesize that

A) the winters are longer in length.

B) the snowshoe rabbit has migrated to another area.

C) the amount of snow cover varied over the years.

D) more snowshoe rabbit predators have moved into Manitoba.

Based on the data, we could hypothesize that the amount of snow cover varied over the years. Winter white coloration is an adaptation for survival in snowy areas. If more gray rabbits are surviving, then there must be less snow.

C) long, tough tongues
Tropical grasslands often have trees that are often covered in thorns. The thorns protect the trees from being eaten or destroyed by the animals that live in the grasslands, like rhinos, for example. A group of animals has adapted to browsing on the leaves and thorns growing on these trees. Which adaptation would be helpful for this group of animals?

A) keen eye sight

B) short, narrow legs

C) long, tough tongues

D) a good sense of smell

The trees in tropical grasslands are often thorny. Animals that live in tropical grasslands have long, tough tongues that can be wrapped around branches and help the animals feed on the leaves and thorns.

C) the prehensile gripping tail of a spider monkey
Which animal adaptation is well-suited for the canopy of a tropical rainforest?

A) hooves of the forest antelope

B) the pythons ability to crush its prey

C) the prehensile gripping tail of a spider monkey

D) the hand-like trunk and large grinding teeth of the African forest elephant

The prehensile gripping tail of a spider monkey. Canopy animals live in the tree tops of the rainforest. The ability to grip branches and swing through the trees is an adaptation for this environment.

D) phenotypic
During winter, the pigment-producing genes of the arctic fox and other arctic animals do not function and the result is a white coat. This is an example of ___________ change due to environmental influence.

A) codominant

B) genetic

C) genotypic

D) phenotypic

Phenotypic changes result from environmental variation in many animal or plant species.

C) 1 = Birds, 2 = Mammals, 3 = Amphibians
The table shows the adaptations of three different groups of organisms.

Based on the given adapatations, name each group, in the order within the table.

A) 1 = Mammals, 2 = Birds, 3 = Reptiles

B) 1 = Mammals, 2 = Amphibians, 3 = Birds

C) 1 = Birds, 2 = Mammals, 3 = Amphibians

D) 1 = Birds, 2 = Mammals, 3 = Reptiles

1 = Birds, 2 = Mammals, 3 = Amphibians.

D) offspring
The blue-footed booby is a bird with, you guessed it, bright blue feet. During mating season, males display their feet to prospective females in showy dances.

This behavior has developed due to natural selection, since an effective dance helps to attract a mate and produce __________.

A) fitness

B) mating-calls

C) nutrition

D) offspring

The behavior is subject to natural selection if it affects an organism’s ability to reproduce.

D) providing white and gray mussels of only medium size
Jon and Bryan conducted an experiment to determine which color mussels the blue crabs preferred to eat. The boys varied the color of the mussels provided for food: white and dark gray. They also used assorted sized mussels. In all of the trials, the crabs ate the medium sized mussels, and chose the white mussels over dark gray only if they were medium sized. The boys concluded that the crabs prefer the white mussels.

Identify a condition of the experiment that might influence further conclusions.

A) placing the mussels on a white background

B) placing other sources of food with the mussels

C) placing the mussels on a multi-colored background

D) providing white and gray mussels of only medium size

D) larger horses had longer legs and could run faster to escape predators.
Horses are much larger today than their two-foot tall ancestor, mesohippus. Geologists believe the change in size was the result of changing environments, from tropical forests to a grassland habitat.

Larger size would be an advantage for survival in this new habitat because

A) taller horses could reach the leaves that grow high on trees.

B) larger horses could find food easier than the shorter horses.

C) the larger horses were better camouflaged than the smaller horses.

D) larger horses had longer legs and could run faster to escape predators.

Larger size would be an advantage for survival in this new habitat because larger horses had longer legs and could run faster to escape predators. The open grasslands made it easier for predators to see the grazing horses, so in order to survive, the horses had to run fast to escape them.

A) Dark moths had a survival disadvantage in industrial Dorset.
The graph shows the results of a famous biological experiment. In the experiment, Kettlewell believed that the peppered moth demonstrated how environmental pressures influence evolution. He studied two areas. Birmingham was a rural wood, with natural conditions. Dorset was an urban, industrial area. The moths use tree trunks to camouflage themselves against birds, which are their major predators. Natural gene variations produce a light form of the peppered moth, and a dark form, meaning that they are not equally visible.

All BUT ONE statement is supported by Kettlewell’s data

A) Dark moths had a survival disadvantage in industrial Dorset.

B) Light moths had a survival advantage in forested Birmingham.

C) Light moths had a survival disadvantage in industrial Dorset.

D) Dark moths had a survival disadvantage in forested Birmingham.
. That is

Dark moths had a survival disadvantage in industrial Dorset. After the introduction of industry, the dark moth population remained approximately the same in Dorset to Birmingham. However, the light moths in the rural area still had a much larger population.

B) Mullerian
There are multiple types of mimicry, where animals immitate other animals in order to gain protection from predators or fool prey. These include:

Batesian mimicry: a harmless animal immitates the appearance or behavior of a toxic or dangerous animal.

Mullerian mimicry: a number of animals all have similar warning appearances.

Aggressive mimicry: a harmful animal immitates a harmless animal to lure prey.

Automimicry: a harmless body part, such as a tail, resembles a harmful body part, such as a mouth.

The Retenor Morpho butterfly is among the fastest butterflies in the world, and is almost impossible for birds to catch. The blue color is thought to be a signal to birds that chasing them is not worth the effort. Almost all species of morpho butterflies are fast fliers and are bright blue.
What type of mimicry is this?

A) Batesian

B) Mullerian

C) aggressive

D) automimicry

Mullerian mimicry: a number of animals all have similar warning appearances.

C) Available food changed and the small beaked birds could not readily adapt.
Data was collected concerning Galapagos bird beak size over time. There are several species finches, and they are also known as Darwin’s Finches. These finches share the same habits and characteristics except for one; they all have different shaped and sized beaks. The differences in their beaks might be the most important aspect of their survival. Around 1977, there was a huge drop in finches with small beaks while there was a great increase in large-beaked birds. How can you explain this?

A) The small-beaked finches were prey for larger animals.

B) The large-beaked birds preyed on the small-beaked birds.

C) Available food changed and the small beaked birds could not readily adapt.

D) Competition for food favored large beaks; the small beaked birds died off.

Available food changed and the small beaked birds could not readily adapt. When the lines were close together, we could infer that the finches had plenty of food; food that varied and was suitable for each beak type. For some reason the food of the small-beaked birds became scarce and the birds could not eat and did not survive.

B) The snakehead fish will replace the other fish species.
If the climate in Africa remains the same as described, what would you MOST LIKELY expect to see after many years?

A) The snakehead fish will develop legs and feet.

B) The snakehead fish will replace the other fish species.

C) The snakehead fish will walk to another part of Africa.

D) The non-walking fish will learn to use their fins to walk.

If the climate remains the same, we would expect to see that the snakehead fish will replace the other fish species after many years. This is an example of natural selection. The fish that can walk from pool to pool to survive, can more easily reproduce. The fish that cannot walk from pool to pool as they dry up, do not survive to reproduce.

D) finch species 1
Suppose that the four species of finches shown at the top of the picture above, are all released onto an island in the middle of the ocean. The only species of plant is the betel palm, shown below. The betel palm produces large nuts with a tough outer husk. According to the law of natural selection, which species of finch probably has the greatest chance to survive over the long term?

A) finch species 2

B) finch species 3

C) finch species 4

D) finch species 1

A) finch species 2
B) finch species 3
C) finch species 4
D) finch species 1

D) hunting in packs
The wolf is an ancient predator. It is a social animal, traveling as a family made up of a mated pair, and the pair’s adult offspring. Wolves feed mostly on large herbivores, like bison, buffalo, and cattle, but it will also eat smaller animals. What adaptation would be the most helpful for a wolf to track, catch, and kill its prey?

A) camouflage

B) large teeth

C) great speed

D) hunting in packs

Hunting in packs is the BEST choice. The pack helps each other find prey, surround them, as you see here in the picture, and then kill the prey.

B) survival of the fittest
According to Darwin, organisms that are best adapted to their environment are more likely to produce offspring than organisms that are less well adapted to their environment. Which phrase is used to summarize this idea?

A) species variability
B) survival of the fittest
C) use and disuse of organs
D) evolution through mutation

A) species variability

B) survival of the fittest

C) use and disuse of organs

D) evolution through mutation

Survival of the fittest refers to the observation by Darwin that organisms that are better adapted to their environment (‘more fit’) are more likely to survive and reproduce than organisms less well adapted.

B) The fur color is an adaptive form of camouflage to avoid predators.
The snowshoe rabbit has white fur in winter and dark fur in summer. What is the main survival advantage of this fur color change to the rabbit?

A) The light fur keeps the rabbit from getting sunburned in summer.

B) The fur color is an adaptive form of camouflage to avoid predators.

C) The dark fur absorbs more sunlight so the rabbit is warmer in winter.

D) The white fur is more valuable to fur trappers, so the animal will be trapped and better fed in winter.

The fur color is an adaptive form of camouflage to avoid predators. The rabbit is dark during summer to blend in with foliage, and light during winter, to blend in with snow.

B) will become darker in color.
Peppered moths vary in color from light gray to almost black. The color of any moth depends on how many black spots are found on its wings. The name “peppered” refers to these black spots. During the day, the moths rest on trees. In England where the moths live, many light gray trees were covered with soot that came from the smoke stacks of factories.The trees got darker and darker from the soot.

Over time the peppered moth population in polluted areas

A) will become extinct.

B) will become darker in color.

C) will probably stay the same.

D) will become lighter in color.

Over time the peppered moth population in polluted areas will become darker in color. The darker moths blend in with the darker tree bark. Since the darker moths were camouflaged, the birds did not see them and did not eat them. They survived and reproduced to produce more dark moths.

B) prevent animals from eating it.
Thorns and small hairs on plant stems and leaves help to

A) absorb water in dry climates.

B) prevent animals from eating it.

C) absorb incoming radiant energy.

D) attract insects that pollinate the plant.

Thorns and small hairs on plant stems and leaves to prevent animals from eating it. Thorns also reduce water loss in dry climates. Thick mats of hair can act like a blanket and control the temperature within the leaf or stem.

C) Low rainfall and available water; waxy coating on leaves to prevent drying.
Believe it or not, the tundra is like the desert in one very important way. The similarity results in plants with a like adaptation to their environment. How are these two biomes alike and what adaptation do plants living in each biome share?

A) Low light intensity; long life cycles.

B) Strong, cold, drying winds; low growing in clumps.

C) Low rainfall and available water; waxy coating on leaves to prevent drying.

D) Low temperatures; silver-gray hairs on leaves provide a greenhouse effect so plants stay warm.

Low rainfall and available water; waxy coating on leaves to prevent drying. Both biomes have low available water. Plants are small, with storage roots, and have leaves with a waxy coating to prevent drying out and conserve water.

B) hydrotropism.
The plants growing high in the tree canopy send out roots. The roots are searching for water vapor in the humid air of the forest. This response that helps aerial plants find water is called

A) germination.

B) hydrotropism.

C) phototropism.

D) thigmotropism.

The aerial plant response to water in the air is called hydrotropism. This response is also seen in plant roots within the soil and in the root tip that emerges from a germinating seed. Phototropism is the response to light; thigmotropism is the response to touch. The answer is in the prefix.

D) thigmotropism.
Vines climb using tendrils. Specialized plant structures respond when they “touch” something like a wall or trellis. The tendrils wrap around the support and the plants are able to climb upwards. This response to touch in plants is called

A) germination.

B) photosynthesis.

C) phototropism.

D) thigmotropism.

Plant response to touch is called thigmotropism. The prefix thigmo means touch. Plants often climb to escape the shade of other low growing plants or buildings and reach for the sun!

C) large thorns
Locust trees are tall trees that first grew on Earth during the time of the dinosaurs. They have an adaptation that prevented the dinosaurs from eating them. What is an adaptation helped to save the locust tree?

A) deep roots

B) large leaves

C) large thorns

D) waxy cuticle

Although all the answers are adaptations found in plants, the adaptation that helped save the locust tree from being eaten by dinosaurs is large thorns.

A) dormancy
The autumn days shorten and get colder. The leaves lose their normal green color and turn red, yellow, and brown. This color change is the first sign of ___________ as winter approaches.

A) dormancy

B) germination

C) photosynthesis

D) phototropism

Leaf color change is the first sign of seasonal dormancy. When trees lose their leaves in winter, all their life processes slow down. This response to the change in their external environment called dormancy.

B) can store water.
Cacti and succulents can survive in the desert MOST LIKELY because they both

A) need direct sun.

B) can store water.

C) have long tap roots.

D) have chlorophyll for photosynthesis.

There is very little precipitation in the desert, and plants such as cacti and succulents can survive there because they both can store water. They have thick, waxy leaves (succulents) or no leaves, just spines (cacti). Instead of leaves, cacti have thick stems that store water.

B) large broad leaves.
Plants in a tropical rainforest usually have

A) thick, fleshy stems.

B) large broad leaves.

C) long vertical roots.

D) spiny or thorny skin.

Plants in a tropical rainforest may have large broad leaves. This is an adaptation due to the warm climate and large amounts of rain.

A) protection.
Plants like the stinging nettle seen here have sharp, needle-like hairs that inject a burning chemical into animals that touch the stems or leaves. These hairs are used for

A) protection.

B) reproduction.

C) photosynthesis.

D) attracting insects.

These stinging hairs are used for protection. Animals will not eat these plants and human will avoid pulling them up as weeds.

B) The needles are covered in wax to prevent freezing.
Different plants have different leaves. The leaves that a plant has are adapted to its environment.

Why do evergreen plants have needles rather than leaves?

A) The needles allow the plant to float on water.

B) The needles are covered in wax to prevent freezing.

C) The needles are designed to catch significant amounts of water.

D) The needles are covered in wax to help the plant survive hot summers.

The correct choice is B, the needles are covered in wax to prevent freezing. Biomes dominated by evergreen plants tend to have cold winters. The needles of evergreen plants are covered in wax to prevent the leaves from freezing. The wax covering also prevents water loss.

B) a spongy layer within the skin to retain moisture for long periods
Which adaptation would prove useful to a group of plants that grow in deserts?

A) roots that anchor the plants onto other trees and shrubs

B) a spongy layer within the skin to retain moisture for long periods

C) epiphytic roots that enable the plants to absorb moisture from the air

D) large leaves to absorb more sunlight, allowing for more photosynthesis to occur

Desert plants need to store water for long durations. Plants, like the Saguaro Cactus, have a stretchy skin, with a spongy layer inside which enables the plant to distribute and store water for long durations.

D) The flower is a sun catcher and the dark colored insect absorbs the sunlight; the insect pollinates the flower.
The Arctic poppy grows in many places, even among rocks. The flower is made up of four petals formed into a cup-shape. The stems are hairy and 10 to 15 cm high with a single flower on each stem. The flowers of these plants are heliotropic; they turn to face the sun. Dark colored insects land inside the poppy’s cup to collect nectar and also pollinate the flower. How is this an advantageous, mutualistic relationship?

A) The insects pollinate the poppies quickly so they can reproduce while the weather is warm.

B) The insects aid in the production of seeds for the poppies; seed production enhances survival of the plant.

C) The silver hairs on the stem help retain water and retain heat; the insects collect the water and stay warm.

D) The flower is a sun catcher and the dark colored insect absorbs the sunlight; the insect pollinates the flower.

The flower is a sun catcher and the dark colored insect absorbs the sunlight; the insect pollinates the flower. Some of the other answers are partially true, but to be correct, the answer must show a benefit for both the poppy and the insect.

C) mosses, lichen, grasses, and small shrubs
Which group of plants is MOST adapted to live in regions where the layer of soil beneath the surface stays frozen all the time?

A) epiphytes that grow on trees

B) trees whose roots run deep into the soil

C) mosses, lichen, grasses, and small shrubs

D) the saguaro cacti, which have fleshy stems

The layer of thawed soil in these regions is too shallow for deep-rooted plants to survive. So plants such as mosses, lichen, grasses, and small shrubs.

C) Aerial parts are reduced in favor of the root mass in the protective soil.
As with an iceberg, there is more to tundra plants than what you see on the surface.

Which statement below supports the analogy?

A) The waxy coating prevents evaporative water loss.

B) Low growing plants avoid the drying winds of the tundra.

C) Aerial parts are reduced in favor of the root mass in the protective soil.

D) Silver-gray hairs on leaves provide a greenhouse effect so plants stay warm.

Aerial parts are reduced in favor of the root mass in the protective soil. The root mass, often thick, stores food and minerals. Sometimes, the root mass is an additional method of reproduction.

C) III
Dennis studied a group of plants that grew in a pond. The plants had waxy leaves so water would roll off their surface. There were air spaces in the stems to help the plants float. Dennis made a chart of the plant features.

Based on the chart, we would expect any new plants growing in the pond to look MOST like which plant group in the chart?

A) I

B) II

C) III

D) both II and III

Aquatic plants need to have a lot of air spaces in the stems and leaves and also waxy leaves to survive in water. So, plants in group III have the BEST chance of survival. When the plants survive, they reproduce and the offspring will look like the parents.

C) Protects from damage by large animals.
This tree is found in hot, tropical areas where there are many large, grazing animals. What is one positive reason why this tree has developed thorns on the bark?

A) It is a type of camouflage.

B) Keeps monkeys from climbing in it.

C) Protects from damage by large animals.

D) Prevents water loss during hot weather.

Protects from damage by large animals. The thorns are for protection, just like they are in animals. Large animals scrape off the bark and that may kill the tree.

A) taiga
Most of the trees in the photograph of Denali Park, Alaska, are evergreen spruce. The soil in this area is rich and acidic. What biome is Denali Park located in?

A) taiga

B) tundra

C) arctic forest

D) temperate forest

Taiga. Though found in colder areas of the world (Canada, Alaska, Siberia) near the North pole, taiga is still warm enough and wet enough for evergreen tree growth, and has good soil.

icon
Sara from Artscolumbia

Hi there, would you like to get such a essay? How about receiving a customized one?
Check it out goo.gl/Crty7Tt

USATESTPREP Biology (Ecology)
Artscolumbia

Artscolumbia

A) commensalism.
Grazing cows disturb the grass and cause insects to fly around the cows as they eat. In turn, birds swoop in and eat the insects. This type of feeding relationship is an example of A) commensalism. B) mutualism. C) parasitism. D) predation. This type of feeding relationship is an example of co
2018-10-20 01:04:11
USATESTPREP Biology (Ecology)
$ 13.900 2018-12-31
artscolumbia.org
In stock
Rated /5 based on customer reviews