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Urban Planning Strategies & Concepts (History)

Henry Wright and Clarence Stein
What two designers developed the concept of the Superblock?
the town for the motor age
What was the community of Radburn New Jersey know as?
it was planned with full consideration for the automobile
Why was Radburn New Jersey know as “the town for the motor age”?
the city beautiful movement
What planning movement is Daniel Burnham known for?
white city (launched a classic revival in the usa)
What did Daniel Burnham create on the shores of Lake Michigan?
Kevin Lynch
Who coined the term “The Image of the City”?
the image of the city
What describes how users perceive and organize space as they navigated through cities?
Camillo Sitte
Who wrote “City Planning According to Artistic Principles”?
city planning according to artistic principles (Camillo Sitte)
What principles suggested that the quality of urban space is more important than architectural form?
Clarence Perry
Who wrote “The Neighborhood Theory?”
the neighborhood theory
What theory serves as a framework to design functional, self-contained neighborhoods in industrial cities?
ahwahnee principles
What describes a collective vision of how urban and suburban planning should follow certain fundamental principles regarding community size, irrigation, transpiration, open space, pedestrian paths, native vegetation, water and energy use?
Tony Garnier
Who wrote “Une Cite Industrial?”
Une Cite Industrial
What urban plann suggested that functions of a city could be separated into 4 categories: leisure, industry, work and transportation (early idea of zoning)?
Sir Ebenezer Howard
Who wrote “Garden Cities of Tomorrow?”
garden cities of tomorrow
What text describes a utopian city where people lived harmoniously with nature?
Garden City Movement
What movement was developed out of “Garden Cities of Tomorrow?”
Oscar Newman
What architect proposed the “Defensible Space” concept?
territoriality, natural surveillance, Image, Milieu (environment)
What are the 4 factors that make a defensible space?
Edward T Hall
Who developed the “Personal Space” concept?
Gardnier’s – Cite Industrielle
What planning influence developed out of the Industrial Revolution and first introduced the idea of zoning?
L’Enfant’s plan
Who’s Renaissance and Baroque planning approach in Washington DC was never widely adopted but was widely praised as a major planning effort?
Baron Haussmann
Who’s urbanization program starts in 1852 in Paris and involved leveling entire quarters to make way for wide avenues lined with neoclassical stone buildings?
Charleston, SC
What US city was the first to establish a “historic district” in 1931?
city beautiful movement
What urban planning movement flourished in the 1890’s-1900’s with the intent of using beautification and monumental grandeur in cities to counteract the perceived moral decay of poverty stricken urban environments?
1980’s
In what year did New Urbanism arise?
node
What is a center of interest that people can enter, such as a plaza, a public square, or the intersection of paths?
landmark
What is a point of reference and a device for wayfinding and symbolic to identification of an area?
district
What describes a two dimensional area that people perceive as having a common identifying character and is critical to the sense of neighborhood?
edge
What linear element other than a path, forms a boundary between two districts or breaks continuity?
contextualisum
What term describes the belief that new buildings should be designed to harmonize with other building and elements in the vicinity?
proxemics
What term coined by anthropologist Edward T Hall describes the study of the spatial requirements of humans and the effects of population density on behavior, communication, and social interaction.
proxemics
What theory deals with issues of territoriality, spacing, and positioning between people, and how the organization of the environment can affect these issues?
star-shaped city form
What city type grew out of the invention of gunpowder and developed with regular spaced bastions at points around the main wall so that the entire enclosure could be defended?
renaissance
In city planning, what period did city planners pay more attention to aesthetics than military and defense considerations?
renaissance
During what period did city plans combine symmetrical order with radial layout of streets focussed on points of interest?
renaissance and baroque
renaissance and baroque
Sir Christopher Wren’s plan for London after the great fire of 1666 included what two planning approaches?
Geoges-Eugene Haussman
Geoges-Eugene Haussman
Who advocated for straight, arterial boulevards connecting principle historic buildings, monuments and open spaces? (Paris)
Camillo Sitte
Camillo Sitte
Who, in their book “Planning According to Artistic Principles (1889),” advocated that cities be laid out on the principles of medieval towns, with curving and irregular streets?
garden city concept
garden city concept
What reform movement was developed by Ebenezer Howard (1898) in response to poor living condition brought on by the Industrial Revolution?
cite industrielle
cite industrielle
What city plan was developed for France in 1917 and emphasized the idea if zoning?
gridiron system
gridiron system
What city planning system was used in Philadelphia in 1682 and served as the model for American planning as the West was settled?
savannah, georgia
savannah, georgia
What city in 1733, using a gridiron system, planned housing around an interior square, two sides of which were reserved for public use
Washington D.C.
Washington D.C.
What american city broke the gridiron planning system and was based on more Renaissance and Baroque ideas of diagonal and radial streets superimposed on a rectangular grid?
renaissance
During what time was urban planning considered to be intellectual, formal, and monumental with plazas, boulevards, and gardens introduced to provide open space within the city?
precinctual
What is the term that describes the development of classical Rome based on the gradual accumulation of self-contained building complexes?
precinctual pattern
What describes a growth pattern that allows development in any direction and is generally flexible, compact and efficient?
first human settlements
first human settlements
greek cities
greek cities
roman cities
roman cities
earlier medieval cities
earlier medieval cities
later medieval cities
later medieval cities
renaissance cities
renaissance cities
baroque
industrial revolution
industrial revolution
garden city concept
garden city concept
cite industrielle concept
cite industrielle concept
gridiron concept
gridiron concept
new town concept
new town concept
new urbanism
new urbanism
rectilinear
circular
radiocentric
What are 3 typical town patterns of development?
christopher alexander
Who wrote ‘A Pattern Language’ and talked about “generative form” – empowered anyone to design and build at any scale?
jane jacobs
Who wrote ‘The Death and Life of Great American Cities’, advocated for the abolition of zoning laws and coined the phrase “eyes on the street” referring to surveillance by people?
clarence stein and henry wright
What two america planners were major proponents of the Garden City Movement in the USA?
urban legibility
According to Kevin Lynch what refers to the ease with which parts of the city can be recognized and organized into a coherent patter – it is the basis of orientation?
imageability
According to Kevin Lynch what quality of the environment gives it a high probability of evoking a strong image in the mind of a given observer?

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(It is a vital tool for orientation, way-finding and general well-being)

image of the city
According to Kevin Lynch what term describes constructing a mental picture of your environment?
paths, edges, districts, landmarks, nodes
According to Kevin Lynch what are the 5 elements for structuring mental images of the environment?
territoriality, natural surveillance, image, milieu
According to Oscar Newman what 4 factors make a defensible space?
territoriality
What describes the idea that one’s home is sacred – it is mine therefore i will protect it?
natural surveillance
According to Oscar Newman what is the link between and area’s physical characteristics and the residences’ ability to see what is happening?
image
What describes the capacity of the physical design to impart a sense of security?
milieu
According to Oscar Newman what term refers to other features that affect security, such as proximity to a police substation or busy commercial area?
urban development diagram
urban development diagram
1. no major traffic arteries
2. use cul-de-sacs, curvilinear layouts and low volume streets to preserve quiet, safe atmosphere
3. population is about 5000
4. neighborhood focus is elementary school
5. density 10 families per acre and occupy 160 acres
6. there should be shopping associated with the school and 10% of the area is open space
What are the 6 principles developed in Clearance Perry’s Neighborhood Unit Concept?
radburn, chandigarh, brasillia
radburn, chandigarh, brasillia
Name 3 examples of the superblock concept?
reston, virginia
What city plan was influenced by Radburn, was the first modern post war planned community and features a series of underpasses that promote travel on foot?
broadacre city
What city plan was developed by Frank Lloyd Wright in 1922 and featured every home situated in 1 acre parcels?
Beaux Arts principles and Neoclassical Architecture
What design principles did Daniel Burnham and Fredrick Olmstead follow for the World’s Columbian Exposition 1893?
greek towns
What were the first urban planned cities in 400 BC and used a rectangular grid pattern with large central areas which became the agora, the center of the city and society?
finger plan
finger plan
Development Growth Pattern
cluster form
cluster form
Development Growth Pattern
satellite pattern
satellite pattern
Development Growth Pattern
linear pattern
linear pattern
Development Growth Pattern
megalopolis
megalopolis
Development Growth Pattern
expanding grid/rectilinear pattern
expanding grid/rectilinear pattern
Development Growth Pattern
field pattern
field pattern
Development Growth Pattern
radiocentric pattern
radiocentric pattern
Development Growth Pattern
star pattern
star pattern
Development Growth Pattern
ring shaped
ring shaped
Development Growth Pattern
sheet
sheet
Development Growth Pattern
satellite
satellite
Development Growth Pattern
constellation
constellation
Development Growth Pattern
concentric zone pattern
concentric zone pattern
Patterns of Land Use
sector pattern
sector pattern
Patterns of Land Use
multiple nuclei pattern
multiple nuclei pattern
Patterns of Land Use

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Urban Planning Strategies & Concepts (History)
Artscolumbia
Artscolumbia
Henry Wright and Clarence Stein
What two designers developed the concept of the Superblock?
the town for the motor age
What was the community of Radburn New Jersey know
2017-09-06 05:35:46
Urban Planning Strategies & Concepts (History)
$ 13.900 2018-12-31
artscolumbia.org
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