One of the most powerful Muslim peoples. They were Turkish and controlled an extensive area of land stretching across much of the Known World. It did not fall until World War I.
an Arabic term for a tribal chief or religious master
The founder of the Ottoman line and the first Ottoman ruler.
One of the greatest of the Ottoman Kings. He expanded the Ottoman borders and protected his reign by responding harshly to any challenges to his authority (he executed his favorite son and his favorite grandson). He was known in the Ottoman Empire as The Lawgiver.
top military-administrative official (governor) in the Ottoman Empire
A chief minister or comparable high-ranking government official in the Muslim world, but most particularly in the Ottoman Empire.
A council or place of administrative assembly within the Ottoman Empire.
Muslim religious authorities; men versed in Islamic sciences and law.
a levy of boys from the non-Muslim subjects of the Ottoman empire; they functioned as a kind of human tax on the Balkan provinces
An elite Ottoman infantry corps armed with gunpowder weapons and composed mostly of converted Balkan slaves.
In Arabic, literally “forbidden.” A sacred area of palace or home forbidden to outsiders, often but not always used to protect and sequester women.
The mother of the Ottoman sultan; generally the most powerful and influential woman in the empire
A high-ranking Muslim religious and legal adviser.
Non-Muslim subjects of an Islamic state.
An additional head tax imposed on non-Muslims living under Islamic rule.
Known as the Father of humanism. he was the first to play a major role in making people conscious of the attractions of classical literature. He wrote love poems to a married woman whom he did not know personally.
A famous Renaissance painter who observed from life and painted a three-dimensional world portraying believable human beings moved by deep emotion. He humanized painting much as Petrarch humanized thought and St. Francis, whose life was on of his favorite subjects, humanized religion.
An art technique used to model figures in LIGHT and SHADE.
The famous painter of the Birth of Venus and the Primavera.
Leonardo da Vinci
Renaissance artist who painted the Mona Lisa (aka La Gioconda). He also painted the Last Supper on the walls of the refectory of Santa maria delle Grazie in Milan. He was a genius and designed many machines.
Renaissance artist who decorated the Vatican with his frescoes. (Vague, I know. It’s the guy whom we have to write about for the essay… fml)
A type of wall painting in which water-based pigments are applied to wet, freshly laid lime plaster. The dry-powder colors, when mixed with water, penetrate the surface and become a permanent part of the wall. The Italian Renaissance was the greatest period of this form of painting.
Renaissance artist who decorated the Sistine Chapel. He painted the Last Judgment. He made a giant David who has a creeper stare.
A new form of art introduced during the Renaissance. Artists of this form sought to express their own inner vision in a manner that evoked shock in the viewer.
An instrument used in navigation for calculating latitude.
A triangular sail that is set at a 45-degree angle to the mast and takes advantage of winds coming from oblique angles.
Prince Henry the Navigator
The man most responsible for Portugal’s ambitious explorations during the age of Exploration. He had an observatory at Sagres where skilled mariners and mapmakers gathered to plot voyages and record their results.
The first man from Portugal to sail around the southern tip of Africa. He was forced to turn back by his disgruntled crew.
Treaty of Alcacovas
This treaty between Spain and Portugal recognized Spain’s exclusive rights to the Canaries but banned Spain from the Madeiras, the Azores, the Cape Verdes, and West Africa.
A Genoese sailor who was convinced that Japan could be reached by a quick sail to the West. He was DUM and was off by about 7000 miles (not to mention he had no idea about the giantass continents in the way).
With the reconquering of the city of _____, Spain in 1492, Spain retook all of the Iberian Peninsula from the Muslims.
Vasco da Gama
A Portuguese sailor who, in 1497 set off in four ships and rounded the Cape of Good Hope. He landed in West India and returned with only two-thirds of his men. But the peppers and spices that he brought back returned the cost of the expedition 60 times over.
A Portuguese sailor who, while heading to India, sailed too far west and sighted Brazil. He saw it as unpromising and left it behind.
A license issued by the Portuguese that permitted non-Portuguese traders to operate in areas of the Indian Ocean controlled by the Portuguese.
The Spanish soldiers who conquered Mexico and Peru.
A Spanish conquistador who marched against the Aztec capital after destroying 10 of his 11 ships to prevent his men from turning back.
The Aztec emperor who warmly greeted Hernando Cortes.
The Aztec capital.
A disease that was often contracted on sea voyages of longer than a month because sailors’ diets lacked sufficient quantities of vitamins B and C.
The illegitimate son of a minor Spanish noble. He was the conqueror of the Incas.
A person of Spanish and Indian descent.
Town councils whose members were usually appointed by the governor. (nothing to do with Muslims)
An Amerindian chief who assisted the Spanish in collecting taxes from his subjects.
A system of control over land and Indian labor granted to a Spanish colonist.
Settlers born in Spain who movied to the Americas. They had a high social standing.
Settlers born in the Americas but claimed to be of European descent. They were looked down upon.
free men and women of mixed racial ancestry in colonial Latin America
a person of European and African descent
a person of African and Indian descent
an estate or plantation belonging to elite families