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World History Chapter 13

Everyday language
vernacular
Medieval art was ______________ in nature
religious
Birthplace of the Italian Renaissance
Florence
Using this helps artists create realistic drawings
perspective
Financial supporter of the arts
patron
Painted the Mona Lisa and the Last Supper
Da Vinci
Assembled a library of ancient Greek and Roman manuscripts
Petrarch
During the Renaissance, there was a revival of interest in
individual achievement
How did Italy’s location help make it the starting point of the Renaissance?
its location on the Mediterranean sea between Europe and the East encouraged trade and a flow of new ideas
How was Renaissance art different from the art of the middle ages?
it was more realistic and portrayed some non-religious subjects
Sculpted David and painted the Sistine Chapel
Michelangelo
In The Prince, Machiavelli advises rulers to
be ruthless in achieving goals
Priest who spread renaissance humanism
Erasmus
Invented the printing press
Johann Gutenberg
Artist strongly influenced by the Italian Renaissance
Albrecht Durer
The printing revolution meant that
educated readers were exposed to new ideas and places
The Northern Renaissance began in the cities of
Flanders
Rabelais, Shakespeare, and Cervantes had in common
They wrote in the vernacular
The Renaissance ideal that Shakespeare’s work explored
complexity of the individual
A ______ is a government run by religious leaders
theocracy
Martin Luther was called to a ______ , or meeting of German princes
diet
The idea that God has already determined who will be saved is called _______
predestination
Martin luther first announced his opposition to the Catholic Church in the city of _______
Wittenberg
An _____ was a way of buying entry into heaven
indulgence
Major factor leading to the Reformation
anger at the worldiness of the church
Belief Luther held that differed from church practices
he believed Christians could be saved only by faith
Luther’s ideas spread mostly in
Germany and Scandinavia
John Calvin believed the world was divided into
saints and sinners
To escape religious persecution, some Calvinists
sailed to the Americas
Founder of the jesuits
Ignatius of Loyola
A separate part of Venice reserved for jews
ghetto
Religious group that has broken away from an established church
sect
Anabaptists believed in
religious toleration and separation of church and state
in 1545, the Council of Trent
Established the direction of Catholic reforms
Reduced due to the Catholic reformation
church abuses
A step-by-step process of discovering scientific facts is called the _____
scientific method
Polish scholar ______ proposed that the sun was at the center of the universe, not earth
Nicolaus Copernicus
A _____ is a scientist’s possible explanation for why something happens
hypothesis
The force that keeps planets in their orbits around the sun is called _____
gravity
The inquisition forced _____ to say he believed Earth was at the center of the universe
Galileo
Why was Copernicus’s theory revolutionary
it contradicted the teachings of classical thinkers and the church
Why did scientists begin to repeat their experiments?
to refine and improve their hypotheses
One of Newton’s contributions was his
explanation of the movement of planets
Theocracy
A government ruled by or subject to religious authority.
Perspective
A point of view
Council of Trent
Supported traditional Catholic views on salvation and took steps to end church abuses
Act of Supremacy
Declared the king (Henry VIII) the supreme head of the Church of England in 1534.
Executed for opposing the Act of Supremacy
Thomas More
Catholic Reformation
16th century movement in which the Roman Catholic Church sought to make changes in response to the Protestant Reformation
Religious persecution during the 1500s and 1600s was _________________ and many people were persecuted or burned at the stake
widespread
Step by step process of discovering facts
scientific method(s)
Proposed the sun was at the center of our universe
Copernicus
Force that keeps planets in their orbits
gravity
Forced to say the earth was the center of our universe under the threat of death
Galileo
Reason that Copernicus’s theory was rejected
it went against classical teachings
Two giants in the scientific revolution
Bacon and Descartes
Galen’s ancient work in science was incorrect in his study of _________________
anatomy
Explained how and why planets moved as they do (and invented calculus in his spare time)
Newton
Any system or mode of thought or action in which human interests, values, and dignity predominate
Humanism
A religious committee that tried heretics and punished the guilty by imprisonment and execution
Inquisition
Someone who goes against accepted religious beliefs
heretic
Albrecht Durer
Famous Northern Renaissance artist, he often used woodcutting along with Italian Renaissance techniques like proportion, perspective and modeling
John Wycliff
(c.1328-1384) Forerunner to the Reformation. Created English Lollardy. Attacked the corruption of the clergy, and questioned the power of the pope.
Anabaptists
A Protestant sect that believed only adults could make a free choice regarding religion; they also advocated pacifism, separation of church and state, and democratic church organization.
Humanism
A Renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements and less on religion
Thomas Moore
Executed because he would not accept Henry VIII as the head of the Church of England
Rene Descartes
thought the best road to understanding was through human reasoning
Robert Boyle
Father of modern chemistry
Said an ideal woman had outer beauty that reflected her inner goodness
Baldassare Castiglione
Northern European humanist who said people should live in peace and harmony
Thomas More
Said planets move around the sun in oval orbits
Johannes Kepler
Baptists, Mennonites and Amish can trace their religious ancestery to
the Anabaptists
Main goal of Jesuits
defend, restore and spread the Catholic faith
Described architecture as a “social art”
Leon Alberti
Martin Luther’s actions when peasant rebels took up his banner as a means of making social change in Germany
he denounced them and the rebellion was suppressed

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World History Chapter 13
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Everyday language
vernacular
Medieval art was ______________ in nature
religious
2017-12-01 08:57:44
World History Chapter 13
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