Leonardo da Vinci
Italian Renaissance painter who painted this
Italian Renaissance painter and sculptor who painted this
Renaissance playwright and poet
Development in literature during the Renaissance. A new type of poem created by Shakespeare.
Most important Christian Humanist; wrote In Praise of Folly
Intellectual movement of the Renaissance – focus on studying classical texts to become educated and enjoy life on earth. The individual is important!
Renaissance began here and spread to Northern Europe
Greece and Rome
rebirth of Classical knowledge from 1300-1600
an art technique where items in the background appear smaller than items in the front
wrote The Prince which said that the ends justify the means for a ruler
People in Europe believed the Catholic Church was corrupt. Luther, Calvin, and Henry VIII were leaders of this movement which formed new denominations (types) of Christianity.
Problems/issues with the Catholic Church
1. Merchant wealth challenged Church’s view of usury
2. German and English nobility disliked Italian domination of Church
3. Church was too wealthy and had too much political power
4. Church was corrupt and sold indulgences
Loaning money at a high interest rate
Paying money to excuse sins and get to heaven (“ticket to heaven”)
German monk who began the Protestant Reformation by writing the 95 Theses
Lutheran Church’s 3 beliefs
1. Salvation (going to heaven) by faith alone
2. Bible is the ultimate authority (not the Pope!)
3. All humans equal before God (priests, bishops, Pope are not special!)
Luther’s complaints against the Catholic Church. His posting of these started the Protestant Reformation.
Continued the Protestant Reformation – main belief was predestination.
Calvinist Church’s 3 beliefs
1. Salvation by predestination
2. Live a righteous (holy) life, live simply
3. Strong work ethic (work hard!)
The belief that your salvation (your destination – either heaven or hell) is predetermined before you are born, and that nothing can change your fate.
King of England who broke away from the Catholic Church by dismissing the Pope’s authority (not listening to the Pope’s rules)
Henry VIII’s actions
1. Created the Church of England in order to divorce his wife
2. Became head of the Church of England
3. Appropriated (took away) lands and wealth of the Roman Catholic Church in England
Queen Elizabeth I
Made the Anglican Church the permanent church in England, defeated the Spanish Armada, was tolerant of dissenters (people who wanted to practice a different religion)
Year that the English navy defeated Phillip II’s Spanish Armada
Thirty Years War
Devastating conflict in Holy Roman Empire (present-day Germany) between Protestants and Catholics
Family which controlled the Holy Roman Empire and supported the Roman Catholic Church
Leader in France who supported Protestants in Thirty Years War, even though he was a clergy member of Catholic Church. He changed the TYW from a religious to a political conflict.
Jan Huss and John Wycliffe
Early dissenters of the Catholic Church before the Protestant Reformation began. Both were punished by the Catholic Church for speaking out, and their ideas were not widely spread.
Inventor of the printing press
Effects of printing press
1. Increased literacy
2. Printed Bible in German, English and French
3. Spread the ideas of the Reformation and Renaissance
Effects of the Reformation
1. Growth of secularism (idea that government should not control religion)
2. Growth of individualism
3. Eventual growth of religious tolerance
Edict of Nantes
First freedom of religion law – granted Protestant Huguenots freedom of worship in France
Catholic Church’s response to the Protestant Reformation
Council of Trent
Church council which reaffirmed (said Catholic Church was right) most Church doctrine (beliefs) and practices
Society of Jesus/Jesuits
Missionary group founded to spread Catholic doctrine (beliefs) all around the world
Court system which used to try heretics. It used torture to reinforce Catholic doctrine (beliefs).
Speaking or acting against the Church’s beliefs