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Music 100: Renaissance and Medieval

Gregorian Chant Characteristics
-Monophonic
-Unmeasured rhythm (not metrical)
-Avoids leaps and dynamic contrast
Dynamic
-Loudness or softness of music
Types of Chants
-Syllabic (1 note for each syllable)
-Neumatic (2-3 notes per syllable)
-Melismatic (4 or more notes per syllable)
Neum
-Early notation
Ordinary of the Mass
-Kyrie
-Gloria
-Credo
-Sanctus
-Agnus Dei
Latin vs. Vernacular
Organum
-Added voice to chant melody at the fourth and fifth
-Chant melody is known as the tenor “to hold” (Lowest form)
-Earliest form of polyphony
Most Famous Composers at Notre Dame School
-Leonin
-Perotin
Motet
-French word for “mot”
-Addition of new text to melismatic organum
-Polytextual
Poet-Musicians
-Troubadours
-Trouveres
-Minnesingers
Cantus Firmus
-Music based on previous existing music
Counter Reformation
-1530’s-1590s
Council of Trent
-1545-1563
-Addressed issues of the Reformation
-Perceived abuses in music (Polyphony complicated, text difficult to understand, corruption of chant, secularism)
-Wanted to promote a pure vocal style that respected the integrity of the sacred texts
Italian Madrigal
-Chief form of Renaissance secular music
-Text: short poem of lyric or reflective nature
-Intended for professional musicians unlike English Madrigal
-More complicated than its English counterpart
English Madrigal
-English developed from the Italian madrigal
-Musica Transalpina, 1588
-Simpler and lighter in style
-Refrain syllables (“fa-la-la”)
Word Painting
-Music that further illustrates the text
Madrigalisms
Mass
-Main religious service for Catholic church
Requiem
-Mass written for the dead
Monophony
-Single voice
Polyphony
-2 or more independent melodies
-Many voices
Homophony
-Melody with accompaniment
Characteristics of Medieval Music
-Predominantly sacred
-Predominantly monophonic
-Anonymous composers
Compare and Contrast Medieval and Renaissance Motets
Mulier in Ecclesia Tacet
-Women in the church are silent
-Preferred having little boys singing
A Cappella
-Music without instruments
Polytextual
-Motet where 2 or more voices overlap each other
Tenor
-“to hold” the melody
Josquin des Prez
-Franco-Flemish origin
-Italian career
-Wrote sacred and secular music
Palestrina
-Italian composer, organist, and choirmaster
-Sistine Chapel Choir (Pope Julius III)
-Wrote mostly sacred music
Machaut
-Foremost composer of the Ars Nova
-Double careers (Cleric/courtier & Poet/musician)
-Motet, chansons, masses
-Wrote sacred and secular music *
Hidegard Von Bingen
-Nun, mystic, scientist, poet, musician
-1150 founded covent in Germany
-Known for miracles and prophecies
-Works include collections of visions and prophecies, music, and scientific writing
Martin Luther
-Reformation
John Farmer
-Fair Phyllis
-Active in the 1590s in Dublin
-Organist and master of choirboys at Christ Church
Arcadelt
-Italian composer
-Published books of madrigals in 1538 that included (Il Bianco e dolce cigno)
-“The White Sweet Swan”
Pope Gregory the Great
-Gregorian chant named after him
-Did not compose the chant
Vocal Parts
-Soprano
-Alto
-Tenor
-Bass
Motet in Renaissance
-Single Latin text
-A cappella
-Written for 3, 4, or more voices
-Imitative counterpoint
-Equal voice polyphony
Renaissance Music Style
-A cappella
-Polyphony based on continuous imitation
-Cantus Firmus
-Word Painting
-Mulier in ecclesia tacet
Difference between Ave Maria and Sicut Cervus
Difference between Medieval motet and Renaissance motet
-Medieval motet is polytextual
-Renaissance is a single Latin text
-Medieval could have instruments
-Renaissance was a cappella
Origin of First Madrigal
-Italy
Medieval Dates
400-1450
Renaissance Dates
1450-1600
Which is life hereafter?
Medieval
Which was reliance on senses?
-Renaissance
Difference between Gaude Maria and Ave Maria
-Gaude:

Polyphonic
Sacred, could have secular
Based on chant
Tenor instrumental

-Ave Maria

Polyphonic
Sacred text
Imitative counterpoint
A cappella

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Music 100: Renaissance and Medieval
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Artscolumbia
Gregorian Chant Characteristics
-Monophonic -Unmeasured rhythm (not metrical) -Avoids leaps and dynamic contrast
Dynamic
-Loudness or softness of music
2017-10-17 08:59:03
Music 100: Renaissance and Medieval
$ 13.900 2018-12-31
artscolumbia.org
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