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HIST 101: France and England, The Black Death, and Italian Renaissance (Kneupper Final)

William the Conqueror (term)
Also known as William I or William the Bastard. Duke of Normandy who laid claim to the throne of England in 1066, defeating the Anglo-Saxon King Harold at the Battle of Hastings. He and his Norman followers imposed imperial rule in England through a brutal campaign of military conquest, surveillance, and the suppression of the indigenous Anglo-Saxon language
Henry II (term)
the spouse of Eleanor of Aquitaine. Ruled as King of England 1154-1189. Arguably the most important king England ever had. Instituted the Grand Jury, also got rid of trial by combat or ordeal.
Eleanor of Aquitaine (term)
Ruler of the wealthy province of Aquitaine and wife of Louis VII of France, Eleanor had her marriage annulled in order to marry the young count of Anjou, Henry Plantagenet, who became King Henry of England a year later. Mother of two future kings of England, she was an important patron of the arts
Exchequer (term)
a government department of the United Kingdom responsible for the management and collection of tax and other government revenues
Parliament (term)
the signing of the Magna Carta paved way for parliament
Westminister (term)
John Lackland (term)
John, King of England. Youngest son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine.
Philip Augustus (term)
Philip II, called Philip Augustus. The first French ruler to use the title “king of France” rather than “king of the French.” After he captured Normandy and its adjacent territories from the English, he build an effective system of local administration, which recognized regional diversity while promoting centralized royal control. This administration pattern would characterize French government until the French Revolution.
Sherrif (term)
Medieval occupation. Important official of county who was responsible for executing judicial duties. Crimes against the crown were in the hands of God and in the hands of 12 people in community, the sheriffs.
Magna Carta – 1215 (term)
The “Great Charter” of 1215, enacted during the reign of King John of England and designed to limit his powers. Regarded now as a landmark in the development of constitutional government. In its own time, its purpose was to restore the power of the great lords
Niccolo Machiavelli (term)
As the author of “The Prince” and the “Discourses on Livy,” he took to the Roman past for paradigms of greatness, while at the same time hoping to win the patronage of contemporary rulers who would restore Italy’s political independence.
The Black Death (term)
The epidemic of bubonic plague that ravaged Europe, Asia, and North Africa in the 14th century, killing 1/3 to 1/2 of the population
1347-1351 (term)
years of the Black Death in Europe
The Flagellants (term)
Practitioners of an extreme form of mortification of their own flesh by whipping it with various instruments. Went city to city asking penitence from the Black Death for the town
Michelangelo Buonarroti (term)
A virtuoso Florentine sculptor, painter, and poet who spent much of his career in the service of the papacy. He is best known for the decoration of the Sistine Chapel and for his monumental sculptures
Lorenzo de Medici (term)
Lorenzo the Magnificent. Italian statesman and de facto ruler of the Florentine Republic. He was a magnate, diplomat, politician and patron of scholars, artists, and poets. He also sponsored Michelangelo.
Leonardo da Vinci (term)
An Italian polymath, painter, sculptor, architect, musician, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist, and writer. He is widely considered to be one of the greatest painters of all time and perhaps the most diversely talented person ever to have lived, painted the Mona Lisa.
Italian Renaissance (term)
The earliest manifestation of the general European Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement that began in Italy
Which two countries developed the most successful examples of centralized states in the Middle Ages?
England and France
What monarchy was the most advanced in the 11th century? (France and England)
the English Monarch
What are shires? What are sheriffs? (France and England)
– shires are administrative pieces of land, much like counties
– sheriffs are the people in the community in charge of handling any crimes against the crown (12 in community)
What was the Norman Conquest? (France and England)
the Viking raids
Who were the Normans? (France and England)
Vikings, called themselves northman, pagan, and vikings
Where did they come from? (France and England)
Who was their leader? (France and England)
What did he do politically? (France and England)
What are some of the legal and political developments of Henry II? (France and England)
– implanted the Grant Jury
– took away the trial by combat or ordeal
What lands did he rule? Why so many? To whom was he married? (France and England)
– King of England and also had land in France
– married to Eleanor of Aquitaine
What was the relationship between the King of England (Henry II) and the King of France (Louis VII and then Philip Augustus)? (France and England)
Henry II marrying Eleanor of Aquitaine (the ex-wife of Louis VII) started a long rivalry between France and England
Why is that a problem? (France and England)
these are the two largest and strongest countries at the time
What did the French monarchy have to overcome? (France and England)
What were the counts and dukes in France doing? (France and England)
Who were the Capetians? (France and England)
Hugh Capet and his dynasty. he was elected monarch.
Who was Philip Augustus? How did he get the name? (France and England)
the Capetian King of France. He got the nickname Philip Augustus for really extending the crown lands of France
What did he do in France? (France and England)
made Paris the capital of France, this was the first central capital.
What is a bailli? (France and England)
the royal officials in France
What is Magna Carta? Who signed it? Who forced him to sign? Why? When? (France and England)
– The “Great Charter” of 1215, enacted during the reign of King John of England and designed to limit his powers. Regarded now as a landmark in the development of constitutional government. In its own time, its purpose was to restore the power of the great lords
– John (son of Henry II that was ruling England while is brother was fighting the crusades) was forced to sign the Magna Carta in 1215
What does article 39 say and why is it still important? (France and England)
Someone just can’t be arrested and imprisoned unless they have a trial, a legal judgment by their peers. Prisoner must be brought to court with proof before only can be imprisoned
What does Magna Carta have do to the power of the monarchy? (France and England)
the Magna Carta binds the royal will of monarch to written laws, monarch is answerable to law like everyone else. England now how a constitutional monarchy (not will of king alone)
How did Magna Carta pave the way for Parliament? (France and England)
the Magna Carta is the stepping stones for modern democratic governments. the Magna Carta set forth many checks and balances so that the ruler could not take advantage of the little people.
– creation of a council of advisors that later became parliament
What kind of monarchy does England have at the end of the Middle Ages? (France and England)
constitutional monarchy
During what years did the Black Death first plague Europe? Describe where it hit first and how it spread. (black death)
first broke out in Magnolia in the 1320’s and traveled the Silk Road (trade routes) to Asia then China then northern Africa then it reached Egypt in 1347, from there is went abroad Italian Merchant ships and hit the mainland of Europe in 1348
What did contemporaries call it? (black death)
the bubonic plague
What happened to the population of Europe after 1300? (black death)
1/3 of the population died, probably closer to 40-50%
Be able to discuss some of the contemporary explanations for the Great Mortality. (black death)
– theologically (God’s punishment) (Jews poisoning water)
– natural (earthquakes released “bad air”)
What were some of the attempts to prevent it? (black death)
– penance (flagellants)
– only breath “good air”
– no cold lettuce, no fish, only fish, lots of vinegar
What were some of the long term consequences (economic, demographic, psychological)? (black death)
massive depopulation, nature started to take over, this caused a lot of opportunities for work (wages also went up to 5x mores than before), “Golden Age of Labor”, people viewed death differently now.
What is the Renaissance “problem”? (Italian Renaissance)
wasn’t 1000 years of darkness. it’s the idea that Italian culture makes high points of history
Be prepared to discuss the division of history into ancient, medieval, and modern. Where did this division come from? Is it accurate? (Italian Renaissance)
– ancient: Roman empire/Italy – high point
– medieval: Germany/England/France – low point
– modern: Italian Renaissance: higher point
What are the changes that occurred in art during the Italian Renaissance? (Italian Renaissance)
the most noticed change is in art
What are the various ways to define humanism? How do they relate to the Italian Renaissance? (Italian Renaissance)
– Love and concern for human being and a focus on humans
– Shifts focus more on humans, and less on God; Humans can do/be anything – freewill
– Preoccupation with this world
– Study of humanities – focus on what humans do and what they create
– man and his capabilities are the central concern
What did Niccolo Machiavelli write? What was significant about it? (Italian Renaissance)
– “The Prince”
– culture was becoming more about me and less about God
– a quote from the book was “It’s better be to feared that loved”
What is classicism? How does it factor into the Italian Renaissance? (Italian Renaissance)
the intense interest in Greek and Roman culture. this changed into the new type of art
Who were some of the important figures of the Renaissance and what did they do? (Italian Renaissance)
– Niccolo Machiavelli (wrote the Prince)
– Francesco Petrarcho (father of humanism)
– Collucio Salutati (politician)
– Lorenzo de Medici (leader of Florence)
– Leonardo da Vinci (painted Sistine Chapel)
What city played the most important role? (Italian Renaissance)
Florence, Italy
Why did the Renaissance begin in Italy? (Italian Renaissance)
– its location on the Mediterranean Sea, made them centers for trade and commerce
– was core of the Roman Empire
– it was political
– the Renaissance was rebirth of both Greek and Roman ideals, they were both Mediterranean cultures, as is Italy
– wealth, power, and intellect in the church
During which centuries did the Renaissance take place? (Italian Renaissance)
15th and 16th Century

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HIST 101: France and England, The Black Death, and Italian Renaissance (Kneupper Final)
Artscolumbia
Artscolumbia
William the Conqueror (term)
Also known as William I or William the Bastard. Duke of Normandy who laid claim to the throne of England in 1066, defeating the Anglo-Saxon King Harold at the Battle of Hastings. He and his Norman followers imposed imperial rule in England through a brutal campaign of military conquest, surveillance, and the su
2017-11-21 10:49:13
HIST 101: France and England, The Black Death, and Italian Renaissance (Kneupper Final)
$ 13.900 2018-12-31
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