A deadly plague that swept through Europe between 1347 and 1351
disease brought to Europe from Asia during the Middle Ages. It killed 1/3 of the population and helps end Feudalism.
An Italian trading city on the Ariatic Sea, agreed to help the Byzantines’ effort to regain the lands in return for trading privileges in Constantinople.
Ruled Florence during the Renaissance, became wealthy from banking, spent a lot of money on art, controlled Florence for about 3 centuries
Leonardo Da Vinci
A well known Italian Renaissance artist, architect, musician, mathemetician, engineer, and scientist. Known for the Mona Lisa.
(1475-1564) An Italian sculptor, painter, poet, engineer, and architect. Famous works include the mural on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, and the sculpture of the biblical character David.
Giving priority to one’s own goals over group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications
Concerned with worldly rather than spiritual matters
Invented the printing press
Head of Catholic Church
Banishment from the church
British scientist who defined the laws of motion, discovered gravity, experimented with optics, invented differential calculus and wrote “Principia”
Italian who provided evidence for heliocentrism. Because his work provided evidence that the Bible was wrong he was arrested and ended up on house arrest for the rest of his life.
Selling of forgiveness by the Catholic Church. It was common practice when the church needed to raise money. The practice led to the Reformation.
A German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices. He led the Protestant Reformation.
Religious thinker Martin Luther pinned this document to the door of a church, in protest to many church practices but especially indulgences.
an institution in which priests are trained
Council of Trent
Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend.
A series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions.
15th century invention which revolutionized the ability to print information which in turn affected the speed of the spread of information itself.