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APUSH Ch 13: An American Renaissance: Religion, Romanticism, and Reform

Immanuel Kant
German philosopher who is considered to be a central figure of modern philosophy; he argued that reason is the source of morality
Lucretia Mott
an Amer Quaker, abolitionist, women’s rights activist, and a social reformer; along w/ Stanton, one of the original signers of the Declaration of Sentiments
Deism
Enlightenment thought applied to religion; emphasized reason, morality, and nature
Unitarianism
Late 18th century liberal offshoot of the NE Congregationalist church; rejected the Trinity, it professed the oneness of God and the goodness of rational man
Universalism
Similar to Unitarianism, but putting more stress on the importance of social action, it also originated in MA in the late 18th century
Nathaniel Hawthorne
NE writer and resident of Salem, MA whose writing in collections such as Twice-Told Tales (1837) presented powerful moral allegories
William Ellery Channing
Member of Boston’s Fed Street Congregational Church and was the most inspiring Unitarian leader
Lyman Beecher
Was a Presbyterian minister
John Murray
British ex-Methodist clergyman, founded first Universalism church, in Gloucester, MA
Second Great Awakening
Religious revival movement of the early decades of the 19th century, in reaction to the growth of secularism and rationalist religion; began the predominance of the Baptist and Methodist churches
“Burned-Over District”
Area of western NY strongly influenced by the revivalist fervor of the 2nd Great Awakening; Disciples of Christ and Mormons are among the many sects that trace their roots to the phenomenon
Charles Grandison Finney
Successful “Burned-Over District” evangelist who preached that conversion was in the individual. He transformed revivals into collective conversion experiences in which spectacular public events displaced private communion and the unregenerate were brought into intense public contact w/ praying Christians
Oberlin College
Founded by pious NEers in OH’s Western Reserve, from the start it radiated a spirit of reform predicated on faith; it was the first college in Amer to admit either women or blacks, and it was a hotbed of antislavery doctrine
Mormons
Founded in 1830 by Joseph Smith, the sect (officially, the Church of Jesus Christ Latter-Day Saints) was a product of the intense revivalism of the “Burned-Over District” of NY; Smith’s successor Brigham Young led 15,000 followers to UT in 1847 to escape persecution
Joseph Smith, Jr.
Founder of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, or the Mormons
Brigham Young
Charismatic successor to Joseph Smith, who led the Mormon people from IL to a new land near the Great Salt Lake in UT, which was then a part of Mexico
romanticism
Philosophical, literary, and artistic movement of the 19th cent. that was largely a reaction to the rationalism of the previous cent.; romantics valued emotion, mysticism, and individualism
transcendentalism
Philosophy of a small group of mid-19th cent. NE writers and thinkers, including Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, and Margaret Fuller; they stressed “plain living and high thinking”
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Transcendentalist essayist, poet, and popular speaker
Henry David Thoreau
Transcendentalist writer of Walden, or Life in the Woods (1854)
Emily Dickinson
Poet and recluse who resided in Amherst, MA. Only 2 of her almost 1,800 poems were published prior to her death
Washington Irving
Amer author, short story writer, essayist, poet, travel book writer, biographer, and columnist, whose writing incorporated authentic Amer themes
James Fenimore Cooper
Author of The Leather-Stocking Tales, which features frontiersman Natty Bumppo, AKA Hawkeye
Edgar Allen Poe
This tormented, heavy-drinking man was a master of Gothic horror in the short story and the inventor of the detective story and its major conventions. He judged prose by its ability to provoke emotional tension, and since he considered fear to be the most powerful emotion, he focused his efforts on making the grotesque and supernatural seem disturbingly real to his readers
Herman Melville
Author who incorporated his experiences as a young seaman into his novels, Typee (1846), Omoo (1847), and Moby-Dick (1851)
Walt Whitman
Self-taught writer whose major work Leaves of Grass, a collection of his own poetry, was controversial in its time. His explicit sexual references and indifference to rhyme and meter as well as his buoyant egotism aroused the ire of his readers
Horace Greeley
Influential journalist and founding editor of the NY Tribune newspaper
Horace Mann
Lawyer, statesman, and educator who promoted the idea of statewide public school systems
lyceum movement
Founded in 1826, the movement promoted adult public education through lectures and performances
Dorothea Lynde Dix
Educator whose accounts of the conditions of the mentally ill in jails and almshouses in MA led to the transformation in social attitudes toward mental illness
Alexis de Tocqueville
French visitor who observed, “no country in the world where the Christian religion restrains a greater influence over the souls of men than in America”
Anglicans
religious group who lost ppl due to connection w/Church of England, changed name to Episcopalians
Methodism
abandoned Anglicanism, abandoned their prayer book, sang hymns, welcomed the oppressed, and emphasized the possibility of Christian perfection
John Wesley
English Anglican priest who founded Methodism
Timothy Dwight
Prez of Yale, struggled to purify by launching revivals that captivated Yale students. Grandson of Jonathan Edwards
Frontier Revivals
Evangelists found ready audiences among lonely frontier folk, who wanted spiritual intensity and community
Presbyterianism
in Scotch-Irish, from PA to GA. Gained power in plan of Union
Plan of Union
Presbyterians and Congregationalists agreed on doctrine and differed mainly on form of church gov’t, formed unified congregation and call a minister from either church. NEers became Presbyterians thru “Presbygational” churches
Presbygational Churches
A combo of Presbyterian church and Congregational church
Baptists
embraced a simplicity of a doctrine and appealed to rural ppl. Based on infallibility of the Bible and humankind’s innate depravity
Circuit Rider
ministers who would travel by horseback and seek out rural converts
Francis Asbury
British-born revivalist who scoured the trans-appalachian frontier for lost souls, traversed 15 states giving thousands of sermons. Established mobile evangelism perfectly suited to frontier and the new Democracy
Peter Cartwright
Most successful circuit rider, who roamed KY, TN, OH, and IN, preaching a sermon a day. His msg was, salvation is free for all to embrace
Richard Allen
Helped found African Methodist Episcopal, and said “there was no religious sect or denomination that would suit the capacity of the colored ppl as well as the Methodist”
Phoebe Worrall Palmer
A traveling evangelist that hosted revival meetings in her NYC home, then traveled across the US as a camp meeting evangelist. She is an example of the Great Revival giving women leadership roles outside the home
“anxious bench”
at Finney’s marathon revivals, he would call ppl fwd to this front pew where they struggled to confess their sins and and seek conversion and forgiveness, assisted by friends and neighbors helping to “pray them through” the intense experience
Joseph Smith Jr.
Founder of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, or the Mormons
Nauvoo, IL
in 1839 Mormons moved here and renamed the town of Commerce to Nauvoo. It became a bustling, well-planned community of 12,000 centered on an impressive neoclassical temple
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
in 1848 after being defeated by the US, Mexico signed this to cede to the US what is now CA, NV, UT, TX, and parts of AZ, NM, CO, and WY. 2 yrs later the Congress added the UT Territory including the Mormons’ Salt Lake settlement
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
(1851-1902) She was a prominent reformer and advocate for the rights of women, and she helped organize the Seneca Falls Convention to discuss women’s rights. The convention was the 1st of its kind and produced the Declaration of Sentiments, which proclaimed the equality of men and women.
Shakers
Founded by Mother Ann Lee Stanley in England, the United Society of Believers in Christ’s 2nd Appearing settled in Watervliet, NY in 1774 and subsequently established 18 additional communes in the Northeast, IN, and KY
utopian communities
These communities flourished during the Jacksonian era and were attempts to create the ideal community. They were social experiments conducted in relative isolation, so they had little impact on the world outside their communities. In most cases, the communities quickly ran out of steam and ended

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APUSH Ch 13: An American Renaissance: Religion, Romanticism, and Reform
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Immanuel Kant
German philosopher who is considered to be a central figure of modern philosophy; he argued that reason is the source of morality
Lucretia Mott
an Amer Qua
2017-11-15 09:39:21
APUSH Ch 13: An American Renaissance: Religion, Romanticism, and Reform
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