black artistic movement in New York City in the 1920s, when writers, poets, painters, and musicians came together to express feelings and experiences, especially about the injustices of Jim Crow; leading figures of the movement included Countee Cullen, Claude McKay, Duke Ellington, Zora Neale Hurston, and Langston Hughes.
National Origins Act
A government legislation that cut down the percent of the Emergency Quota Act from 3% to 2%, and it changed the census used from the 1910 one to that of the 1890 one. It greatly limited the number of immigrants who could move to the U.S. And it reflected the isolationist and anti-foreign feeling in America as well as the departure from traditional American ideals.
Severely restricted immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe, and excluded Asians entirely because of the amount of citizens from these places already living in the U.S.
Any culture being cut off from others. The practice of excluding the US from the affairs of the world. Was a precedent set by George Washington, who though that this was the best way to keep the nation out of trouble
prohibition of alcohol. started by Protestant congregations and women’s groups who wished to eliminate the consumption of alcohol in the United States.
the Secretary of the Treasury during the Harding Administration. He felt it was best to invest in tax-exempt securities rather than in factories that provided prosperous payrolls. He believed in trickle down economics. (Hamiltonian economics)
Originally designed to avoid American involvement in World War II by preventing loans to those countries taking part in the conflict; they were later modified in 1939 to allow aid to Great Britain and other Allied nations.
Harding’s Secretary of Interior (a scheming anticonservationist.)who sold government oil reserves to private citizens in Teapot Dome scandal ; first Cabinet member to go to jail
John L. Lewis
United Mine Workers of America leader who organized the first important unskilled workers labor union, he led the coal miners strike; He and the Congress of Industrial Organizations wanted workers’ civil rights, a fair slice of the economic pie, and the right to bargain collectively; called in to represent union during sit-down strike
camps and shantytowns of unemployed and homeless on the outskirts of major cities during the early days of the Depression; they were symbols of the failure of Hoover’s program and the way the nation held him responsible for the hard times.
“Back to Africa Movement”
Founded by Marcus Garvey, a movement that encouraged those of African decent to return to Africa to their ancestors so that they could have their own empire because they were treated poorly in America.
“Spirit of St. Louis”
1927 Charles Lindbergh’s plane built on a shoe stirng budget that flew solo across the Atlantic from new york to paris the flight took over 33 hours and he won the $25,000 Orteig Prize. a pirze. He was the first in the rise of celebrities & repersented the self-made man;
A series of raids By the Justice Department coordinated by Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer in response to unexplained bombings targeting government official including Palmer himself. Police and federal marshals raided the homes of suspected radicals and the headquarters of radical organizations in thirty-two cities. The Palmer Raids resulted in more than 4,000 arrests, 550 deportations, and uncountable violations of civil rights.
This term originated with Gertrude Stein who, after being unimpressed by the skills of a young car mechanic, asked the garage owner where the young man had been trained. The garage owner told her that while young men were easy to train, it was those in their mid-twenties to thirties, the men who had been through World War I, whom he considered a “lost generation”
A nickname coined by Gertrude Stein,and was popularized by Ernest Hemingway it described American writers and artists who had lost their illusions of glory and honor during WWI
This group included : F. Scott Fitzgerald, John Steinbeck, T. S. Eliot, John Dos Passos, Waldo Peirce, Isadora Duncan, Abraham Walkowitz, Alan Seeger, and Erich Maria Remarque.
The 1926 publication of Ernest Hemingway’s The Sun Also Rises popularized the term, as Hemingway used it as an epigraph. (The novel serves to epitomize the post-war expatriate generation. ) ‘who is calling who a lost generation?'” Hemminway refering to u.s. citizens greed and lazyness.
Theory based on the principles of John Maynard Keynes, stating that government spending should increase during business slumps and be curbed during booms. FDR did not follow this philosophy until 1937, where he announced a bold program to stimulate the economy by planned deficit spending. This policy reversal marked a major turnign point in the government’s relation to the economy and became the economic norm for decades.
Warren G. Harding
29th U.S. President. 1921-1923 (Died of natural causes). Republican , promising a “return to normalcy”; not much interested in the work of presidency, enjoying the pomp and circumstance instead; (used office for private gain) had many affairs; presidency marked by corruption and scandal, but he died before his political career was significantly damaged
F. Scott Fitzgerald
He belonged to the Lost Generation of Writers. He wrote the famous novel “The Great Gatsby” which explored the glamour and cruelty of an achievement-oriented society. Expressed disillusionment with the ideals of an earlier time and with the materialism of a business-oriented culture.
National Labor Relations Act
(FDR) A 1935 law, also known as the Wagner Act, that guarantees workers the right of collective bargaining sets down rules to protect unions and organizers, and created the National Labor Relations Board to regulate labor-managment relations. *, Made sure workers were treated and payed well and not getting abused by their business. *this law created the National Labor Relations Board to enforce the law and supervise shop elections
National Industrial Recover Act
– 1933 (100 days)
– national recovery administration
– Allowed business to come together as a group to determine a set of codes that they would live by. To help economy
– Put in minimum wage and maximum hours
Huey Long (Kingfish)
A senator, as well as governor of Louisiana. He was Roosevelt’s biggest threat. Increased the share of state taxes paid by corporations, and also embarked on public works projects including new schools, highways, bridges, and hospitals. However, seized almost dictatorial control of the state government. Believed that the New Deal was not radical enough.
An artist who incorporated a critical view of the impact of new technology and urban life into her paintings…., this artist has been a major figure in American art since the 1920s. She is chiefly known for paintings in which she synthesizes abstraction and representation in paintings of flowers, rocks, shells, animal bones and landscapes. Her paintings present crisply contoured forms that are replete with subtle tonal transitions of varying colors, and she often transformed her subject matter into powerful abstract images 7: 1934-1941
John Steinbeck (grapes of wrath)
(1939) a story of dustbowl victims who travel to California to look for a better life; a novel set during the great depression,focuses on a poor family of sharecroppers driven from their home by drought, economic hardship, and changes in the agriculture industry.
Approve by Congress in March 1941; The act allowed America to sell, lend or lease arms or other supplies to nations considered “vital to the defense of the United States.”
court packing scheme
Roosevelt tried to put an extra justice on the Supreme Court for every justice over 70 years old who wouldn’t retire. These justices would be supporters of Roosevelt and there would be a maximum of 15 judges. The plan failed. Congress would not accept.
Indian Reorganization Act
a U.S. federal legislation which secured certain rights to Native Americans, including Alaska Natives. These include a reversal of the Dawes Act’s privatization of common holdings of American Indians and a return to local self-government on a tribal basis. The Act also restored to Native Americans the management of their assets (being mainly land) and included provisions intended to create a sound economic foundation for the inhabitants of Indian reservations.
Works Progress Administration (WPA)
New Deal program that employed men and women to build hospitals, schools, parks, and airports; employed artists, writers, and musicians as well. Taxpayers criticized the agency for paying people to due “useless” jobs such as painting murals.
Securities and Exchange Commission
In 1934 Congress took steps to protect the public against fraud, deception, and inside manipulation. It authorized this administrative agency to watch over banking and businesses. Stock markets henceforth were to operate more as trading marts and less as gambling casinos.
He wrote during the Harlem Renaissance (1920s-1930s). He was an African American and was the best known poet in the Harlem movement mentioned above. In the Harlem Renaissance, there we may new fashions, jazz, dancers, and poets.
established by the Emergency Immigration Act of 1921, a system limiting immigration to the United States by permitting no more immigrants from a country than 3 percent of the number of that country’s residents living in the United States in 1910; the Immigration Act of 1924 reduced the quota to 2 percent of the number of a country’s residents living in the United States in 1890
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People-aimed to help blacks be physically and mentally free from forced low-paid labor and politically free from disfranchisement and socially free from insult. Included white and black leaders from progressives aimed at social progress.
In 1924, Congress rewarded veterans of World War I with certificates redeemable in 1945 for $1,000 each. By 1932, the veterans needed to cash in the bonus because of the depression. By June of 1932 15,000 bonus marchers
Led by Walter Waters of Oregon showed up at the capital. President Hoover refused to see them, they sent a delgegate to congress.As deliberation continued on Capitol Hill, the Bonus Army built a shantytown across the Potomac River in Anacostia Flats. The senate decided against granting them the bonus early, so many returned to where they came from many stayed with their families because they did not have a place to go. Some people felt they were a threat, Hoover ordered an army regiment into the city, under the leadership of General Douglas MacArthur. The army, complete with infantry, cavalry, and tanks, rolled into Anacostia Flats forcing the Bonus Army to flee. MacArthur then ordered the shanty settlements burned. This outraged many people and had a bad effect on Hoover’s popularity.
Schenck v. U.S.
(1919). Unanimously upheld the Espionage Act of 1917 which declared that people who interfered with the war effort were subject to imprisonment; declared that the 1st Amendment right to freedom of speech was not absolute;a defendant did not have a First Amendment right to express freedom of speech against the draft during World War I. free speech could be limited if its exercise presented a “clear and present danger.”
was a phase in early World War II marked by few military operations in Continental Europe, in the months following the German invasion of Poland and preceding the Battle of France. Although the great powers of Europe had declared war on one another, neither side had yet committed to launching a significant attack, and there was relatively little fighting on the ground
Sacco and Vanzetti
It began with gunmen who robbed and killed a guard and paymaster at a shoe factory in South Braintree, Massachusetts. A few weeks later, police arrested two Italian immigrants–Nicola____ and Bartolomeo ____, both confessed anarchists, for murder in 1920. Both men were found guilty and died in the
electric chair in 1923, though their trial was a showcase for American bigotry and the.evidence was scarce and improperly used. This shows the feelings against foreigners and radicals
TVA (Tennessee Valley Authority)
(1933) controversial Government owned utility company that provided thousands of jobs as it built a series of dams that generated power, provided flood relief, and created recreational lakes throught the seven states (Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Kentucky, Virginia, North Carolina, and Georgia) serviced by the Tennessee River. These areas soon enjoyed good fishing, cheap electricity, and relief from debilitating floods. Still in effect today.
1863-1947. American businessman, founder of Ford Motor Company, father of modern assembly lines, and inventor credited with 161 patents., he made assembly line production more efficient in his Rouge River plant near Detroit- a finished car would come out every 10 seconds. He helped to make car inexpensive so more Americans could buy them.
Universal Negro Improvement Assc.
a black nationalist fraternal organization founded by Marcus Garvey. The organization enjoyed its greatest strength in the 1920s, prior to Garvey’s deportation from the United States of America, after which its prestige and influence declined. Since a schism in 1949, there have been two organizations claiming the name.
America First Committee
A committee organized by isolationists before WWII, who wished to spare American lives. They argued that WWI had not made the US safe, so why fight in this war; that the nation was in a Great Depression; that two oceans kept us safe; that American business interests were not a good enough reason to fight, that this was not our war, so why should American boys die.
it was made in 1928 concerning the difficult problems of arms limitation and war; was signed by the United States, France, the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, Japan, and a number of other countries. The pact renounced aggressive war, prohibiting the use of war as “an instrument of national policy” except in matters of self-defense. The pact was the result of a determined American effort to avoid involvement in the European alliance system.
term applied to the first weeks of the Roosevelt Administration, during which Congress passed 13 emergency relief and reform measures that were the backbone of the early New Deal; these included the Civilian Conservation Corps, the Glass Stegal Act (FDIC), Agricultural Adjustment Act, Federal Emergency Relief Act, and the National Industrial Recovery Act.
President Franklin Roosevelt’s precursor of the modern welfare state (1933-1939); programs to combat economic depression enacted a number of social insureance measures and used government spending to stimulate the economy; increased power of the state and the state’s intervention in U.S. social and economic life.
1923-1929 became president when Harding died of pneumonia. He was known for practicing a rigid economy in money and words, and acquired the name “Silent Cal” for being so soft-spoken. He was a true republican and industrialist. Believed in the government supporting big business.
Social Security Act
1935- (FDR)created a federal insurance pregram based upon the automatic collection of taxes from employees and employers throughout people’s working careers. Those payments would then be used to make monthly payments to retired persons over the age fo 65. Workers who lost their jobs, people who were blind or disabled, and dependent children and their mothers also received benefits.
Fair Labor Standards Act
June 25, 1938- United States federal law that applies to employees engaged in and producing goods for interstate commerce. The FLSA established a national minimum wage, guaranteed time and a half for overtime in certain jobs, and prohibited most employment of minors in “oppressive child labor,” a term defined in the statute. The FLSA is administered by the Wage & Hour Division of the United States Department of Labor.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corp (FDIC)
A federally chartered organization was established in 1933 with the purpose of insuring the return of a depositor’s money (up to $100,000) in case his bank fails.
“share the wealth”
a program advocated by Louisiana Senator Huey P. Long that appealed to desperate lower middle class Americans during the Great Depression. One version proposed confiscating large personal fortunes, guaranteeing every family a cash grant of $5,000 and every worker an annual income of $2,5000, providing pensions to the aged, reducing work hours, paying veterans’ bonuses and ensuring college education for every qualified student. The figures didn’t add up and offered little to promote economic recovery.
Thomas Hart Benton
A zealous supporter of western interests, he staunchly advocated government support of frontier exploration during his term in the Senate from 1820 – 1850. A senator from Missouri, but he opposed slavery. He also opposed the use of currency.
American journalist and literary critic; he opposed the dominance of European culture in America and ridiculed nineteenth-century American moral and cultural values. He moved his readers powerfully, some to anger at the outrageousness of his attitudes. Used satire
After a long reign of high morality, outrageous idealism, and “bothersome do-goodism”, people longed for the “normalcy” of the old America, and were ready to accept a lower quality president who would not force them to be so involved. Harding coined the phrase a “return to normalcy”.
cash and carry
countries such as Britain and France would have to pay for American goods in cash and provide transportation for them. This would keep US ships out of the war zone and eliminate the need for war loans
Congress of Industrial Organization
Grew out of a dispute within the American Federation of Labor CIO; proposed by John L. Lewis in 1938; federation of unions that organized workers in industrial unions in the United States and Canada from 1935 to 1955; supported Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal Coalition, and was open to African Americans; eventually merged with AFL
Washington Naval Conference
1921 – president harding invited delegates from Europe and Japan, and they agreed to limit production of war ships, to not attack each other’s possessions, and to respect China’s independence
Ku Klux Klan
An organization of white supremacists that used lynchings, beatings, and threats to control the black population in the United States. Expressed beliefs in respect for the American woman and things purely American . Strongest periods were after the Civil War, a resurfacing in 1915 continuing through the 1920s, and another upsurge in the 1990s.
This term refers to a group of young black men (ages 12 to 21) who were accused of raping 2 white girls on a train – in 1938 … The incident occurred in the South (Alabama) … Even though the overwhelming evidence indicated the boys were innocent, they were none-the-less found guilty (by an all-white jury) … The case gained world-wide attention and lasted for over six years, through a series of trials … Eventually, four of the young men were paroled (after serving six years in jail), though several of them spent up to fifteen years in jail for the crime.
a famous American legal case in 1925 in which a high school teacher, John Scopes, was accused of violating Tennessee’s Butler Act, which made it unlawful to teach evolution in any state-funded school. The trial was deliberately staged in order to attract publicity to the small town of Dayton, Tennessee, where it was held. Scopes was unsure whether he had ever actually taught evolution, but he purposefully incriminated himself so that the case could have a defendant. The trial set modernists, who said evolution was consistent with religion, against fundamentalists who said the word of God as revealed in the Bible took priority over all human knowledge. The case was thus seen as both a theological contest and a trial on the veracity of modern science regarding the creation-evolution controversy.
The trial is perhaps best known today for serving as the inspiration for the play, and later the movie, Inherit the Wind, both of which were critical successes.
Schechter v U. S.
Sometimes called “the sick chicken case.” Unanimously declared the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) unconstitutional on three grounds: that the act delegated legislative power to the executive; that there was a lack of constitutional authority for such legislation; and that it sought to regulate businesses that were wholly intrastate in character.
background:Schechter Poultry Corporation, the defendant in the case, purchased live poultry from commissioners in New York City and Philadelphia and sold slaughtered poultry to retailers and butchers in Brooklyn. Schechter was charged by the U.S. government with violating the poultry code by selling “unfit chickens,” illegally selling chickens on an individual basis, avoiding inspections by local poultry regulators, falsifying records of poultry sold, and selling poultry to nonlicensed purchasers. Schechter was convicted in a federal district court, lost an appeal to the circuit court, and appealed to the Supreme Court, which reviewed the case in 1935.
(The Court found the phrase “unfair competition” too ambiguous to constitute an “intelligible principle” necessary to limit the president’s actions in enforcing the NIRA. Lacking such a principle, the NIRA effectively allowed the president “unfettered discretion” to create “new laws” without congressional approval. )
Second, the Court held that the poultry code violated the Constitution’s Commerce Clause because the Constitution limits the activities over which Congress may legislate, reserving all other activities for the states to govern. While the Constitution allows Congress to regulate “interstate commerce” under the clause, the Court found Schechter’s activities had nothing to do with interstate commerce. Schechter bought poultry from out of state, but its offending conduct was confined to New York State. The activities of Schechter thus fell outside congressional power because they constituted intrastate (in-state) commerce.
some provisions of the poultry code were found unconstitutional : The effect of a butcher’s hours and wage practices on interstate commerce, for example, was found far too “indirect” to be within the congressional powers to regulate under the Commerce Clause.
American leader of the movement to legalize birth control during the early 1900’s. As a nurse in the poor sections of New York City, she had seen the suffering caused by unwanted pregnancy. Founded the first birth control clinic in the U.S. and the American Birth Control League, which later became Planned Parenthood.
U.S. president during stock market crash, who rejected the Progressive emphasis on activist government to pursue a program of minimal business regulation, low taxes, and high tariffs; encouraged businesses to regulate themselves, his belief in “rugged individualism” kept him from giving people direct relief during the Great Depression.
-sanford b. dole
led the committee formed by local sugar interests that overthrew Queen Liliuokalani and sought annexation by the U.S.; first president of the Republic of Hawaii –
was an American corporation that traded in tropical fruit (primarily bananas) grown on Central and South American plantations and sold in the United States and Europe. It flourished in the early and mid-20th century and came to control vast territories and transportation networks in Central America, the Caribbean coast of Colombia, Ecuador, and the West Indies. Though it competed with the Standard Fruit Company for dominance in the international banana trade, it maintained a virtual monopoly in certain regions, some of which came to be called banana republics.
Harlem political leader,many poor urban African Americans turned to this powerful leader in the 1920s. He urged black economic cooperation and helped African Americans start businesses. He founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and advocated mass migration of African Americans back to Africa. his Universal Negro Improvement Association ran into financial trouble, however. He was eventually arrested for mail fraud and deported to his native Jamaica in 1927.
an American aviator, engineer , and Pulitzer Prize winner who became an international hero when he made the first solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean in 1927. Young and old looked up to this hero because he epitomized traditional values while using new technology.
Elijah-Mohammad (Black Muslims)
born Elijah Robert Poole; October 7, 1897
Director and leader of the Nation of Islam from 1934 until his death in 1975, Elijah taught black to take responsibility of their own lives and reject dependence on whites, similar to Garvey’s teachings. He was a mentor to Malcolm X, Louis Farrakhan, Muhammad Ali; and his son Warith Deen Mohammed.
In reaction to Japan’s 1932 occupation of Manchuria, Secretary of State Henry Stimson declared that the United States would not recognize territories acquired by force.
It was not the first time that the U.S. had used non-recognition as a political tool or symbolic statement this tactic is not common but usually used in treaty violations
name applied to college professors from Columbia University such as Rexford Tugwell, Adolf Berle, and Raymond Moley who were Specialists in law, economics, and welfare, they advised Roosevelt on economic matters early in the New Deal; the Brain Trust took on the role of an “unofficial Cabinet” in the Roosevelt Administration.
Democrat was was the 32nd president from 1933 until his death in 1945. He broke the unofficial tradition of serving no more than two terms in office, he served 4 terms. a feat no longer permissible due to the 22nd amendment to the constitution.and oversaw both the New Deal and WWII. In so doing, he exercised greater authority than perhaps any president before him, giving rise to a new understanding of the role and responsibility of the president. Under his leadership, the modern Democratic Party was formed, garnering support from labor unions, blacks, urban workers, and farmers. He has been called the most popular president in American history.
Famous 1920’s author who wrote Babbitt and Main Street – presented small town Americans as dull and narrow-minded.
1935; established National Labor Relations Board; after the NRA was ruled unconstitutional protected the rights of most workers in the private sector to organize labor unions, to engage in collective bargaining, and to take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of their demands.
In a sit-down strike, the workers physically occupy the plant, keeping management and others out.
Frank Lloyd Wright
Considered America’s greatest architect. Pioneered the concept that a building should blend into and harmonize with its surroundings rather than following classical designs.
(he made the cool museums and houses like falling waters, and guggenheim museum)
museums, furniture, homes, stained glass windows, office buildings
Teapot Dome/Elk Hills Scandals
1929 – The Naval strategic oil reserve at Teapot Dome Oil Field in Natrona County, Wyoming, and the Elk Hills and Buena Vista Oil Fields in Kern County, California were taken out of the Navy’s control and placed in the hands of the Department of the Interior, which leased the land to oil companies at low rates and without competitive bids. Several Cabinet members received huge payments as bribes. Due to the investigation, Daugherty, Denky, and Fall were forced to resign. Fall was later convicted of accepting bribes from the oil companies.
This was regarded as the “greatest and most sensational scandal in the history of American politics”.
further destroying the public reputation of the Harding administration, which was already unpopular due to its poor handling of the Great Railroad Strike of 1922 and the President’s veto of the Bonus Bill in 1922.
A twentieth-century American artist whose stark, precisely realistic paintings often convey a mood of solitude and isolation within common-place urban settings. Among his best-known works are Early Sunday Morning and Nighthawks.
An American expatriot Lost Generation writer of short stories and novels written in very simple language about difficult subjects such as death and war. His works include Old Man and the Sea, The Sun Also Rises, and For Whom the Bell Tolls, his novels reflected the disillusionmnet of many Americans with propaganda and patriotic idealism, he spent much of his life in France, Spain, and Cuba during WWI
He eventually killed himself.
Roosevelt agreed to transfer 50 WWI-era naval destroyers to the British navy. In return, the U.S. would gain the right to build 8 naval bases in British territories in the Western Hemisphere.
Signaled the end of U.S. neutrality in the war
In one of the first major acts of his administration, Franklin D. Roosevelt closed the nation’s banks from March 6 to March 15, 1933, to forestall additional bank failures and stabilize the banking system. Some states had already closed all their banks, thereby threatening the ability of businesses to operate and making the depression worse. The Holiday is significant because it restores public confidence and saves the banks and the banking system and, hence, capitalism. It suggests that FDR did not want to establish socialism or some version of it, as is sometimes maintained, because in the crisis of that moment, he could have nationalized the banks and did not.
National Recovery Administration
The most ambitious attempt to control and plan the economy was the National Recovery Administration (NRA), established by Congress right after Roosevelt took office. The key idea behind the NRA was to reduce competition and fix prices and wages for everyone’s benefit, along with sponsoring enough public works projects to ensure recovery. The NRA’s goal required government, business, and labor to hammer out detailed regulations for each industry. Because NRA broke with the cherished American tradition of free competition and aroused conflicts among business people, consumers, and bureaucrats, it was not a success and the NRA was declared unconstitutional by the supreme court.
repeal of prohibition
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.
Changed date president takes office from March 4th to January 20th. Changed start of Congress to January3rd. End of Lame Duck Congress