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AP World History Review – Watts

What was the sequence of human migration across the planet? (CH. 1)
Africa, Middle East, Eurasia, Australia, America, Pacific
(A ME Eats Apple And Pear)
How did Austronesian migrations differ from other early patterns of human movement? (CH. 1)
It was mostly done over water, they took men and women and the brought domesticated animals.
In what ways did a gathering and hunting economy shape other aspects of Paleolithic societies? (CH. 1)
The Paleolithic societies became highly egalitarian (equal) because there were no formal rulers. Most people had the same skill sets.
Why did some Paleolithic peoples abandon earlier, more nomadic ways and begin to live a more settled life? (CH. 1)
A global warming allowed more animals and plants to survive means that the people did not have to go looking for their food. It came to them.
What are the most prominent features of San life? (CH. 1)
They were a hunting & gathering society. They had adequate food & a short working week. A society based on mobility, sharing & equality.
In what ways, and why, did Chumash culture differ from that of the San? (CH. 1)
The Chumash settled in more complex societies. They could live in one place because they were on the coast of the pacific ocean. They also invented the tomol which made them wealthy, and powerful.
What accounts for the emergence of agriculture after countless millennia of human life without it? (CH. 2)
The end of the last Ice Age = global warming
11,000 years ago made agriculture possible
warmer, wetter, and more stable climatic conditions = more wild plants, especially cereal grasses
climate change + human hunting, pushed various species of large mammals into extinction = the need for new food sources.
Humans learned to make use of a large number of plants and animals.
developed techniques + technologies
encouraged the growth of favored plants and harvest wild plants and animals more easily.
More people = Need for more FOOD
In what different ways did the Agricultural Revolution take shape in various parts of the world? (CH. 2)
Middle Eastern societies QUICKLY replaced hunting & gathering with agriculture, but in Meso-America it took 3,500 YEARS.
In what ways did agriculture spread? Where and why was it sometimes resisted? (CH. 2)
Agriculture spread in two ways:
through diffusion
Diffusion refers to the gradual spread of the techniques of agriculture, and perhaps of the plants and animals themselves, but without extensive movement of people
through colonization
Colonization refers to the migration of agricultural peoples as growing populations and pressures to expand pushed them outward. Often this meant the conquest, absorption, or displacement of earlier gatherers and hunters.
Resistance occurred in areas not suitable for farming.
What was revolutionary about the Agricultural Revolution? (CH. 2)
support much larger populations
dominance of the human species over other forms of life on the planet
technological innovation
techniques for making pottery
weaving textiles
impact of humans on their environments
What different kinds of societies emerged out of the Agricultural Revolution? (CH. 2)
Pastoral Societies, Agricultural Village Societies, & Chiefdoms.
How did chiefdoms differ from stateless agricultural village societies? (CH. 2)
Chiefdoms possessed more well-defined and pronounced social inequalities, some of which were inherited. Unlike members of agricultural village societies, commoners in chiefdoms provided tribute to their chief in the form of food, manufactured goods, and raw materials.
Stateless agricultural villages organized themselves in terms of kinship groups or lineages. The lineage system provided the framework within which large numbers of people could make and enforce rules, maintain order, and settle disputes. Developed modest social and economic inequalities, but they were not as well defined as those of chiefdoms and were not hereditary
When and where did the first civilizations emerge? (CH. 3)
Place – Global
Time – 3000 BCE
The first civilization include
1) Mesopotamia – around 3500 BCE to 3000 BCE (Iraq)
2) Nile River Valley – 3500 BCE to 3000 BCE (Egypt)
3) Norte Chico – 3000 BCE – 1800 BCE (Peru)
4) Indus Valley – 2000 BCE (Pakistan)
5) Chinese – 2200 BCE (China)
6) Olmec – 1200 BCE (Mexico)
What accounts for the initial breakthroughs to civilizations? (CH. 3)
Place – Global
Time – 3000 BCE
Agricultural Revolution
What was the role of cities in the early civilizations? (CH. 3)
Place – Global
Time – 3000 BCE
They were political/administrative capitals, centers for culture production, marketplaces, and housed most manufacturing activities.
In what ways was social inequality expressed in early civilizations? (CH. 3)
Place – Global
Time – 3000 BCE
The upper classes had great wealth in land or salaries, avoided labor (physical), had the finest of everything, and had the highest positions in everyday life
In what ways have historians tried to explain the origins of patriarchy? (CH. 3)
Place – Global
Time – 3000 BCE
In the transition to animal-powered farm equipment that needed the men’s strength, in that women were pregnant more from the population increase, indoor activities (cooking, weaving, etc), men had more recognized and prestigious specialist roles.
In what ways did Mesopotamian and Egyptian societies (civilizations) differ from each other? (CH. 3)
Place – Mesopotamia and Egypt
Time – 5000 BCE-100 BCE
Egyptian – Grew around the Nile River which was steady & predictable. Surrounded by protective geography. Stable environment with hopeful outlook on the world.
Mesopotamia – Grew around the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers which were rough and unpredictable. Vulnerable to invasion. Violent environment and disorderly view of the world.
What were the sources of state authority in the First Civilizations? (CH. 3)
Place – Global
Time – ~ 3000 BCE
State authority came from kings, who employed ranked officials, exercised control over society, and defended the state against enemies.
In what ways were Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations shaped by their interaction with near and distant neighbors? (CH. 3)
Place – Global
Time – 3000 BCE
Many crops in Egypt came from Mesopotamia, Egypt’s step pyramids and writing were created from Mesopotamian models. Egyptian roots in Africa and Southwest Asia. Carried extensive, long distance trade. Merchants and cultural influence traveled back and forth.
How did Mesopotamian and Egyptian patriarchy differ from each other? (CH. 3)
Place – Mesopotamia and Egypt
Time ~ 3000 BCE
In the Mesopotamia civilization, laws were written that gave men power over their women whom they protected; women did not have as many rights and were dependent.
In the Egyptian civilization, women had more rights and opportunities. Men were more powerful, but women were also important.
How did Persian and Greek civilizations differ in political organization and values? (CH. 4)
Place – Persian and Greek Empires
Time – 500 BCE & 750 BCE
The Persian Empire was centered on the king who was extremely important and hard to reach. Kings were absolute monarchs. Governors were in charge of provinces with lower-level officials. System of spies were arranged for the king.
In the Greek Empire, city-states existed that were independent and always in conflict. “Citizenship” – equality, people running for state affairs, voting, etc.
Why did semi-democratic governments emerge in some of the Greek city-states? (CH. 4)
Place – Greece
Time – 750 BCE
People believed in having citizenship to vote, run state affairs, and participate in their politics. City-states were always in conflict, but the people has political freedom.
What were the consequences for both sides of the encounter between the Persians and the Greeks? (CH. 4)
Place – Persia and Greece
Time – ~ 499 BCE
Greece received enormous source of pride after defeating Persia. Notion of East/West divided was born. Persia – Asia and despotism, Greece – Europe and freedom
After Greco-Persian Wars the Golden Age of Greek Culture emerged
What changes did Alexander’s conquests bring in their wake? (CH. 4)
Place – Greece and Persia
Time – 338 BCE
From Alexander’s conquests came the Greek Empire – from Egypt and Anatolia to Afghanistan and India. Persian Empire was defeated – Persepolis was burned. Alexander – “King of Asia”
How did Rome grow from a single city to the center of a huge empire? (CH. 4)
Place – Rome
Time – 509 BCE
Roman aristocrats established a republic in the city Rome. They also created a Senate to exercise authority. There was a written law, assemblies, etc. for political benefit. With these systems and values, Romans conquered neighboring lands and became an empire.
How and why did the making of the Chinese empire differ from that of the Roman Empire? (CH. 4)
Place – Chinese Empire
Time – 2200 BCE
It was not creating something new (Chinese Empire), but restoring something old. Chinese seven kingdoms were always at war, making unity difficult. They had been unified earlier, but the state fell into shambles. Roman Empire started from small city and grew into a huge empire.
In comparing the Roman and Chinese empires, which do you find more striking – their similarities or differences? (CH. 4)
Place – Roman and Chinese Empires
Time – ~ 1st century CE
Their similarities are more striking. It’s interesting how both major empires used religion and other cultures to unify their people. They also defined themselves in universal terms.
How did the collapse of empire play out differently in the Roman world and in China? (CH. 4)
Place – China and Roman world
Time – 220 CE and 476 CE
In China, conflicts between the emperor-loyal officials and Confucian scholars weakened the state. The “barbarian” peoples of the north came in and settled China.
In Rome, power-greed killed many emperors, Germanic people entered the Empire and established kingdoms of their own.
China would become a unified state once more, while Rome would not rise to such prominence again
Why were centralized empires so much less prominent in India than in China? (CH. 4)
Place – India
Time – 600 BCE
The leaders of India used religion rather than force to unify the people. Because of so much cultural diversity and frequent invasions from Central Asia, India did not have states.
In what ways did the religious traditions of South Asia change over the centuries? (CH. 5)
Place – India ~ south & southeast Asia
Time – 600 BCE & (800-400 BCE)
At first, religious traditions were based on the Vedas and the ceremonies were performed by priests – Brahmins. Then the Upanishads were created by thinkers and philosophers. Religious traditions changed from external ritual to introspective thinking.
What are the distinctive features of the Greek intellectual tradition? (CH. 5)
Place – Greece
Time – 600 to 300 BCE
Its emphasis on argument, logic, and the relentless questioning of received wisdom; its confidence in human reasoning; its enthusiasm for puzzling out the world without much reference to gods
What different answer to the problem of disorder arose in classical China? (CH. 5)
Place – China
Legalism, Confucianism, and Daoism.
Legalism – Practical system of rewards and punishments
Confucianism – Moral example of superiors for social harmony
Daoism – Harmony with nature. Withdrawal from the world
What is the difference between the Theravada and the Mahayana expression of Buddhism? (CH. 5)
Theravada Buddhism saw Buddha as a teacher, but not divine. It was more psychological than religious.
Mahayana Buddhism saw Buddha as a god, and bodhisattvas helped people into Nirvana.
What aspects of Zoroastrianism and Judaism subsequently found a place in Christianity and Islam? (CH. 5)
Place – Persia and Middle East
Time – 558-330 BCE
Conflict between God and Satan, last judgement and resurrected bodies, final defeat of evil, savior (Messiah)
Judaism-Islam and Christianity
The belief of one god who is divine, demanding righteousness and justice.
In what ways did Buddhism reflect Hindu traditions, and in what ways did it challenge them? (CH. 5)
Place – India and Southeast Asia
Time – 566 to 486 BCE
The idea that ordinary life is an illusion, karma and rebirth, goal of overcoming ego, meditation, hope for release of rebirth are Hindu. However, rejecting the religious authority of the Brahmins, not performing rituals and sacrifices, and not believing in God was Buddhist thinking.
Why has Confucianism been defined as a “humanistic philosophy” rather than a supernatural religion? (CH. 5)
Place – China
Time – 551 to 479 BCE
It is more a way of thinking – a guide to social order – rather than a religion there were no gods or supernatural beings involved – only education, benevolence, goodness, and social harmony. It also established certain expectations for government.
How would you compare the lives and teachings of Jesus and the Buddha? In what different ways did the 2 religions evolve after their founders’ deaths? (CH. 5)
Place – Middle East and South Asia
Time – 379 to 395 CE
Both the Buddha and Jesus were “wisdom teachers” – challenging values of their time, urging renunciation of wealth, and emphasizing the Supreme importance of love or compassion as basis for a moral life. After the death of Jesus, Christianity eventually became the official state religion of Rome, excluding all other religions, Buddhism evolved into Hinduism in India.
In what ways was Christianity transformed in the five centuries after the death of Jesus? (CH. 5)
Place – Middle East/Rome/Europe
Time – 500 CE
Christianity became the official Roman state religion. It developed a hierarchical organization that was completely patriarchal. The bishop of Rome emerged as the dominant leader (pope) in western Europe – not Eastern. Split between Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox branches. Disagreements on nature of Jesus.
What was distinctive about the Jewish religious tradition? (CH. 5)
Place – Middle East (Several locations)
Time – 722 to 586 BCE
The Jews were distinctive because they believed in only one God who was of utter holiness and purity, set far above the world of nature. Yet people could communicate with him personally.
How did the Daoist outlook differ from that of Confucianism? (CH. 5)
Place – China
Time – 369 to 286 BCE
Daoism urged withdrawal into the world of nature and encouraged spontaneous, individualistic, and natural behavior, while Confucius focused on society and human relationships.
*Confucious roams within society Laozi wanders beyond*
What new emphases characterized Hinduism as it responded to the challenge of Buddhism? (CH. 5)
Place – South Asia
Time – ~1000 CE
That ordinary people (not just Brahmins) could spiritually progress by selflessly performing the ordinary duties of their lives. Also- worship of a particular deity.
How did India’s caste system differ from China’s class system? (CH. 6)
Place – China & India
The Indian caste system had many distinct social groups which were defined rigidly and little mobility to move.
China had fewer groups.
India – highest is religious purity
China – Ability to pass imperial exam (Political officials)
How did you characterize the social hierarchy of Classical China? (CH. 6)
Place – China
Time – 124 BCE
The social hierarchy was determined by the officials who passed the civil service exams – they were in charge of the commoners and possessed most of the wealth and knowledge
How did Greco-Roman slavery differ from that of other classical civilizations? (CH. 6)
Place – Greece and Rome
Time – 500 BCE to 500 CE
These empires thrived on slavery. In Greece, they were “slaves by nature” and had no rights. Even if they were granted freedom, slaves could not become citizens with the same rights as ordinary men. Their jobs and occupations were the same free men.
What set of ideas underlies India’s caste-based society? (CH. 6)
Place – India
Time – 500 BCE
Everyone was born into and remained within one of the caste classes for life
Brahmins, Kshatriya, Varsya, Sudras, and Untouchables
What conflicts disrupted Chinese society? (CH. 6)
Place – China
Time – 184 CE
Peasants had high taxes and not enough land – Yellow Turban Rebellion. Landlords had too much land and didn’t have to pay taxes. Peasant rebellions.
In what ways did the expression of Chinese patriarchy change over time, and why did it change? (CH. 6)
Place – China
Time – 45 to 705 CE
The Chinese changed from strict patriarchy where women had almost no value to a more loose system where women were more respected and could do “men” activities and own land. Empress Wu and nomadic women elevated the role of women.
How did the inequalities of slavery differ from those of caste? (CH. 6)
Place – Global (India specifically)
Time – Throughout early human history
Slavery was ownership by a master with the possibility of being sold. They got no pay and were at the bottom of the social ladder. In castes, you were something and could at least control how you act to an extent; slaves had no rights or individual identity.
How did the patriarchies of Athens and Sparta differ from each other? (CH. 6)
Place – Greece (Athens & Sparta)
Time – 500 BCE to 500 CE
Athens viewed women much more negatively and restrictive than Sparta. They saw women as infertile males. In Sparta, girls participated in sporting events to prepare their bodies for bearing sons, were educated, and married at the same age.
What is the difference between varna and jati as expressions of classical India’s caste system? (CH. 6)
Place – India
Time – 500 BCE to 500 CE
Varnas were broken down into subgroups, jatis, according to specialized occupations. Jatis as a group could move up varnas possibly.
How did the history of Meroe and Axum reflect interaction with neighboring civilizations? (CH. 7)
Place – Africa (Nubia & Axum)
Time – 500 BCE to 500 CE
Both civilizations modeled major features of the classical civilizations of Eurasia, and were in direct contact with the world of the Mediterranean cities.
How does the experience of the Niger Valley challenge conventional notions of “civilization?” (CH. 7)
Place – Niger Valley
Time – 500 BCE to 500 CE
The Niger Valley Civilization had no centralization of authority – no state structure.
In what ways did the arrival of Bantu speaking people stimulate cross-cultural interaction? (CH. 7)
Place – Africa (South of Equator)
Time – 500 BCE to 500 CE
Bantu-speaking peoples stimulated cross-cultural interaction by introducing iron tools and weapons. Agriculture, trading, networks food, and social/cultural practices were exchanged.
With what Eurasian civilizations might the Maya be compared? (CH. 7)
Place – Meso-America
Time – 2000 BCE to 900 CE
Ancient Mesopotamia or classical Greece because of the competing city-states.
In what ways did Teotihuacan shape the history of Meso-America? (CH. 7)
Place – Meso-America
Time – 150 BCE to 550 CE
Teotihuacan was a big influence on the other surrounding civilizations because of its size, politics, military, and architecture
What kind of influence did Chavin exert in the Andes region? (CH. 7)
Place – present-day Peru
Time – 100 BCE to 1000 CE
Chavin-style architecture, sculpture, pottery, religious images, and painted textiles were imitated.
What features of Moche life characterize it as a civilization? (CH. 7)
Place – Andes region
Time – 100 to 800 CE
Their complex irrigation system, being governed by warrior-priests (under drugs), elaborate burials, and their exquisite craftsmanship characterized them
In what ways were the histories of the Ancestral Pueblo and the Mound Builders similar/different from each other? (CH. 7)
Place – North America
Time – 600 CE to 1200 CE
Differences – Mound Builders had independent Agricultural Revolution; Ancestral Pueblo had help from the Meso-American peoples.
Similarities – Both had corn-based agriculture.
What lay behind the emergence of the Silk Roads, commerce, and what kept it going for so many centuries? (CH. 8)
Place – Eurasia
Time – 500 to 1500 CE
The outer and inner zone of Eurasia with different environments. The pastoral people of the region traded with outer, etc. Large states providing security for trading networks kept it going for many centuries.
What made silk such a highly desired commodity across Eurasia? (CH. 8)
Place – Eurasia (Silk Roads)
Time – 500 to 1500 CE
Silk became a symbol of high status, laws were passed to prevent its circulation; silk was available for consumption only for the elite, was used as currency, and as accumulating wealth. Associated with Buddhism and Christianity
What were the major economic, social and cultural consequences of Silk Road commerce? (CH. 8)
Place – Silk Roads (Eurasia)
Time – 500 to 1500 CE
Peasants in the Yangzi River delta in China gave up farming to make silk, paper, porcelain, lacquer-ware, or iron tools for the Silk Roads. High social statuses could benefit immensely
What accounted for the spread of Buddhism along the Silk Roads? (CH. 8)
Place – Silk Roads (Eurasia)
Time – 500 to 1500 CE
Buddhism had appealed to merchants – Indian traders and Buddhist monks supported by their leaders, brought Buddhism to trans-European trade routes.
What was the impact of disease along the Silk Roads? (CH. 8)
Place: Silk Roads
Time – 500 to 1500 CE
People were exposed to foreign unfamiliar diseases they had little immunity to.
Ex. Smallpox, Measles, Greek Disease
How did the operation of the Indian Ocean trading network differ from that of the Silk Roads? (CH. 8)
Place – Indian Ocean
Time – 500 to 1500 CE
Transportation costs were lower on the Indian Ocean than Silk Roads. Ships = More cargo than camels. Could carry bulk goods for mass market, not only luxuries.
What lay behind the flourishing of Indian Ocean Commerce in the post-classical millennium? (CH. 8)
Place – Indian Ocean area
Time – 500 to 1500 CE
China reestablished an unified state that encouraged maritime trading and the rise of Islam which was friendly to commercial life.
What is the relationship between the rise of Srivijaya and the world of Indian Ocean commerce? (CH. 8)
Place – Srivijaya & Indian Ocean
Time – 500 to 1500 CE
Srivijaya grew up from competition between the Malay peninsula and the coast of Sumatra. The city was a mix of cultures from commerce.
What was the role of Swahili civilization in Indian Ocean commerce? (CH. 8)
Place – Swahili
Time – 500 to 1500 CE
Swahili grew a lot of objects in demand that they traded – merchants and classes developed into giant city.
What changes did Trans-Saharan trade bring to West Africa? (CH. 8)
Place – Africa
Time – 500 to 1500 CE
West Africa was in trade because of their gold. They received horses, cloth, dates, various manufactured goods and salt.
In what ways did networks of interaction in the Western Hemisphere differ from those in the Eastern Hemisphere? (CH. 8)
Place – Americas
Time – 500 to 1500 CE
Less contact with each other led to no source of horses, donkeys, camels, wheeled vehicles, or ships. Geography included various obstacles. Sea trade with canoes led to cotton clothes, jewels, and some feathers (luxuries).
Why are the centuries of the Tang and Song dynasties in China sometimes in China referred to as a “Golden Age?” (CH. 9)
Place – China
Time – 618 to 1279 CE
It set high standards of arts and literature, poetry, painting, and ceramics. Scholarship gave rise to Neo-Confucianism. State structure that endured for a thousand years. 6 major ministries: personnel, finance, rites, army, justice, and public works. Population! Urbanization!
In what ways did women’s lives change during the Tang and Song dynasties? (CH. 9)
Place – China
Time – 500 to 1500 CE
During the Tang dynasty, Chinese women had greater freedom than in classical times. Female Daoist priests and practitioners could worship a deity. In Song dynasty, because of reviving Confucianism & economic growth, women were restricted with views of submission & passivity. Food binding spread widely during the Song dynasty.
How did the Chinese and their nomadic neighbors to the north view each other? (CH. 9)
Place – China
Time – 500 to 1500 CE
The nomadic people to the north were attached to Chinese goods – silk & wine. They traded, raided, and extorted to get resources from China. Chinese often threatened the nomads and built the Great Wall to keep them out. Horses were acquired from the nomadic peoples.
What assumptions underlay the tribute system? (CH. 9)
Place – China and regions to the north
Underlying the tribute system was the understanding that China, the “middle kingdom,” was the center of the world, infinitely superior to the “barbarian” people beyond its borders. China represented “civilization.”
How did the tribute system in practice differ from the ideal Chinese understanding of its operation? (CH. 9)
Place – China
Time – 500 to 1500 CE
At times the tribute system gave gifts from the Chinese to nomadic empires to keep from invasion. The Chinese were not always able to dictate the terms of their relationships with nomadic peoples.
In what ways did China and the nomads influence each other? (CH. 9)
Place – China
Time – 500 to 1500 CE
Some nomads embraced Chinese culture when they ruled parts of China. Others had other types of interaction (trade, war, gifts, etc.). China adopted elements of nomadic people. “Western barbarians” had great appeal among the elites.
In what ways did Korea, Vietnam, and Japan experience and respond to Chinese Influence? (CH. 9)
Place – Korea, Vietnam, & Japan
Time – 500 to 1500 CE
Korea was ruled by China temporarily during the Han dynasty and was introduced to Chinese culture and Buddhism. Korea was bitter rivals with China – resisted political control. Had a tribute system relationship with China. Korea and Vietnam adopted Confucianism, Daoism, Buddhism; exams art, and literature styles from China. Vietnam participates in the tribute system. Forced to become Chinese. Japan’s voluntary relationship with China-borrowed culture.
In what different ways did Japanese and Korean women experience the pressures of Confucian orthodoxy? (CH. 9)
Place – Japan and Korea
Time – 500 to 1500 CE
Japanese women mostly escaped the more oppressive features of Confucianism – prohibition of remarriage for widows, seclusion within the home, and foot binding. They could own property, divorce, and remarry. Korean women were tied down to Confucian values – became stricter.
In what ways did China participate in the world of Eurasian commerce and exchange and with what outcomes? (CH. 9)
Place – China & Eurasia
Time – 500 to 1500 CE
China introduced paper and printing to the world around it. Also, gunpowder and magnetic compasses. Everyone bought China’s products. China learned cultivation and processing of cotton and sugar from India. New Vietnamese rice results in larger population. Persian windmills. Ports.
What facilitated the rooting of Buddhism within China? (CH. 9)
Place – China
Time – 300 to 800 CE
Buddhism initially entered China via the Silk Road and foreign merchants and monks. Began with collapse of the Han dynasty. Its emphasis on ritual, morality, and contemplation was a satisfying response to times that were out of joint.
What were the major sources of opposition to Buddhism within China? (CH. 9)
Place – China
Time – 800 CE
Buddhism was a foreign religion and many officials found it offensive to Confucianism. Chinese state took over Buddhism.
In what respects did Byzantium continue the patterns of the classical Roman Empire? In what ways did it diverge from those patterns? (CH. 10)
Place – Byzantium (Eastern Europe)
Time – 330 to 1300 CE
Byzantium’s roads, taxation system, military structures, centralized administration, imperial court, law, & Christian church was Roman. They also insisted on Roman-styled clothing. However, Byzantium was much smaller than the Roman Empire. Spoke Greek instead of Latin.
How did Eastern Orthodox Christianity differ from Roman Catholicism? (CH. 10)
Place – Eastern & Western Europe
Time – 500 to 1300 CE
The head of the Eastern Orthodox Christian Church was also the head of the state (government). The Church was treated as a government department. However, the Roman Catholic Church in Western Europe was independent from political authorities. *Disagreements on Trinity, Holy Spirit, original sin and importance of faith and reason*
In what ways was the Byzantine Empire linked to a wider world? (CH. 10)
Place – Byzantine
Time – 500 to 1300 CE
Interacted with neighbors: struggle with Persian Empire, long-distance trade of Eurasia (western Europe, Russia, Central Asia, the Islamic World, & China) gave knowledge and ancient Greek learning to Islamic world and Christian West. Also, Slavic languages used alphabets based on Greek letters to translate the Bible, etc.
How did the links to Byzantium transform the new civilization of Kievan Rus? (CH. 10)
Place – Kievan Rus & Byzantium
Time – 500 to 1300 CE
Kievan Rus adopted religion of Byzantium to unite the people. Borrowed Byzantine architectural styles, Cyrillic alphabet, use of icons, prayer and service, imperial control of the church.
How did the historical development of the European West differ from that of Byzantium in the post-classical era? (CH. 10)
Place – European west and Byzantium
Time – 500 to 1000 CE
The European West became less urban and Germanic peoples became dominant. They attempted to mimic the Roman authority and culture.
What replaced the Roman order in Western Europe? (CH. 10)
Place – Western Europe
Time – 500 to 1000 CE
Roman order was replaced by regional kingdoms led by Visigoths in Spain, Franks in France, Lombards in Italy, and Angles and Saxons in England. However, many Roman values persisted with new authorities.
In what ways was European civilization changing after 1000? (CH. 10)
Place – Europe
Time – 1000 to 1300 CE
Expansion and growth. Population grew from about 35 million to 50 million. Marshes were drained, forests were cut down for villages and cropland. More long-distance trade. Urbanization in cities. New groups of people arose: merchants, bankers, artisans, lawyers, doctors, and scholars. Guilds of labor were formed. Woman labor increased. Growth of territorial states – centralized authority.
What was the impact of the Crusade in world history? (CH. 10)
Place – Europe and Mediterranean Area
Time – 1095 to 1291 CE
The Crusades carved out four small Christian states. They killed many Muslims and Jews as they sought for Christ’s holy places. Spain, Sicily, and the Baltic region were brought permanently into western Christendom. Byzantium was weakened by Crusader attacks on Constantinople. Crusaders developed a taste for Asian luxury goods, sugar, and slave production.
In what ways did borrowing from abroad shape European civilizations after 1000? (CH. 10)
Place – Europe
Time – 500 to 1000 CE
Agriculture: heavy wheeled plow and horses with horseshoes and 3-field crop rotation led to more production, thus population growth.
Energy: new type of windmill, water-driven mill
War: gunpowder from China – used in canons, shipbuilding, navigational techniques, compass, rudder, sail – mastering the seas
Why was Europe unable to achieve the kind of political unity that China did? What impact did this have on Europe’s history? (CH. 10)
Place – Europe and China
Time – 500 to 1300 CE
Europe never had the unity it used to – the kind of unity China had because of geographic barriers, ethnic linguistic diversity, & shifting balances of power. Could not unite into Roman Empire. Rise to frequent wars, enhanced role of status of military men, and drove “gunpowder revolution.”
In what different ways did classical Greek philosophy and science have an impact in the West, in Byzantium, & the Islamic World? (CH. 10)
Place – European West, Byzantium, & Islamic World
Time – 500 to 1500 CE
West: Legal system, schools, & universities (intellectual, autonomy, rational, thought). Theology, lay, medicine, world of nature.
Byzantium: Greek was already spoken. Interest in humanities – literature, philosophy, history, and theology. Church didn’t support Greek thought.
Islamic World: Translation of Greek writings to Arab, sciences to natural philosophies, debates regarding faith and reason.
In what ways did the early history of Islam reflect its Arabian origins? (CH. 11)
Place – Arabia
Time – 500 to 1500 CE
Where Islam started – in Arabia between Byzantium and Persia (Sassanid Empire) – influenced it. The monotheistic ideas of the Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians helped define Allah – the one, Islamic God which made it monotheistic.
How does the core message of Islam compare with that of Judaism and Christianity? (CH. 11)
Place – Arabia
Time – 600 to 1500 CE
The core message of Islam is a belief of Allah – the only God who is the all-powerful Creator, good, just, and merciful – and submission to Him. It is the same message with Judaism and Christianity – one God who is all-powerful and good. Savior is Christian.
In what ways was the rise of Islam revolutionary, both in theory and in practice? (CH. 11)
Place – Global
Time – Origin to Present
Islam had become a large empire within twenty years by military success of expansion through the Arabian peninsula and creating Umma in Medina. Muhammed was a military and religious leader.
Why were Arabs able to construct such a huge empire so quickly? (CH. 11)
Place – Arabia
Time Time – 500 to 1500 CE
The Arabs had organized themselves into a state with a central command capable of mobilizing the military potential of the Arab population. They were continuing a long pattern of tribal raids into surrounding civilizations and conquering new lands to create an empire.
What accounts for the widespread conversion to Islam? (CH. 11)
Place – Arabian Peninsula & Middle East
Time – 600 to 1500 CE
“Social conversion” movement from one religious social community to another. Many elements of Islam were similar in Christianity, Judaism, and Zoroastrianism. Islam was friendly to merchants, it traveled. Islam was associated with a powerful state, the Arab Empire. Social mobility was present in Islam.
What is the difference between Sunni and Shia Islam? (CH. 11)
Place – Arab Empire
Time – 600 to 1500 CE
Sunni caliphs were political and military leaders – selected by all Muslims. Shia: leadership in Islam should be from (blood) line of Muhammad. Sunni: religious authority – scholars “ulama.” Shia: leaders “Imams” – religious authority. Sunni: Umayad family – ruled as caliphs.
In what ways were Sufi Muslims critical of mainstream Islam? (CH. 11)
Place – Arab Empire
Time – 600 to 1500 CE
They saw mainstream Islam as a distraction and deviation from the purer spirituality of Muhammad’s time. They sought a direct and personal experience with the divine. Did not support Islamic laws – did little to come to Allah.
How did the rise of Islam change the lives of women? (CH. 11)
Place – Arab Empire
Time – 600 to 1500 CE
As Arab Empire grew, woman became more restricted. Quran defined men and women as equals. However in Islamic society, women were viewed as inferiors and were subordinate to men. Early Arab practice: women could hold property, dowries, & inheritances, but not as much as men. Women could sue for divorce, had to cover themselves in public, and were often subjected to polygamy.
What similarities and differences can you identify in the spread of Islam to India, Anatolia, West Africa, and Spain? (CH. 11)
Place – India, Anatolia, West Africa, and Spain
Time – 600 to 1500 CE
Spread of Islam was harder in India – only about 20-25% in Muslim communities (northwestern India, Bengal). Exclusive from Hinduism. In Anatolia, 90% population became Muslim – smaller population & weak. Islam trades came to West Africa. Peaceful conversion – urban – intellectual. Spain – not total conversion – harmony with Jews & Christians. Then warring – Islam took over.
Why was Anatolia so much more thoroughly Islamized than India? (CH. 11)
Place – Anatolia and India
Time – 600 to 1500 CE
It had a smaller population and had grown weak due to famine, massacres, and enslavement.
What makes it possible to speak to the Islamic World as a distinct and coherent civilization? (CH. 11)
Place – Islamic World
Time – 600 to 1500 CE
The Islamic world had classes, buildings, education, and specialization.
In what ways was the world of Islam a “Cosmopolitan Civilization?” (CH. 11)
Place – World of Islam
Time – 600 to 1500 CE
It was an immense area of exchange in goods, technologies, food products, and ideas widely circulated. It became a prominent part of trade routes.
In what ways did pastoral societies differ from their agricultural counterparts? (CH. 12)
Place – Plateau of Tibet
Time- 1200 to 1500 CE
Pastoral societies economies supported far smaller populations than did agricultural societies. People generally lived in small and widely scattered encampments of related kinfolk rather than in villages, towns, and cities. Related clans might come together as a tribe. These societies were much more egalitarian.
In what ways did pastoral societies interact with their agricultural neighbors? (CH. 12)
Place – Inner Eurasia, Sub-Saharan Africa, deserts, subarctic regions of Northern Hemisphere, plateau of Tibet
Time – 1200 to 1500 CE
Most nomadic peoples sought access to the food, manufactured goods, and luxury items from agricultural people around them. Military-extracted wealth through raiding, trading, or extortion. Became acquainted with universal religions. Learned horse-back riding.
In what ways did the Xiongnu, Arabs, and Turks make and impact on world history? (CH. 12)
Place – Xiongnu, Arab, & Turkish Empires
Time – 1200 to 1500 CE
The military potential of horse-back riding (& camels) made mastery of mounted warfare possible. Xiongnu – created huge military confederacy that united a huge area. Equality with Han dynasty. Arabs & Turks created the largest & most influential empires – post-classical. Expansive religious traditions (Islam) – Arabs. Reliable camel saddle – military advantage. *Turks converted to Islam & brought it elsewhere*
Did the history and society of the East African Masai people parallel that of Asian nomads? (CH. 12)
Time – After 1500 CE
Not completely – no large states or chiefdoms developed among agricultural or pastoral peoples in Kenya and Tanzania. Individuals were bound together through ritual: adolescent boys were initiated together in a ritual and produced a profound bond between them. However, views of life between pastoral and agricultural peoples was paralleled with Asian societies. Outsiders could become Masai.
Identify the major step in the rise of the Mongol Empire. (CH. 12)
Place – Mongol Empire
Time – 12th Century
Temujin became a chief with a growing band of followers. His rise to power took place among shifting alliances and betrayals, a mounting string of military victories, the indecisiveness of his enemies, a reputation as a generous leader, and new warriors from defeated tribes. A Mongol assembly recognized Temujin as Chinggis Khan, supreme ruler of an unified Great Mongol Nation. Constructed empire with China, Korea, Central Asia, Russia, Middle East, and Eastern Europe.
What accounts for the political & military success of the Mongols? (CH. 12)
Place – Mongol Empire
Time – 12th century
Their success lies in their army. Leadership, organization, and discipline was superior in Mongol forces. Chinggis Khan reorganized the social structure of the Mongols into military units of 10, 100, 1000, and 10000 warriors – effective control and command. Impressive discipline and loyalty to their leaders. Desertion = death penalty. Leaders shared the hardships with the fellow fighters. Flow of wealth benefited all of the men. Incorporation of conquered peoples into the military. * Reputation for brutality and destructiveness*
How did the Mongol rule change China? In what ways were the Mongols changed by China? (CH. 12)
Place – China
Time – 1209 to 1368 CE
Mongol rule united Northern and South China – therefore many educated Chinese believed they had the Mandate of Heaven. Mongols made use of Chinese administrative practices, techniques of taxation, and their postal system. New capital in Beijing – Khanbalik & made use of Confucian rituals and Daoist temples.
How was Mongol rule in Persia different from that in China? (CH. 12)
Place – Persia
It was far more abrupt. First invasion – followed by 30 years (second assault). The Mongols brought much ferocity and slaughter. Massacre of Baghdad – 200000 people. Damage to Persian and Iraqi agriculture. Heavy taxes pushed peasants off their land – in China, peasants taxes were decreased. Mongols who conquered became Muslim – some turned to farmers and married local people.
What was distinctive about the Russian experience of Mongol rule? (CH. 12)
Place – Russia/Kievan Rus
Time – 12th century (1237)
Russia had little to offer the Mongols. They didn’t occupy the city but lived outside on the steppes. Russian princes found it useful to adopt the Mongols’ weapons, diplomatic rituals, court practices, taxation system, and military draft. Made possible the rise of Moscow. Made use of the Mongol mounted courier service. Mongol policies strengthened Russian Orthodox Church.
In what ways did the Mongol Empire contribute to the globalization of the Eurasian world? (CH. 12)
Place – Mongol Empire
Time – 1200 to 1500 CE
Mongols promoted international commerce. Prompted diplomatic relationships from one end of Eurasia to the other. Close relationships developed between the courts of Persia and China – regularly exchanging ambassadors, sharing knowledge, fostering trade, and sending skilled workers back and forth to areas where assistance is necessary. Movement of people, ideas, and merchandise were all aspects of the Mongol Empire.
Disease changes societies. How might this argument apply to the plague? (CH. 12)
Place – Eurasia
Time – 1331 to 1350 CE
The plague decreased Eurasian population dramatically – about half of Europe’s people perished. Middle East lost about one-third. Labor shortages provoked conflict between the rich and the working class. Peasant revolts reflected tension. Volume of women’s status increased. Workers status increases. M of H is gone = Ming Dynasty
In what ways did the gathering & hunting people of Australia differ from those of the northwest coast of North America? (CH. 13)
Place – Australia & Northwest North America
Time – 15th century
The hunter/gatherer people of Australia had been separated into about 250 groups. They borrowed ideas from outsiders (canoes, fishhooks, nets, ideas, etc.) but did not farm. Used “firestick farming” to clean up the country. Goods were exchanged. In North America, the people created a complex hunter/gatherer culture. They had permanent village settlements – large houses, economic specialization/ structure, ranked societies (slavery), chiefdoms, leaders, and food storage.
What kinds of changes were transforming West African agricultural village societies and those of the Iroquois as the 15th century dawned? (CH. 13)
Place: West Africa, New York area
Time: 15th century
Farming village societies – productivity made larger populations. Rival city-states emerged ruled by kings who performed both religious and political functions West Africa. Iroquois – recently become fully agricultural. Warfare for men led to prestige. Conflict Great Law of Peace – alliance of 5 Iroquois peoples by clan leaders – peaceful solutions. Limited government, social equality, personal freedom, matrilineal.
What role did Central Asian and West African pastoralists play in their respective regions? (CH. 13)
Place: Central Asia, West Africa
Time: 15th century
Timur’s armies tried to regain Mongol Empire by conquering parts of Russia, Persia, and India. Had sophisticated elite culture: Turkic & Persian elements with artists, poets, traders and craftsmen. Africa–the Fulbe people (largest pastoral society in Africa) lived in small communities among agricultural peoples and paid grazing fees. Adapted Islam. Leaders in villages. Gave rise to a series of new states.
How would you define the major achievements of Ming Dynasty China? (CH. 13)
Place: China – Ming Dynasty
Time: 15th century
Major achievements = enormous encyclopedia (history, geography, ethics, government, etc.) Beijing as capital, Forbidden City & Temple of Heaven becoming past China – Confucian. Reestablished civil service exam, centralized gov. – 1 emperor & eunuchs. Rebuilt canals, reservoirs, & irrigation. Trade flourished, population grew – recovered from Mongol rule. Maritime expectations: South China Sea – encompassed new peoples in Tribute System. Chinese trade control
What political and cultural differences stand out in the histories of 15th century China and Western Europe? What similarities are apparent? (CH. 13)
Place: China and Western Europe
Time: 15th century
Differences: Political – China: unitary and centralized government that included most of the civilizations. Europe: system of many separate, independent, and highly competitive states – sharply divided Christendom. Many learned to tax citizens more efficiently for administrative structures and armies. Cultural – China: Confucian. Europe: Renaissance – classical Greek tradition. Similarities: both went back to traditions of state buildings – Confucian, Greek…
In what ways did European maritime voyaging in the 15th century differ from that of China? What accounts for these differences? (CH. 13)
Place: Europe and China
Time: 15th century
Size was different. Columbus: three ships with 90 people crew. De Gama: four ships with 130 people crew. Zheng He: hundreds of ships w/a crew in the thousands. Europeans were seeking wealth of Africa and Asia, Christian converts, Christian allies. China needed none of these. China’s decisive ending of its voyage. Europe – continuity effort – led to control. Good support. “one true religion” — threats.
What differences can you identify among the four major empires in the Islamic world of the 15th and 16th centuries? (CH. 13)
Place: Islamic world
Time: 15th and 16th centuries
Ottoman & Safavid Empires:
Ottoman: much wealth, power, and splendor. Huge territory, long duration, incorporation of many diverse peoples, and economic and cultural sophistication successors to Roman Empire.
Safavid: forcibly imposed Shia Islam Hostility against Sunnis.
Songhay: intersection of trade routes (trans-Saharan). Islam was limited to urban cities.
Mughal: non-Muslim population blended Hindu and Muslim culture.
What distinguished the Aztec and Inca empires from each other? (CH. 13)
Place: Aztec and Incan Empires – North America
Time: 15th century
Aztecs drew upon the traditions of the Toltecs and Teotihuacan; Incas had lands & cultures of Chavin, Moche, Nazca & Chimu–much larger state. Aztec empire controlled only part of the Mesoamerican cultural region; Inca state encompassed whole Andean civilization. Both – military success. Aztecs – left conquered people alone. Incas – more bureaucratic; emperor (divine) and encompassed new people with empire – mitas.
How did Aztec religious thinking support the empire? (CH. 13)
Place: Aztec Empire
Time: 15th century
Human sacrifice (slaves) to keep the Gods happy. Sun God needed human blood. War expansions prisoners of war were sacrificed. Sacrificial rituals.
In what ways did Inca authorities seek to integrate their vast domains? (CH. 13)
Place: Incan Empire
Time: 15th century
By using Mitas and having a series of economic webs
In what different ways did the peoples of the 15th century interact with one another? (CH. 13)
Place: Global
Time: 15th century.
All had overlapping webs of influence, communicated w/one another. Exchanged goods. Trade routes–goods. Religions spreading through regions
What enable Europeans to carve out huge empires an ocean away from their homelands? (CH. 14)
Place – Europeans to Americas
Time – 1450 to 1750 CE
The Atlantic Sea Currents carried the European ships steadily to the Americas. Seafaring technology – from Chinese & Islamic precedents – allowed easy crossing of the Atlantic Ocean for transporting people and supplies across great distances. Ironworking technology, gun powder weapons, & horses had no American parallel. Native alliances and diseases helped conquer peoples.
What large-scale transformation did European empires generate? (CH. 14)
Place – European to Americas
Time – 1450 to 1750 CE
Demographic collapse of Native American societies. – Died in appalling numbers when coming in contact with new European & African diseases – 90% of population. Social breakdown as result of disease. Labor shortage of native peoples. Europeans brought new plants and animals – transformed landscape & native species. – Ranching economies. Exchange of plants & animals. Fueled commerce across oceans = Colombian Exchange
What was the economic foundation of colonial rule in Mexico and Peru? How did it shape the kind of societies that arose there? (CH. 14)
Place – America
Time – 1450 to 1750 CE
The economic foundation in Mexico and Peru lay in commercial agriculture & in silver and gold mining. Native people provided all the labor (forced). Established universities, cathedrals, churches, and missions, an elaborate bureaucracy, and a network of regulated internal commerce. Created a social order/hierarchy – Spaniards on top – mixed blood = mestizo. Ethnic mixing.
How did the plantation societies of Brazil and the Caribbean differ from those of Southern colonies in British North America? (CH. 14)
Place – American colonies (European)
Time – 1450 to 1750 CE
Racism: In North America, any African ancestry, no matter how small or distant, made a person, “black.” In Brazil, it was considered some other mixed-race category. Perception of color changed with educational or economic standing of individuals. British colonies sough to escape Europe rather than recreate it. Far more numerous. Did not use slaves. No racial mixing. Literacy – everyone. Local self-government.
What distinguished the British settler colonies of North America from their counterparts in Latin America? ** (CH. 14)
Many of the British settlers sought to escape aspects of an old European society rather than to recreate it, as was the case for most Spanish and Portuguese colonists.
The easy availability of land, the climate and geography of North America, and the “outsider” status of many British settlers made it even more difficult to follow the Spanish or Portuguese colonial pattern of sharp class hierarchy, large rural estates, and dependent laborers.
British settlers in North America were much more numerous than Spanish or Portuguese settlers in Latin America, making up some 90 percent or more of the population of the New England and middle Atlantic colonies by the time of the American Revolution.
The British colonies were almost pure settler colonies, without the racial mixing that was so prominent in Spanish and Portuguese territories.
A largely Protestant England was far less interested in spreading Christianity among the remaining native peoples than were the large and well-funded missionary societies of Catholic Spain. Moreover, church and state were not so closely connected in the British colonies as they were in Latin America.
British colonies developed greater mass literacy and traditions of local self-government and vigorously contested the prerogatives of royal governors sent to administer their affairs.
Britain had nothing resembling the elaborate bureaucracy that governed Spanish colonies.
What motivated Russian empire building? (CH. 14)
Place – Russia
Time – 1450 to 1750
Partly security – pastoral peoples south and east of Russian heartland frequently raided agricultural Russian neighbors. Across Siberia – “soft gold” – fur animal pelts in great demand. Wooden forts offered protection to frontier towns and trading centers & Russian farmers. Russian state building involved officials & other people. Leaders defined empire: defending Russian frontiers, enhancing Russian state power, & bringing civilization to savages.
How did the Russian Empire transform the life of its conquered people and of the Russian homeland itself? (CH. 14)
Place – Russian Empire
Time – 1450 to 1750 CE
Place – Russian Empire
Disease in Siberia. Intermittent pressure to convert to Christianity. Destruction of many mosques = resettlement of Muslims. Influx of Russian settlers overwhelmed native peoples. Loss of hunting grounds & pasture lands to agriculture. Dependent on Russian markets for grain, sugar, tea, tobacco, & alcohol. Abandon nomadic ways. Siberia & steppes = Russia.
What were the major features of Chinese empire building in the early modern era? (CH. 14)
Place – China
Time – 1450 to 1750 CE
Interacted with nomadic peoples. Then, China undertook 80 years of military effort that brought huge regions under Chinese control. Treaty of Nerchinsk with Russia – peaceful. More powerful military technology & greater resources. Foreigners learned Chinese & Confucian teachings & Chinese bureaucratic techniques – unification.
How did Mughal attitudes and policies toward Hindus change from the time of Akbar to that of Aurangzeb? (CH. 14)
Place – India
Time – 1450 to 1750 CE
Akbar accommodated the Hindus and supported temple building. Removed Jizya. Aurangzeb reversed Akbar’s policies. Music and dance was forbidden at court. Hindu temples were destroyed.
In what ways was the Ottoman Empire important for Europe in the early modern era? (CH. 14)
Place – Europe (Eurasia)
Time – 1534 to 1639 CE
Many Christians converted to Islam. Constantinople fell and was renamed Istanbul and made it the capital. Made taxes lighter. Balkan Christians had to give away boys – learned Turkish, Islam and joined Janissary units
What drove European involvement in the world of Asian commerce? (CH. 15)
Place – Eurasia (global)
Time – 1450 to 1750 CE (Early Modern)
Immediate motivation: desire for tropical spices – cinnamon, nutmeg, mace, cloves, and pepper – which were widely used for cooking, etc. Other products from Asia were in demand. Recovery of European civilization after Black Death. Growing western European societies – some had capitalist economies. Europeans resented Muslim monopoly on Indian trade (and Venetian). Find Prestor John. Europe used silver to pay for Eastern goods.
To what extent did the Portuguese realize their own goals in the Indian Ocean? (CH. 15)
Place – Portugal & Indian Ocean (Global)
Time – 1450 to 1750 CE (early modern)
The Portuguese found that their ships could outgun and outmaneuver competing naval forces in the Indian Ocean. Cannons for coastal contact. Europeans were crude and not as good as Asian goods. They established bases in many places in the Indian Ocean – “trading post empire” Tried to monopolize spice trade -required all merchant vessels to purchase a pass on cargoes. Failed – Carrying Asian goods to parts. Unable to sell European goods.
How did the Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch, and British initiatives in Asia differ from one another? (CH. 15)
Place – Global
Time – 1450 to 1750 CE (Early Modern)
Portuguese: tried to monopolize spice trade with taxes. Failed – so they transported Asian goods.
Spanish: Established Philippine Islands (colonial rule). Major missionary effort – Christianity.
Dutch: Overtook by force. Stronger than the Portuguese. Organized into a private trading company. Focused on Indonesian Islands. Wanted to control production of spices.
British: Forceful, trading company. Conquered India for cotton textiles.
To what extend did the British & Dutch trading companies change the societies they encountered in Asia? (CH. 15)
Place – Eurasia (Indian Ocean)
Time – 1450 to 1750 CE (Early Modern)
Both British & Dutch companies conquered people by force – Islands of Indonesia (Dutch); & India (British). Dutch tried to control shipping and production of cloves, cinnamon, nutmeg, and mace. Fought and conquered some small islands – forced them to sell only to the Dutch. On one island, replaced population with Dutch planters – monopoly on nutmeg, mace, & cloves. British created 3 major trading settlements. Naval forces. No match for Mughals – traded with permission. – Cotton textiles.
What was the world historical importance of the silver trade? (CH. 15)
Place – Global
Time – 1450 to 1750 CE (Early Modern)
Created a global network of exchange. Silver deposits in Bolivia (New Spain) were found and mined and brought via merchants to Philippine Islands. Ist link between Americas and Asia. China commanded taxes to be paid in silver. – value went up. Standard Spanish silver coin – piece of eight – used by merchants in all continents as a medium of exchange. Created in city of Potosi in the Andes. Horrendous mining conditions – supported Spanish Empire. Silver profit in Japan created unity (Industrial Revolution)
How did the North American and Siberian fur trades differ from each other? What did they have in common? (CH. 15)
Place – North America and Russia
Time – 1450 to 1750 (Early Modern)
Both North America and Siberian fur trades had similar consequences on native peoples: they became dependent on Russian/European goods, land was taken, animals were depleted. In North America, there was competition in commercial negotiations with Indians. Siberia – authorities imposed a tax or tribute paid in furs. Also – private Russian hunters & trappers competed with Siberians.
Describe the impact of the fur trade on North American native societies . (CH. 15)
Place – North America
Time – 1450 to 750 CE (Early Modern)
Native Americans found many benefits from the fur trade. Europeans gave gifts to native people which were of value to them. Protected them for a time from extermination, enslavement, or displacement. Half about – of native population died from European diseases. Fur trade generated much warfare – competition among Native Americans. French-British warfare -natives took sides. Grew dependent on European trade goods. Alcohol caused new problems with Native Americans.
What was distinctive about the Atlantic slave trade? What did it share with other patterns of slave owning and trading? (CH. 15)
Place – Atlantic Civilizations (Global)
Time – 1450 to 1750 (Early Modern)
The Atlantic slave trade was distinctive because of the immense size of the trade. Slaves were treated as dehumanized property. Status of slaves was also inherited – little hope of freedom. Racial dimension: slavery identified with Africa and “blackness.” Shared: Slaves from Africa had also been sold to Asia & Europe.
What explains the rise of the Atlantic slave trade? (CH. 15)
Place – Atlantic civilizations
Time – 1450 to 1750 CE
Started in the Mediterranean world with sugar. Europeans established sugar-producing plantations in Mediterranean. Required huge capital investment, technology, worker discipline, and a mass market of consumers. Needed slaves as labor source for plantations. Found source in Africa. Used slaves for American plantations – sugar, tobacco, and cotton.
What roles did Europeans and Africans play in the unfolding of the Atlantic Slave trade? (CH. 15)
Place – Atlantic Slave Basin
Time – 1450 to 1750 CE
Enterprise was in European hands. Because of European demand. They purchased slaves from African merchants and political elites. Initial capture for sale on the coast of slaves: African hands. European dealt as equals with local African authorities. Traded with goods for slaves.
In what different ways did the Atlantic slave trade transform African societies? (CH. 15) **
Africa became a permanent part of an interacting Atlantic world, both commercially and demographically. The Atlantic slave trade slowed Africa’s population growth at a time when the populations of Europe, China, and other regions were expanding. The slave trade in general stimulated little positive economic change in Africa and led to economic stagnation. It also led to considerable political disruption, particularly for small-scale societies with little central authority that were frequently subject to slave raids. Some larger kingdoms, such as Kongo and Oyo, also slowly disintegrated because of the slave trade. But in other regions, like Benin and Dahomey, African authorities sought to take advantage of the new commercial opportunities to manage the slave trade in their own interests.
In what ways did the Protestant Reformation transform European society, culture, and politics? (CH. 16)
Place – Western Europe
Time – 1450 to 1750 CE
The Protestant Reformation shattered the unity of the Roman Catholic Church because it challenged the church’s authority and the position of the clergy. Politics – Undermine authority – especially the Pope. Some kings and princes were able to gain back lands held by the Church. New religious ideas expressed opposition to social order. Women were attracted to Protestantism, but did not have authority. Some convents close. Reformation thinking divided societies. No more definite religious unity throughout Western Europe.
How was European imperial expansion related to the spread of Christianity? (CH. 16)
Place – Western Europe
Time – 1450 to 1750 CE
Christianity motivated European political and economic expansion & benefited. Crusading traditions led movement overseas. Expansion = religious conversion. Political and military success = power of Christian God.
In what ways was European Christianity assimilated into the Native American cultures of Spanish America? (CH. 16)
Place – Americas and Europe
Time – 1450 to 1750
Conquest of American Empires and what followed – disease, population collapse, loss of land to Europeans, forced labor, & resettlement into smaller villages – created ideal setting for religion of victors (Christianity). Europeans saw success as power of God. Native people generally agreed – It made sense to affiliate with Europeans’ God, saints, rites, and rituals. They embraced the new religion. Sought destruction of local Gods & religion. – Destroyed religious images, etc. (icons and relics). Assimilated into the culture of Native Americans.
Why were missionary efforts to spread Christianity so less successful in China that in Spanish America? (CH. 16)
Place – China
Time – 1450 to 1750
China’s political independence/ cultural integrity was never threatened by Spanish American Europeans. Europeans needed permission from Chinese authority to operate in country. Took aim for conversion at official Chinese elite. Jesuits learned Chinese, dressed like Chinese elites. Spanish America: converted masses- ordinary people. Exchanged interest in learned China’s culture. Carried knowledge of science, technology, geography to Chinese elites- Shis. Efforts to accommodate Chinese culture. Spanish Am: attacked native culture/ religion.
What accounts for the continued spread of Islam in early modern era and for the emergence of reform or renewal movements within the Islamic world? (CH. 16)
Place – Africa and Ottoman Empire
Time – 1450 to 1750
Wandering Holy Men in Africa did not pose a threat to readers, offered literacy in Arabic, established informal schools, provided protective charms from Quran, were advisers and healers, intermarried with local people, and did not insist on giving up older practices. -offered connection to prosperous world of Islam. To orthodox Muslims, the religious syncretism became offensive; heretical – religious renewal and reform – leaders criticized other practices. (Wahhabi Islam created) sought to purify Islamic practices for an authentic, universal faith.
In what ways did the Asian cultural changes in the early modern era parallel those of Europe, and in what ways were they different? (CH. 16)
Place – Asia & Europe
Time – 1450 to 1750 CE
Asian cultural/religious change was not as dramatic as Reformation in Europe. Confucian and Hindu cultures in the early modern era did not spread widely as did Christianity and Islam. Neither traditions remained static – challenges to orthodoxies in all places emerged as commercial/urban life & political change fostered new thinking.
Wang Yangming – virtuous life via contemplation & individualism.
Why did the Scientific Revolution occur in Europe rather than in China or the Islamic World? (CH. 16)
Place – Europe – global
Time – 1450 to 1750
Europe had a unique situation: a legal system evolved that guaranteed some independence for many institutions- based on the idea of a “corporation”. Also important was emerging universities. In Islam, science was patronized – Quran studies and religious law was central – not philosophy or natural science. – disdain – led to uncertainty and confusion. China – didn’t permit independent institutions where scholars could study in freedom. – found on Civil Service Exam. – Confucian. Where Europe had know edge from other cultures.(new knowledge made open thinking.)
What was revolutionary about the Scientific Revolution? (CH. 16)
Place – Europe (Global)
Time – 1450 to 1750 (Early Modern Era)
The Scientific Revolution fundamentally challenged the original understanding of the universe: Earth was center. New idea: sun was the center of the universe.
Sir Isaac Newton – formulated modern laws of motion & mechanics & concepts of universal gravitation. New understanding of physical universe to educated Europeans. – Universe according to scientific principles that could be described mathematically. Human body examined.
In what ways did the Enlightenment challenge older patterns of European thinking? (CH. 16)
Place – Europe
Time – 1450 to 1750 (Early Modern Era)
The European Enlightenment gave ideas of a commitment to open-mindedness & inquiry, and somewhat a hostility to established political & religious authority. Dislike the “divine right of kings” and the Aristocracy & their privileges in society. Enlightenment thinking was directed against superstition, ignorance, and corruption of established religion. Many thinkers believed in Deism. Central theme of Enlightenment was idea of progress: society could be changed & improved by human action & reason.
How did the 19th century developments in the sciences challenge the faith of the Enlightenment? (CH. 16)
Place – Europe
Time – 19th century
Modern science was applied to new domains of human inquiry in ways that undermined some of the assumptions of the Enlightenment. Charles Darwin created ideas of biology & biology of human beings. Karl Marx – evolution of the human civilization. The European Enlightenment image of the thoughtful, rational, and independent individual was fading. Individuals were not enmeshed in vast systems of biological, economic, and social conflict. Not the Scientific Revolution idea of rationality, but primal condition.
In what ways was European science received in the major civilizations of Asia in the early modern era? (CH. 16)
Place – Europe and Asia
Time – 1450 to 1750 CE (Early Modern Era)
European science was received in China through the Jesuits – members of the Society of Jesus – interest in astronomy & mathematics. European science impact on some Chinese scholars with Kaozheng Movement – selectively assimilating Western science on their own terms. “Dutch Learning” in Japan. Human anatomy, math, etc. Ottoman Empire did not want to embrace European ideas. Interested mostly in map-making and calendars.
In what ways did the Enlightenment contribute to the Atlantic Revolutions? (CH. 17)
Place – Atlantic colonies
Time – 1750 to 1914
The European Enlightenment gave many ideas to the Atlantic Revolutions – one was the notion that human politics and social arrangement could be engineered and improved by human action. New ideas of liberty, equality, free trade, religious tolerance, republicanism, human rationality, direct democracy, nationalism, and liberalism – also the authority for any to rule – “popular sovereignty” – Ideas generated controversy. – governments. Sparked “democratic revolutions” for liberty.
What was revolutionary about the American Revolution and what was not? (CH. 17)
Place – United States/colonies
Time – 1775 to 1787 CE
What was revolutionary about the American Revolution was the society that had emerged within the colonies – democratic society – somewhat of a Direct Democracy. Political authority was more equal among classes. Because of the Declaration of Independence with its principles of equality. But the political ideas of the European Enlightenment into practice.
Not so revolutionary – Britain did not see the American colonies as such a big loss. New Nationalism. Independence from Britain was not accompanied by any wholesale social transformation. Rather the revolution accelerated the established democratic tendencies of the colonial societies.
How did the French Revolution differ from the American Revolution? (CH. 17)
Place – France/U.S.
Time – 1789 to 1815 CE
Commoners started rebellion – organized the National Assembly – authority to make laws. Created the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen. – Started French Revolution, whereas, the American Revolution was based on tensions of a colonial relationship with ruler – England, French Revolution was driven by conflicts within society. Titled nobility & aristocracy resisted new taxes. Rising specialized classes – specialization. Also, peasants had more taxes. French Revolution: More violent and far-reaching where the King was killed and a terror followed. American Revolution – new government was founded.
What was distinctive about the Haitian Revolution, both in world history generally in the history of Atlantic Revolutions? (CH. 17)
Place – Haiti
Time – 1791 to 1804 CE
Slaves in Haiti saw promise of personal freedom from French Revolution. Slaves killed and revolted against whites. Races battled each other. Toussaint Louverture lead slave revolts – overcame internal resistance. Unique revolution – only completely successful slave revolt in history; slaves became free, equal, and independent citizens. Nationalism – became Haiti. Gave boost to the Abolitionist Movement and an example to other Caribbean slave areas.
How were the Spanish American revolutions shaped by the American, French, and Haitian revolution that happened earlier? (CH. 17)
Place – Spanish/Portuguese colonies in Latin America
Time – 1810 to 1825 CE
Creole intellectuals had become familiar with popular sovereignty, republican government, and personal liberty from the European Enlightenment. Nationalism – leaders tried to get others involved with promise of freedom, no legal restrictions, and social advancement. Influenced by Enlightenment and French Revolution, Simone Bolivar admired George Washington and fought for greater unity. Sought for political and social liberties that the Americans, French, and Haitian Revolutions had established.
What accounts for the end of the Atlantic slavery during the 19th century? (CH. 17)
Place – Atlantic Civilizations
Time – 1780 to 1890 CE
European Enlightenment thinkers in Europe criticized slavery as a violation of the natural rights of every person. – Revolutions with the principles of liberty and Equality. Haitian Revolution – led by Toussaint Louverture was first successful slave rebellion. Slavery became “morally wrong and politically unwise.” Abolitionist movements brought pressure to close down slavery. Britain opposed slavery. After gaining independence, most Latin American countries abolished slavery. Southern U.S. slavery – abolished in Civil War.
How did the end of slavery affect the lives of former slaves? (CH. 17)
Place – Atlantic Civilizations
Time – 1750 to 1914 CE
In most cases, the economic lives of the former slaves did not improve drastically. Slaves became low-paid laborers. Plantation agriculture had labor shortages. Newly freed people did not achieve political equality (excluding Haiti). Whites retained authority. U.S. – segregation laws, no voting, rights, & racism. Emancipation – “nothing but freedom” Slaves in Atlantic Civilizations did not get total liberty. Whites had more political and social rights – aristocracy. Did not have Declaration of Independence rights.
What accounts for the growth of nationalism as a powerful political and personal identity in the 19th century? (CH. 17)
Place – Global (Atlantic)
Time – 1750 to 1914 CE
Revolutions in the Atlantic Civilizations and independence movements in the North/South American continents were made in the name of new sovereign nations. European people became citizens of different nations – bound to fellows by culture. Europe’s modern transformation helped found nationalism. Created more acute and fueled rivalry between European states. Ottoman Empire became a Turkish national state – not Muslim dynasty.
What were the achievements and limitations of 19th century feminism? (CH. 17)
Place – Global
Time – 19th Century
Feminism was a part of the Abolitionist Movements
Women took part in temperance movements, charities, missionary work, and socialist/pacifists organizations
Seneca Falls Conference expression of feminism
Used equalities stated in the Declaration of Independence as arguments
Women wanted access to scholasticism and other rights
Gained entrance into universities = improved literacy rates
Could control own property. Divorce. Suffrage – came later & slower
In what respects did the roots of the Industrial Revolution lie within Europe? In what ways did that transformation have global roots? (CH. 18)
Place – Europe (Global)
Time – 1750 to 1914
Commerce and cross-cultural exchange was stimulated.
Internally competitive economies with competitive rival city-states fostered innovation in Western Europe. Close to capitalist economies. Japan, India, and China were also commercialized or market driven. But, western Europe was center of largest and most varied network of exchange in history. Colombian Exchange and global trade network of merchants. Global contact in Europe of other sophisticated societies. China – remarkable inventions; India – textiles; America – food and silver
What was distinctive about Britain that may help explain the breakthrough point of the Industrial Revolution? (CH. 18)
Place – Britain
Time – 1750 to 1914 CE
Britain had an abundant supply of coal and iron ore. Britain was the most highly commercialized of Europe’s larger countries. Agricultural innovations increase food amount and decreased price. Guilds mostly disappeared – capitalism began to grow. Growing population would result in more labor available. British commerce extended around the world. British political life encouraged commercialization of manufactured goods and economic innovation. Religious toleration fostered society where persecution as a result of religious practices was not employed. Private enterprise – commercialization. Britain played a part in the Scientific Revolution.
How did the Industrial Revolution transform British Society? (CH. 18)
Place – Britain
Time – 1750 to 1914 CE
British aristocracy and large landowners declined in prominence. Businessmen, manufacturers, merchants, and bankers had been enriched by the new Industrial Revolution. Middle class benefited most – rising businessmen. Favored liberalism, constitutional government, private property, and social reform. Middle-class men: voting rights. Women: lived domestic lives. Lower middle- class & working class suffered immensely from working conditions where the idea of family was utterly abolished. Urbanization – PUMER. Population skyrocketed.
How did Britain’s middle classes change during the 19th century? (CH. 18)
Place – Britain
Time – 19th century
Middle class benefited most from the Industrial Revolution. Upper levels – extremely wealthy factory & mine owners, bankers, and merchants. These rising businessmen were assimilated into life of the aristocracy. Smaller businessmen (doctors, lawyers, engineers, teachers, scientists, etc.) were liberals, favored democracy, free trade, private property, etc. Middle class men – vote! Values of self-improvement – enterprising spirit. Middle class women – domestic and family life.
Lower middle class comprised of 20% of the population.
How did Karl Marx understand the Industrial Revolution? In what ways did his ideas have an impacts in the industrializing world of the 19th century? (CH. 18)
Place – Britain
Time – 1750 to 1914 CE
Human Freedom & community = socialism
Karl Marx (created Marxism) lived much of his life in England and witnessed the brutal conditions of Britain’s Industrial Revolution. Wrote much about history and economics. His thought – Industrial capitalism was unstable = would collapse in revolutionary upheaval – classless society without rich and poor divide & no aristocracy. Industrialization created Marx’s protested social conditions and wealth = possible for socialism. Revolutions – French & American Revolution = evidence of upheavals. Marx – scientist of social development
What were the differences between industrialization in the United States and that in Russia? (CH. 18)
Place – U.S. & Russia
Time – 19th century
While the U.S. was the Western World’s most exuberant democracy, Russia remained an absolute monarchy – which had greater control over individuals & society than the rest of the western world. No parliament, legal politics, parties, or elections. The Russian tsar ruled unchecked. Most Russians were serfs – who were bound to masters (slaves. Social and economic change: U.S. – farmers, workers, & businessmen sought new opportunities – had a democracy. Russia – state (officials) brought change to country.
Why did Marxist socialism not take root in the United States? (CH. 18)
Place – United States
Time – 1750 to 1914
Class consciousness and class conflict were intense during America’s Industrial Revolution. But, not major political party to represent the working class. Socialism and Marxism didn’t have much appeal = conservation of major Americans union organization. Immense religions, ethics, and racial divisions in American society – variety = difficult to sustain class-oriented movements. Economic growth = higher standard of living from World Economy.
What factors contributed to the making of a revolutionary situation in Russia by the beginning of the 20th century? (CH. 18)
Place – Russia
Time – 20th century
1861 – The Russian serfs were freed = began industrial development. Focused on railroads and heavy industry with foreign investment during Industrial Revolution. Steel production! Industries in coal, textiles, and oil. Concentrated in a few major cities – in huge factories via Factory system. Middle class took shape – businessmen and professionals – modern & educated. Found Marxism/socialism – way of understanding change and hope for revolution. Labor workers on strike. Would lead to Russian Revolution in 1917
In what ways and with what impact was Latin America linked to the global economy of the 19th century? (CH. 18)
Place – Latin America
Time – 19th century
Latin America became more closely integrated into the world economy driven by the Industrial Revolution in western Europe and North America. Steamship – faster communication & sailing between Britain and Argentina & Transatlantic Telegraph Cable. Growth of exports = supplied needs: food, raw materials, & markets. Supplied more than half of the world’s silver. Imported manufactured goods. European Capital invested in Latin America – railroads.
Did Latin America follow or diverge from the historical path of Europe during the nineteenth century? (CH. 18) **
1.The population of Latin America increased rapidly, as did urbanization, similar to what was occurring in Europe.
2.Many Europeans immigrated to Latin America.
3.A middle class formed, although it was much smaller than that of Europe.
4.However, Latin America diverged from the historical path of Europe in certain ways; central to this divergence was the lack of a thorough Industrial Revolution anywhere in Latin America and the development instead of an economy dependent on financial capital from and exports to the industrial economies of Europe.
In what ways did the Industrial Revolution shape the character of 19th century European imperialism? (CH. 19)
Place – Europe & colonies
Time – 19th century
Imperialism was made popular in Europe through the growth of mass nationalism. Rivalry – competitive political system. Struggle for more colonies meant status and power. Imperialism appealed on economic and social grounds to the wealthy, seemed politically & strategically necessary in international power politics, and was emotionally satisfying to the Europeans. Overseas expansion! Steam-driven ships & new technology provided easy access. Underwater Atlantic Telegraph Cable provided the technology to communicate.
What contributed to changing European views of Asians and Africans in the 19th century? (CH. 19)
Place – Global
Time – 19th century
Europeans developed a secular arrogance along with “religious superiority” – they had unlocked secrets regarding nature, created society of wealth, and produced unsurpassed military power. This is how Europeans judged themselves vs. the world. Opinions of other cultures dropped sharply. Racism! – through (social) Darwinism. Hierarchy of races – white on top. New sense of expanding Empire: Europe fated to dominate over “weaker races” Made imperialism, war and aggression seem natural and progressive. – All powerful Europe.
What accounts for the massive peasant rebellions of nineteenth century China? (CH. 19)
Place – China
Time – 19th century
Economic success – massive population growth.
Absence of Industrial Revolution and agricultural production could not maintain the demands of China’s people. This led to growing pressures on the land, smaller farms for peasants, unemployment, and ultimately impoverishment, misery, and starvation. China’s government did not enlarge to adapt the growing population pressure. Harsh treatment of peasants led to rising numbers of bandit gangs and peasant rebellions. The Taiping Rebellions created China’s internal conflict – peasants ultimately rejected some Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism for Christian values.
How did Western pressures stimulate change in China during the 19th century? (CH. 19)
Place – China
Time – 19th Century
British merchants in China sold opium – a highly addictive drug. Silver out of China for opium went to Europe. Emperor started the Opium Wars in attempts to put an end to the treacherous opium trade. Chinese officials destroyed opium; British were offended -sent a large naval expedition to China to end restrictive conditions. Treaty of Nanjing imposed restrictions on Chinese sovereignty & opened 5 ports to European merchants. Second Opium War further humiliated China. China would lost control of Vietnam, Korea, and would be dependent on Western powers thus becoming a portion of Europe’s informal empire.
What strategies did China adopt to confront its various problems? In what ways did these strategies reflect China’s own history and culture with the new global order? (CH. 19)
Place – China
Time – 1750 to 1914 CE
Self-Strengthening Moment – policies sought to reinvigorate a traditional China while borrowing cautiously from the West. Examination system – Civil Service Exam – sought good men for official positions to cope with reconstruction after wake of the Taiping Rebellion. Support for landlords and repair of dikes and irrigation – helped restore rural social and economic order. Factories (textiles and steel) established, coal mines expanded, telegraph system. > modernization. European dominance = Chinese nationalism.
What lay behind the decline of the Ottoman Empire in the 19th century? (CH. 19)
Place – Ottoman Empire
Time – 19th Century
Ottoman Empire was unable to prevent region after region from falling under control from Christian (European) powers. Domains of empire shrank from Russian, British, Austrian, and French aggression. Loss of Egypt as territory. Parts of the empire: Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria, and Romania achieved independence based on surging Nationalism and support from British/Russians. Central Ottoman state had weakened. Janissary Corps lost military edge. Technological and military gap with west growing. Capitulations – granted some exemptions from law – European penetration. *Growing indebtedness of empire – foreign loans – dependency on Europe.*
In what ways did the Ottoman state respond to its various problems? (CH. 19)
Place – Ottoman Empire
Time – 19th Century
Programs of “defensive modernization” were mounted – no internal uprisings. No huge population growth. Leaders were Turks or Muslims. Reforms that sought to reorganize and update army and to draw on European advisers and technology. – Stirred hostility from both the ulama and the Janissary Corps – saw it as conflict with Islam. Reformist measures – Tanzimat Reforms – as an empire looked for underpinning for a re-centralized state. Modernization! Westernization! Rights of non-Muslims!
In what different ways did various groups define the Ottoman Empire during the 19th century? (CH. 19)
Place – Ottoman Empire
Time – 19th Century
Reform supporters: Ottoman Empire was a secular state whose people were loyal to the dynasty that ruled it, rather than a primarily Muslim state based on religious principles.
Young Ottomans – Favored a Western-style government. Islam modernization. Rule of despotism
Young Turks – Abandoned Islam; advocated militantly secular public life – modernization and Ottoman Empire as a Turkish national state. Radical secularization of schools, courts, law codes. More women rights! Secular Nationalism – public loyalty.
How did Japan’s historical development differ from that of China and the Ottoman Empire during the 19th century? (CH. 19)
Place – global
Time – 19th Century
Japan confronted Western power through “black ships: of Matthew Perry which forcefully demanded Japan to open up to world relations. Became modernized, powerful, united, industrial nation. Chinese & Ottoman Empires both could not create industrial economies to fend off European intrusion. Both empire collapsed. Was not centralized enough and thus new Western power would dominate. Internal reforms made structure weak. Japan – wealth of merchants, rising peasant class, less/restricted authority of Shogunate. Decisive break with the past, not Taiping in China that destroyed any fresh start. Japan was not the interest to capture as the other two empires were.
In what ways was Japan changing during the Tokugawa era? (CH. 19)
Place – Japan
Time – 1600 to 1850 CE
The samurai evolved into a Bureaucracy – 5-6% of population. Devoted to warrior code – Bushido. Economic growth, commercialization, & urban development. More rice = rural manufacturing enterprises. Japan is world’s most urbanized country. – 10% population. Emerging capitalist economy. Education = high literacy rates. Solid foundation for industrial growth – 19th century. Merchants prospered – richer than Samurai. Peasants moved to cities, became artisans or merchants. Shogunate losing control.
In what respects was Japan’s 19th century transformation revolutionary? (CH. 19)
Place – Japan
Time – 19th century
Reforms transformed Japan more than self-strengthening moment in China or radical efforts of Ottoman Empire. National Unity! National government with governors (not Daimyo) & centralized state. National army. No more samurai. Social reform – everyone under emperor were equal commoners. Peaceful reform! Fascination with everything Western. – Technology, Science, clothing, legal & education systems. Modeled society after West. Constitution, elected parliament. Emperor had ultimate power. Modern education system. Shinto with Kami and filial piety. Industrialization & zaibatsu.
How did Japan’s relationship to the larger world change during its modernization process? (CH. 19)
Place – Japan
Time – 1800 to 1914 CE
Japan’s modernization persuaded Western powers to revise the unequal treaties in Japan’s favor. – Equal with Western nations!! Empire-building enterprise. Successful wars against China & Russia = Japan a formidable military competitor in East Asia. Colonies in Taiwan and Korea. Some nations admired Japan. Japan was an economic, political, and military competitor. Defeat of Russia launched other revolutions in Western countries. – “Awakening of the East” Empire of Japan treated China bitterly. Merchants traded textiles.
In what different ways did the colonial takeover of Asia and Africa occur? (CH. 20)
Place – Africa/Asia
Time – 1750 to 1914 CE
Involved military force – European organization, drill and practice, and command structure. Advantages in firepower (rifles & machine guns) – result from Industrial Revolution. All people in Africa and Asia become subjects of a European colonial state. British East India Company played leading role to colonial takeover of India. Africa, Southeast Asia, and Polynesian Peoples – colonial conquest was more abrupt – included the “Scramble for Africa” Settler Colonies in Australia and New Zealand.
Why might subject people choose to cooperate with the colonial regime? What might prompt them to rebel or resist? (CH. 20)
Place – Global
Time – 1750 to 1914 CE
Many men found employment, status, and security in European-led armed forces. Raj, Muslim emirs, and African rulers could retain status and privileges, and gain wealth by exercising authority. Western-educated elites received higher education and status. Periodic Rebellions happened in colonies. Indian Rebellion – triggered by military mutiny, religious preaching, unemployment, and lost power. Also – overtaxed peasant caused direct control of British government over India.
What was distinctive about European colonial empires of the 19th century? (CH. 20)
Place – Global
Time – 19th Century
Prominence of race to distinguish status. Scientific racism through popular Darwinism gave Europeans authority over other races. Education for colonial subject was limited – not scientific.
South Africa – Created Apartheid. Also – extent power of European countries in colonies. Classified subject peoples. Identified African tribes by territory, language, customs, and chief. Colonial policies contradicted their own core values and practices. Colonies were dictatorships, not democracies.
How did the power of colonial states transform the economic lives of colonial subjects? (CH. 20)
Place – Global
Time – 1750 to 1914 CE
Demands of the colonial state – such as labor – created new ways of working. Infamous cruelty of forced labor of Leopold II of Belgium in Congo Free State. – Cost millions of lives. Peasant of Java – double burden of obligations – wave of famine. Forced cultivation of cash crops – created many rebellions. Netherlands’ Indonesia – peasants required to cultivate part of their land in cash crops for taxes to the state.
How did cash-crop agriculture transform the lives of colonized peoples? (CH. 20)
Place – global
Time – 1750 to 1914 CE
In some places, colonial rule created conditions that increased cash-crop production to the advantage for local farmers. Colonial rule provided irrigation and transportation facilities. Ownership of small farms. Local small farmers were able to own land, build houses, and buy imported goods. Living improved. Environment consequences – destruction of forests and swampland. Shortage of labor fostered employment of former slaves and exploited workers.
What kinds of wage labor were available in the colonies? Why might people take part in it? How did doing so change their lives? (CH. 20)
Place – Global
Time – 1750 to 1914 CE
Employment in plantations, mines, construction projects, and homes were the jobs offered. Working conditions and salaries were not fair and disease and death were common outcomes. Many people migrated to European farms/plantations because they lost their land. Bantustans (reserves for natives) became overcrowded. Mines were a source of labor. Western-educated elites could become teachers, doctors, professional specialists, and clerks. Workers would work on railroads. Poor would become construction workers, drivers, food sellers, servants, and prostitutes. Family life was impossible.
How were the lives of women altered by colonial economies in Africa? (CH. 20)
Place – Africa
Time – 1750 to 1914 CE
Men dominated farming and cash crops produce whereas women usually assumed responsibility for domestic food production. Women’s work increased. Labor migration also increase women’s work. Men went to work at plantations, etc. and wives were left to manage domestic economy. Took on male tasks – milking cows, breaking ground, watching herds, etc. Married couples didn’t live together for long periods of time. Opportunity for enterprising were now offered to women (trading). Growing independence. Had liquid capital. Accusations of witchcraft now descended upon women.
Did colonial rule bring “economic progress” in its wake? (CH. 20)
Place – Global
Time – 1750 to 1914 CE
Yes, colonial rule jump-started modern growth. Exploitation and limitations and unevenness were associated with that growth however. It furthered integration of Asian and African economies into global exchange network. Global market production. Manufactured goods into world market. Health care. Failure to bring breakthrough to modern technology/industrialization. Economic dead end – colonial rule. Independence was promising and more possibilities were present. Europeans conveyed to the colonies some elements of their own modernizing process, including modern administrative and bureaucratic structures, communication and transportation infrastructures, schools, and modest provisions for health care. Nowhere in the colonial world did a breakthrough to modern industrial society of Japanese dimensions occur
What impact did western education have on colonial societies? (CH. 20)
Place – Colonies
Time – 1750 to 1914 CE
•For the minority, the acquisition of a Western education generated a new identity, providing access to better-paying jobs, and escape form the obligations of living under European control, such as forced labor.
•It brought them elite status within their own communities and an opportunity to achieve or approach equality with whites in racially defined societies.
•Education created a cultural divide within Asian and African societies between the small number who mastered to varying degrees the ways of their rulers and the vast majority who had not.
•In India, Western educated people organized a variety of reform societies, which sought a renewed Indian culture that was free of child marriages, caste, etc.
•However, there was disillusionment among those who received a Western education, as well. Europeans generally declined to treat Asian and African subjects as equal partners, regardless of their education.
What were the attractions of Christianity within some colonial societies? (CH. 20)
Military defeat shook confidence in the old gods and local practices, fostering openness to new sources of supernatural power that could operate in the wider world now impinging on their societies. Furthermore, Christianity was widely associated with modern education, and especially in Africa, mission schools were the primary providers of Western education. The young, the poor, and many women—all oppressed—found new opportunities and greater freedom in some association with missions. The spread of the Christian message was due to the many thousands of African teachers, catechists, and pastors, rather than European missionaries, who brought the new faith to remote villages and communities that begged for a teacher and supplied the labor and materials to build a small church or school.
How and why did Hinduism emerge as a distinct religious tradition during the colonial era in India? (CH. 20)
Place – India
In India, leading intellectuals and reformers began to define their region’s endlessly varied beliefs, practices, sects, rituals, and schools of philosophy as a more distinct, unified, and separate religion that we now know as Hinduism. It was in part an effort to provide for India a religion wholly equivalent to Christianity. Hinduism provided a cultural foundation for emerging ideas of India as a nation, but it also contributed to a clearer sense of Muslims as a distinct community in India.
In what ways were “race” and tribe new identities in colonial Africa? (CH. 20)
Place – Africa
Before the colonial period, African peoples had long recognized differences among themselves based on language, kinship, clan, village, or state, but these were seldom clearly defined. The idea of an Africa sharply divided into separate and distinct “tribes” was in fact a European notion that facilitated colonial administration and reflected Europeans’ belief in African primitiveness.
New ethnic identities were not simply imposed by Europeans; Africans found ethnic or tribal labels useful. This was especially true in rapidly growing urban areas where competition for jobs, housing, and education was very intense. Migrants to the city found it helpful to categorize themselves and others in larger ethnic terms. Thus, in many colonial cities, people who spoke similar languages, shared a common culture, or came from the same general part of the country began to think of themselves as a single people—a new tribe.
What aspects of Europe’s nineteenth-century history contributed to the First World War? (CH. 21)
European divided states and nationalism.
Serbian assassinated Austrian heir to throne – Archduke Frans Ferdinand. Alliance between: Germany, Austria, and Italy vs. Russia, France, and Britain. Rivalry of nation-states. Great Powers of Europe competed for colonies, influence, and superiority. Also – industrialized militarism. Naval warships & novel weapons. Also, imperial reach of Europe. Colonies – used men for troops. U.S. fought for Britain.
In what ways did World War I mark new departures in the history of the twentieth century? (CH. 21)
Place – Global
Time – 20th century
Millions of deaths. Total war. Authority of governments expanded. Widespread disillusionment among intellectuals with their own civilization. The war mocked Enlightenment values of progress, tolerance, and rationality. New map of Europe – independent Poland and others.
In what ways was the Great Depression a global phenomenon? (CH. 21)
Place – Global
Time – 1914 to pre-WWII
Industrial production from Europe and especially the United States required foreign markets, and when those markets dried up, industrial production collapsed. Countries or colonies tied to exporting one or two commodities to industrial countries were especially hard-hit as the market for their exports dried up.
In what ways did fascism challenge the ideas and practices of European liberalism and democracy? (CH. 21)
Place – Europe
Time – 1914 to 1970s CE
Where fascism arose, it sought to revitalize and purify the nation and to mobilize people for a grand task. Fascists condoned violence against enemies, exalted action rather than thought and reflection, and looked to a charismatic leader for direction. They condemned individualism, liberalism, feminism, and parliamentary democracy, all of which, they argued, divided and weakened the nation.
What was distinctive about the German expression of fascism? What was the basis of popular support for the Nazis? (CH. 21)
Place – Europe
Time – 1914 to 1970s CE
German-style fascism was distinct because the Nazis were able to assume police powers more thoroughly than their Italian counterparts were able to achieve, which limited opposition.
Far more so than in Italy, Adolf Hitler and the Nazis used Jews as a symbol of the urban, capitalist, and foreign influences that were supposedly corrupting “true” German culture.
Emphasis on a racial revolution was a central feature of the Nazi program and differed from the racial attitudes in Italy.
In terms of popular support for Nazism, war veterans who had felt betrayed by German politicians after World War I formed an important base of support.
The Nazis also gradually drew support from the middle classes as well as from conservative landowners because of the ruinous inflation of 1923 and then the Great Depression.
By the late 1930s, the Nazis apparently had the support of a considerable majority of the population, in large measure because their policies successfully brought Germany out of the Depression.
How did Japan’s experience during the 1920s and 1930s resemble that of Germany, and how did it differ? (CH. 21)
Place – Japan and Germany
Time – 1920s to 1930 CE
Their experiences were similar in that both countries were newcomers to great-power status; had limited experience with democratic politics; moved toward authoritarian government and a denial of democracy at home; launched aggressive programs of territorial expansion; and enacted policies that included state-financed credit and large-scale spending on armaments and public works projects to bring their respective countries out of the Depression quite quickly.
Their experiences differed in that Japan remained, at least internally, a less repressive and more pluralistic society than Germany; no right-wing party was able to seize power in Japan; Japan produced no charismatic leader on the order of Mussolini or Hitler; and Japanese conceptions of their racial purity and uniqueness were directed largely against foreigners rather than an internal minority.
In what way were the origins of World War II in Asia and in Europe similar to each other? How were they different? (CH. 21)
Place – Europe and Asia
Time – 1914 to 1970s CE
Both Japan and Germany were dissatisfied with their positions in the international power structure. Both expanded their territories through force, causing tensions with other powers.
However, Japanese leaders felt that they were not being treated as an equal power on the world stage because of racism, while Germans felt that they were being treated unfairly because of their defeat in WWI.
Japan’s initial conquests were driven primarily by a desire to acquire raw materials and other resources, whereas Germany’s were driven primarily by strategic rivalries with neighboring powers.
How did World War II differ from World War I? (CH. 21)
Place – Global
Time – 1914 to 1970s CE
More than World War I, World War II was a genuinely global conflict with independent origins in both Asia and Europe.
The Second World War was more destructive, with some 60 million deaths—six times the deaths in World War I.
More than half the casualties of World War II were civilians, reflecting a nearly complete blurring of the traditional line between civilian and military targets as compared to World War I.
In World War II, governments mobilized their economies, their people, and their propaganda machines even more extensively than in World War I.
The Holocaust of World War II was an act of genocide that outstripped even the Armenian genocide of World War I in scale.
World War II rearranged the architecture of world politics even more than had World War I.
After World War II, Europe was effectively divided, with its western half operating under an American umbrella and the eastern half subject to Soviet control.
In contrast to the aftermath of World War I, Europe’s role in the world was greatly diminished in the decades that followed World War II, with European colonies in Asia and Africa achieving their independence.
World War II allowed for the consolidation and extension of the communist world in a way that World War I did not.
More effective worldwide organizations like the United Nations and the World Bank took shape after World War II, as compared to the League of Nations that was created after World War I.
• The United States took on a more dominant presence on the world stage after World War II as compared to the post-World War I era.
How was Europe able to recover from the devastation of war? (CH. 21)
Place – Europe
Global – 1914 to 1970s CE
Europe’s industrial societies proved to be resilient.
The major Western European countries took steps to integrate their recovering economies.
The United States was in a position to take a leadership role in the West and served as a reservoir of military manpower, economic resources, and political leadership for the West as a whole.
When and where did Communism exercise influence during the 20th century? (CH. 22)
Place – Global
Time – 20th Century
Russia was the first to implement a communist revolution. During the Russian Revolution (starting in 1917 CE), Russia became the Soviet Union and encompassed various regions of Eurasia. Beginning in 1949, China officially became a communist state. Eastern Europe experience much communistic pressure after WWII and would be manipulated by the Soviet Union to adopt Communist ideology. North Korea was liberated by the by the Soviet Red army in 1945. Vietnam adopted communism and it defined itself with nationalism. Laos and Cambodia communism occurred in the 1970s. In Cuba, Fidel Castro introduced the practice in 1959. Afghanistan adopted communism in 1979. Communist parties were present in Greece, France, and Italy.
Identify the major differences between the Russian and Chinese Revolutions. (CH. 22)
Place – China & Russia
Time – 20th Century
Russia-revolution took one year, China took decades to successfully implement the practice. Russia – Marxism ideology was discussed for a half a century in comparison to the less popular study of Marxism and socialism in China. Communism started as a political party. After the collapse of imperial system. Russia was led by Vladimir Lenin in 1917 while China was led by Mao Zedong in 1949.
Why were the Bolsheviks able to ride the Russian Revolution to power? (CH. 22)
Place – Russia/Soviet Union
Time – 20th Century
Lenin, the charismatic leader of the Bolshevik party yearned for a socialist revolution. The party’s message was, “End to the War, land for Peasant, Workers’ Control of factories, and self-determination for other nationalities.” Lenin successfully created revolution, created a new government, and granted power to the Soviets. The people now took power of the government. The Bolsheviks took Russia out of WWI and into a civil war where they suppressed rebellions.
What was the appeal of Communism in China before 1949? (CH. 22)
Place – China
Time – Pre-1949 CE
In 1911, the Chinese imperial system collapsed. Pressures from foreign imperialism, inadequacies, and internal opposition reeked havoc on the state. In 1921, a small Chinese Communist Party was founded with Marxist ideology. The CCP grew enormously and the leader, Mao Zedong, engaged in the struggle against the Japanese, fighting out foreign forces. The Chinese would be victorious and the country would be thrown into a Civil War where the more popular group, the Goumindang, would struggle for dominance in China. Although the Guomindang provided urban development, the CCP appealed towards peasant villages for support. Eventually, after abuses of the Guomindang forces, the CCP was able to gain prominence in China while dispelling foreign forces.
What changes did Communist regimes bring to the lives of women? (CH. 22)
Place – Global
Time – 20th Century
Liberating and mobilizing women. Communist New Feminism was state-directed. Full legal and political equality for women: marriage was free agreement, rather than arranged; divorce and abortion was legalized; no forced surnames were adopted, pregnancy leave for employees was mandated. Women mobilized as workers for industrialization. Zhenotdel (1919): radical organization that pushed feminism. Was abolished by Stalin. In 1930, China granted free marriage, divorce, equal property rights.
How did the collectivization of agriculture differ between the USSR and China? (CH. 22)
Place – USSR & China
Time – 20th Century
USSR – Soviet peasants spontaneously redistributed land among themselves. Bolsheviks ratified their actions.
China – Land distribution and collectivization was a longer, difficult process. Rich and wealthy owned land while the poor usually work the land. Landlords, as a result, were persecuted and killed. Collectivization was peaceful in China.
USSR – Peasants were forced into collective farms with much violence. Peasants rebelled by killing animals. Famine led to massive population loss.
China – Huge collectivization process led to chaos in markets and bad weather led to huge famine. In the late 1951 to 1961, 30 million died as a result of Great Leap Forward plans.
What were the achievements of Communist efforts at industrialization? What problems did these achievement generate? (CH. 22)
Place – USSR & China
Time – 1900s
China – state ownership of property, centralized planning with Great Leap Forward, heavy industry, mobilization of labor & resources, & Communist Party control. Cultural Revolution implemented to overcome inequality.
USSR & China experience major economic growth. Both implemented massive improvement in literacy rates and education opportunities which led to greater social mobility. Rapid urbanization, resource depletion for industries, and growth of elites.
USSR – created industrial society victorious over the Nazis. Improved living standards. Implemented five year plans.
Industrialization roused anger and led to famine.
Why did Communist regimes generate terror and violence on such a massive scale? (CH. 22)
Place – USSR & China
Time – 1900s
Class struggle in Russia culminated the Terror or the Great Purges where millions of people were arrested and many were executed. Gulags – labor camps with horrendous living conditions were present. China detected various “class enemies” during the Cultural Revolution – when Mao Zedong created rebellion within the Communist Party. Massive violence and possible destruction of Chinese society disrupted China’s public. The Great Purges and the Cultural Revolution discredited socialist ideology and contributed to the collapse of communist governments.
In what different ways was the Cold War expressed? (CH. 22)
Place – Global
Time – 1945 to 1991
Rival military alliances were created: NATO vs. the Warsaw Pact.
Iron Curtain: heavily fortified border – east/west Europe
Indirect conflict between U.S. and USSR powers
Communism in Asia globalized the Cold War.
Afghanistan – Marxist party gained control, U.S. worked to overthrow dominance and install democratic (radical) religious party
Cuba – Fidel Castro created Marxist/Communist government. Soviets sent nuclear missiles to Cuba in 1962. Compromise between Soviets and U.S. to remove nuclear missiles aimed at each other occurred.
In what ways did the U.S. play a global role after WWII? (CH. 22)
Place – U.S. (and Worldwide)
Time – Post WWII
The U.S. spearheaded the western effort to suppress Communism
Cold War provided the opportunity. The U.S. sent soldiers out to many countries as a result of alliances. Gave rise to the National Security State – Power in executive branch. U.S. would be the world’s most productive economy – the “people of plenty.”
Popular culture (music, movies, language, etc.) would spread worldwide. English would become a global language.
What were the strengths and weaknesses of the Communist world by the 1970s? (CH. 22)
Place – Global
Time – Post 1970s
Stalin – leader of the Cold War, was revealed as a criminal! USSR focused on military & defense industries. Communist world experienced more bitter and divisive conflict than Western alliance – NATO. Brutal suppression of reform movements in Hungary and the Czechoslovakia. The Soviet Union opposed China. U.S. pursued a “triangular diplomacy.” Nationalism – more powerful than Communism. Communist Vietnam, Marxism within some African countries.
What explains the rapid end of the Communist era? (CH. 22)
Place – Global
Time – 1917 to the present
China – 1976, Mao Zedong, CCP abandoned everything associated with Maoist communism.
Eastern Europe – 1989: “Miracle Year” – Popular movements toppled despised communist governments.
Soviet Union – 1991: Mikhail Gorbachev – reformist leader – led to political disintegration of Soviet Union.
Fall of the Communist era & Cold War occurred as a result of
1 – Communist economies couldn’t maintain the production rates of Capitalist economies. No economic growth!
2 – Moral = road to nowhere
How did the end of Communism in the Soviet Union differ from Communism’s demise in China? (CH. 22)
Place – Soviet Union and China
Time – 1980s to the present
Mikhail Gorbachev – general secretary launched an economic program like the Chinese. He attempted to reform by creating Glasnost – more freedoms. Created corruption and knowledge of previous corruption. Democratization and new parliament. Reform program – more broadly based than China’s – embraced cultural and political changes unlike. Led to Soviet Union’s weakening and collapse. Economy declined before market-based economy emerged. Democracy movements.

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In China economic reforms by Deng Xiaoping opened up China’s market to the world economy and brought about stunning economic growth that has been maintained. This was accompanied by better diets, lower mortality rates, declining poverty, massive urban construction, but was unwilling to embrace political democracy. In Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev also lifted heavy hand of gov’t and allowed small-scale businesses, private farming and cautious foreign investment. These reforms failed, however, and inflation mounted, goods in short supply, few foreign investors. Democracy movement sprang to life and Soviet Union ended in August 1991. Was split up into 15 new and independent states.

What was distinctive about the end of Europe’s African and Asian empires compared to other cases of imperial disintegration? (CH. 23)
Place – Africa & Asia
Time – 1914 to Present
The end of Europe’s African and Asian empires was associated with the mobilization of the masses around Nationalism, and they generated a plethora of nation-states.
Comparison – new nations after decolonization claimed international status = to former rulers. African and Asian struggles differed because they affirmed vitality of their cultures – Hinduism, animism, etc. and asserted political independence.
What international circumstances and social changes contributed to the end of colonial empires? (CH. 23)
Place – Global
Time – 1914 to Present
Europe was weakened through wars and discredited moral superiority. The United Nations provided a way to conduct anti-colonial agitation. Transformation of social values encouraged African and Asians to seek political independence. Western-educated elites rose in colonies to insist on independence. People became increasingly aware of unfair colonial rule. Wanted independence. Some colonial leaders sought new political relationships with colonies.
What obstacles confronted the leaders of movements for independence? (CH. 23)
Place – Global
Time – 1914 to Present
Efforts for independence were usually fragile alliance of conflicting groups & parties representing different classes, ethic groups, religions, or regions. They struggled with questions of leadership, power, strategy, ideology, and material benefits distribution. National self-government posed contentious questions: What group of people deserved rule to rule their nation? – Because of new Nationalism.
How did India’s nationalist movement change over time? (CH. 23)
Place – India
Time – 18th century to Present
Beginning – India had only geographic unity on South Asian peninsula – no one was considered an “Indian.” Cultural identities were local and varied on language, religion, caste, etc. British colonial rule promoted sense of Indian identity – unified native people against British leaders. Created communication between India’s Western Educated Elites. India became unified with Hinduism. Unified under the INC – which was a political protest – later gained support. The INC originally yearned for acknowledgement of the Indian into society, where they could greater participate in society and improve the condition of the nation.
What was the role of Gandhi in India’s struggle for independence? (CH. 23)
Place – India
Time – 1914 to 1948
Gandhi became a lawyer as a Western Educated Elite. Experienced racism for the first time in South Africa. Created the concept of India with both Muslims and Hindus. Created Truth Force, political nonviolent philosophy. Became leader of the INC, campaigned massively, and led to the rise in popularity of the INC. Hinduism was important for unity. Opposed modern industrial future for India. Unified people with principles of duty and morality. Assassinated in 1948 by Hindu extremist.
What conflicts and differences divided India’s nationalist movement? (CH. 23)
Place – India
Time – 19th Century to Present
Gandhi opposed industrialization, but his chief lieutenant, Jawaharlal Nehru, supported it.
Not all nationalists accepted Gandhi’s nonviolence or his inclusive definition of India.
Some militant Hindus preached hatred of Muslims.
Some saw efforts to improve the position of women or untouchables as a distraction from the chief task of gaining independence from
There was disagreement about whether to participate in British-sponsored legislative bodies without complete independence.
A number of smaller parties advocated on behalf of particular regions or castes.
There was a growing divide between India’s Hindu and Muslim populations, which led to arguments that India was really two nations rather than one.
Why was African majority rule in South Africa delayed until 1994, whereas the overthrow of European colonialism had occurred much earlier in the rest of Africa and Asia? (CH. 23)
Place – Global
Time – 1914 to Present
South Africa’s struggle was not waged against European colonial power – independent from Britain since 1910 – Independence given to white government under Apartheid – Black had no political rights = internal reform. Not against colonial power. Community of white elites did not want racial equality with Blacks. Had modern economy – unlike India, etc. – created dependence on white-controlled economy.
How did South Africa’s struggle against white domination change over time? (CH. 23)
Place – South Africa
Time – 1914 to Present
In the opening decades of the twentieth century, the educated, professional, and middle-class Africans who led the political party known as the ANC sought not to overthrow the existing order but to be accepted as “civilized men” within that society. They appealed to the liberal, humane, and Christian values that white society claimed. For four decades, the leaders of the ANC pursued peaceful and moderate protest, but to little effect. During the 1950s, a new and younger generation of the ANC leadership broadened its base of support and launched nonviolent civil disobedience. In the 1960s, following the banning of the ANC, underground nationalist leaders turned to armed struggle, authorizing selected acts of sabotage and assassination, while preparing for guerrilla warfare in camps outside the country. The 1970s and 1980s saw an outbreak of protests in sprawling, segregated, and impoverished black neighborhoods as well as an increasingly active black labor movement. The South African freedom struggle also benefited from increasing international pressure on the apartheid government.
Why was Africa’s experience with political democracy so different from that of India? (CH. 23)
Place – Africa & India
Time – 19th Century to Present
The struggle for independence in India had been a far more prolonged affair, thus providing time for an Indian political leadership to sort itself out.
Britain began to hand over power in India in a gradual way well before complete independence was granted.
Because of these factors, a far larger number of Indians had useful administrative or technical skills than was the case in Africa.
Unlike most African countries, the nationalist movement in India was embodied in a single national party, the INC, whose leadership was committed to democratic practice.
The partition of India at independence eliminated a major source of internal discord.
Indian statehood could be built on cultural and political traditions that were far more deeply rooted than in most African states.
What accounts for the ups and downs of political democracy in postcolonial Africa? (CH. 23)
Place – Africa
Time – 19th Century
Some have argued that Africans lacked some crucial ingredient for democratic politics—an educated electorate, a middle class, or perhaps a thoroughly capitalist economy.
Others have suggested that Africa’s traditional culture, based on communal rather than individualistic values and concerned to achieve consensus rather than majority rule, was not compatible with the competitiveness of party politics.
Some have argued that Western-style democracy was simply inadequate for the tasks of development confronting the new states.
Creating national unity was more difficult when competing political parties identified primarily with particular ethnic or “tribal” groups.
The immense problems that inevitably accompany the early stages of economic development may be compounded by the heavy demands of a political system based on universal suffrage.
Widespread economic disappointment weakened the popular support of many postindependence governments in Africa and discredited their initial democracies.
What obstacles impeded the economic development of third-world countries? (CH. 23)
Place – Global
Time – 19th Century to Present
The quest for economic development took place in societies divided by class, religion, ethnic groups, and gender and occurred in the face of explosive population growth.
Colonial rule had provided only the most slender foundations for modern development to many of the newly independent nations, which had low rates of literacy, few people with managerial experience, a weak private economy, and transportation systems oriented to export rather than national integration;
Development had to occur in a world split by rival superpowers and economically dominated by the powerful capitalist economies of the West.
Developing countries had little leverage in negotiations with the wealthy nations of the Global North and their immense transnational corporations.
In what ways did thinking about the role of the state in the economic life of developing countries change? Why did it change? (CH. 23)
Place – Global
Time – 20th Century to Present
Early in the twentieth century, people in the developing world and particularly those in newly independent countries expected that state authorities would take major responsibility for spurring the economic development of their countries, and some state-directed economies had real successes.
But in the last several decades of the twentieth century, the earlier consensus in favor of state direction largely collapsed, replaced by a growing dependence on the market to generate economic development.
At the dawn of the new millennium, a number of Latin American countries were once again asserting a more prominent role for the state in their quests for economic development and social justice.
In what ways did cultural revolutions in Turkey and Iran reflect different understandings of the role of Islam in modern societies? (CH. 23)
Place – Turkey and Iran
Time – 20th Century to Present
The cultural revolution in Turkey sought to embrace modern culture and Western ways fully in public life and to relegate Islam to the sphere of private life. With that in mind, almost everything that had made Islam an official part of Ottoman public life was dismantled, and Islam was redefined as a modernized personal religion, available to individual citizens of a secular Turkish state.
The cultural revolution in Iran cast Islam as a guide to public as well as private life. With this goal in mind, the sharia became the law of the land, and religious leaders assumed the reins of government. Culture and education were regulated by the state according to Islamic law.
What factors contributed to economic globalization during the 20th century? (CH. 24)
Place – Global
Time – 1945 to Present
The aftermath of WWII led capitalist countries to avoid any return to the Depression era conditions. The Bretton Woods Conference established a system which laid the foundation for postwar globalization – financial rules for commercial and capitalist free trade and investment. Technology! – lowered transportation costs. Internet = global interaction. World Economy & world market of goods. Global capitalism!
In what ways has economic globalization linked the world’s peoples more closely together? (CH. 24)
Place – Global
Time – 1945 to Present
Acceleration of circulation of goods, capital, and people meant globalization thus enabling workers to travel to other countries for employment. Transnational corporations produced & delivered goods in & to many different countries which led to diversity & exchange. World trade! Goods went global. Money was also mobile. Global stock market.
What new or sharper divisions has economic globalization generated? (CH. 24)
Place – Global
Time – 1945 to Present
Modern global system produced economy’s unstable and unsteady progress, leading to inequality. Divisions between Developed Nations & Developing Nations in income worsened the North/South Gap. The disparity in incomes, medical care, clean water, education, employment, the internet, etc. between the rich and poor shaped life chances. Active resistance by rich countries. Common action between Developing Nations was difficult to achieve. Spurred new movements (anti-globalization).
What distinguished feminism in the industrialized countries from that of the Global South? (CH. 24)
Place – Global
Time – 1945 to Present
Second wave feminism had a new emphasis on employment and education. Looked at patriarchy as domination. African American women viewed family as a secure base from which to resist racism. Focused on racism and poverty. Global South welcomed women for support. Many did not support concerns that started American or European feminism. South feminist movement became self-help groups. Developing nations – women as equals.
In what respect did the various religious fundamentalisms of the 20th century express hostility to global modernity? (CH. 24)
Place – Global
Time – 20th century
The scientific and secular focus of global modernity directly challenged the core beliefs of supernatural religion. Religious traditions of class, family & gender were upset by capitalism, industrialization, and globalization. Global economy challenged nation-states associated with religions. – Usually came from foreigners (Westerners). Fundamentalism was the religious response as rejection to modernity; it fought with religious right.
From what sources did Islamic renewal movements drive? (CH. 24)
Place – Global
Time – 1945 to Present
Muslims wanted to create a new religious/political order centered on a particular understanding of Islam. Problems in the new politically independent states flew in the face of great expectations after European domination. Western cultural penetration appeared frequently in the Muslim world. Islamic alternative to Western models of modernity. Focused on Quran & Sharia as a guide for life. Islamic renewal boosted economy & culture.
In what different ways did Islamic renewal express itself? (CH. 24)
Place – Global
Time – 1945 to Present
Many people became more religiously modest. Islamic dress & veil. Sufi practices increased. Governments sought to anchor themselves in Islamic practices from the Quran. Social service organizations arose. Many people embraced modern science and technology with Islamic culture. Violent overthrow of comprised regimes in the Muslim world. Attack on west maternity.
How can we explain the dramatic increase in the human impact on the environment in the 20th century? (CH. 24)
Place – Global
Time – 1945 to Present
Growing numbers of the poor & growing consumption of the rich led to doubling of cropland & contraction of the world’s forests & grasslands. Plant & animal species disappeared or became almost extinct. Modern industry (global) was dependent on fossil fuels which increased pollution. Global Warming!! Trapping greenhouse gases and loss of tree means warming of the atmosphere.
What differences emerged between environmentalism in the global North and that in the global South? (CH. 24)
Place – Global
Time – 1945 to Present
Environmentalism in developing countries was more locally based with fewer large national organizations than in the West. It involved poor people not middle class; it was less engaged in political lobbying; it was more concerned with issues of food, security, health, & survival rather than the protection of nature; & closely related to movements for social justice. So, environmental protest led to movements seeking to challenge power structures and social classes.

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AP World History Review - Watts
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