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Renaissance and Reformation Quiz

A distribution of power among several states such that no single nation can dominate or interfere with the interests of another.
balance of power
A late Renaissance reformer who maintained that “the Hermetic philosophy, with its mystical approach to God and nature, held the key to true wisdom,” was
Giordano Bruno
A revival of Platonic philosophy. In the third century a.d., a revival associated with Plotinus; in the Italian Renaissance, a revival associated with Marsilio Ficino who attempted to synthesize Christianity and Platonism
Neoplatonism
African slaves are by no means the only ones important in modern history, nor were Europeans the only slavers. None the less, black slavery based on the buying of Africans from other Africans by Portuguese, Englishmen, Dutchmen and Frenchmen, and their sale to other Europeans in the __________, is a phenomenon whose repercussions have been much more profound than the enslavement of Europeans by Ottomans…
Americas
Agriculture provided the first demonstration of what might be done by even rudimentary ___________- by experiment, observation, record, and experiment again – to increase Man’s control of his environment more rapidly than could the selection imposed by custom.
science
Agricultural progress increasingly took two main forms: orientation towards the __________, and technical innovation
market
All of the following are causes of the scientific revolution EXCEPT
Military threats from the Mongols in the East and Arab Muslims in the South.
All of the following are characteristics of Renaissance humanism EXCEPT
accomplished scholarship in ancient language
All of the following statements about Isabella d’Este, “first lady of the world” are true except
She planned the strategy for military campaigns for both her husbands
All of these advanced Italian commercial interests during the Renaissance EXCEPT
the strength of the Italian monarchy
Although feudal lordship still existed in France in the 1780s it was by then less a social reality than an economic device. The ‘seigneur’ might never see his tenants, might not be of noble blood, and might draw nothing from his lordship except sums of money which represented his claims on his tenants’ labor, tune and produce. Further east, the feudal relationship remained more of a reality. This in part reflected an alliance of rulers and nobles to take advantage of the new market for grain and timber in the growing population of western and southern Europe. They tied peasants to the land and exacted heavier and heavier labor services. In __________ serfdom became the very basis of society.
Russia
Anti-clericalism was a theme in all of the following works EXCEPT
Thomas a Kempis’s The Imitation of Christ.
An intellectual movement beginning in the fifteenth century that taught that divinity is embodied in all aspects of nature; included works on alchemy and magic as well as theology and philosophy. The tradition continued into the seventeenth century and influenced many of the leading figures of the Scientific Revolution.
Hermeticism
An intellectual movement in Renaissance Italy based upon the study of the Greek and Roman classics.
humanism
An intellectual movement of the Italian Renaissance that saw Cicero, who was both an intellectual and a statesman, as the ideal and held that humanists should be involved in government and use their rhetorical training in the service of the state.
civic humanism
As the nineteenth century began, it looked as if most Europeans still respected noble blood. All that had changed was that not quite so many people still automatically thought it was a distinction which ought to be reflected in __________.
laws
But the timing of the discovery of life insurance, at the start of what has sometimes been called the ‘Age of Reason’, suggests also that the dimensions of economic change are sometimes very far-reaching indeed. It was one tiny source and expression of a coming _________ of the universe.
secularizing
By the thirteenth century, the wealthiest of the Italian city-states was
Venice
Castiglione’s Book of the Courtier was a guide to the
abilities needed to acquire power in the Italian city-states.
Castiglione, in his work, The Courtier?
suggested the proper social graces for a young Renaissance noble.
Civic humanists?
advocated active service to the city-state
During the Italian Renaissance, a Ghibelline would most likely have opposed which one of the following?
The Holy Roman Emperor
During the Renaissance, the European economy
gradually recovered from the troubles of the fourteenth century
During the Renaissance, the nation which set the standards in art, politics, and business, was
Italy
Economic elites who derived their incomes for capitalistic ventures and dominated urban communities during the Renaissance
patricians
Famine was another sporadic and local check on population growth; we hear even of cannibalism in the middle seventeenth century in Germany. Poor feeding and the lower resistance it led to I quickly produced disaster when coupled to the disruption of the economy which could follow a bad harvest. When accentuated by warfare, the result could be cataclysmic. The situation was always precarious until population growth began to be overtaken by __________
productivity
“For Machiavelli accepted the political challenge in its entirety; he swept aside every criterion of action not suggested by the concept of raison d’etat, m i.e., by the exact evaluation of the historical movement and the constructive forces which the Prince must employ in order to achieve his aim…hence, he paved the way for absolute governments, which theoretically were completely untrammeled, both in their home and in their foreign policies.”
Louis XIV
Governments not only looked after their merchants by going to war to uphold their interests, but also intervened in other ways in the working of the commercial economy. One advantage they could offer was a grant of __________ privileges to a company under a charter; this made the raising of capital easier by offering some security for a return.
monopoly
He is sometimes called the “Father of Humanism?:
Petrarch.
In __________ , for example, high wool prices tempted landlords to enclose common land and thus remove it from common use in order to put sheep on it. The wretched peasant grazier starved and, thus, as one famous contemporary comment put it, ‘sheep ate men’.
England
In eastern Europe serfdom actually extended its range when it was dying out elsewhere. Yet by 1800, taking Europe as a whole and a few leading countries in particular, agriculture was one of the two economic sectors where progress was most marked (commerce was the other). Overall, it had proved capable of sustaining a continuing __________ of population at first very slowly, but at a quickening rate.
rise
In England, on the other hand, even the commercialized ‘feudalism’ which existed in France had gone long before 1800, and noble status conferred no legal privilege beyond the rights to be summoned to a __________…
parliament
In Renaissance Italy, the Medici family became the famous rulers of
Florence
In the most advanced countries it brought new ideas about what constituted status and how it should be recognized. Though not complete, there was a shift from personal ties to market relationships as a way of denning people’s rights and expectations, and a shift from a __________ vision of society to an individualist one.
corporate
In this economy an important and growing part was played by slaves. Most of them were black Africans, the first of whom to be brought to Europe were sold at _________ in 1444. In Europe itself, slavery had by then all but withered away (though Europeans were still being enslaved and sold into slavery by Arabs and Turks). Now it was to undergo a vast extension in other continents.
Lisbon
In Renaissance Italy, the Medici family became the famous rulers of
Florence
In 1500 Europe was still largely a _________continent of villages in which people lived at a pretty low level of subsistence. It would have seemed very empty to modern eyes.
rural
Italian Renaissance art can be most appropriately described as?
NeoClassicism in which the traditional characteristics of harmony and symmetry were valued
“…It is, then, much safer to be feared than to be loved…for touching human nature, we may say in general that men are untruthful, unconstant, dissemblers, they avoid dangers and are covetous of gain. While you do them good, they are wholly yours…but when (danger) approaches, they revolt.”
Machiavelli
It was already discernible in the sixteenth century when there began the long expansion of world __________ which was to last, virtually uninterrupted except briefly by war…
commerce
Known as the “Prince of the Humanists,” in such works as In Praise of Folly, he criticized the clergy and abuses that he saw in the Christian Church. His given name was
Desiderius Erasmus
Leaders of bands of mercenary soldiers in Renaissance Italy who sold their services to the highest bidder.
condottieri
Liberal education in the Renaissance included all of the following EXCEPT?
the study of military theory.
Mannerist art was characterized by?:
distorted human figures and unnatural lighting effects.
Michalangelo was talented in many areas, but what he consider himself to be above all?
A sculptor
Northern humanists differed from their Italian predecessors?:
in their focus on the textual reexamination of the Bible and the writings of the early Church Fathers.
One of the most famous books of the Italian Renaissance, in which the ancient Roman poet Virgil provided a tour of purgatory, hell, and heaven, was
Dante’s Divine Comedy
Pico della Mirandola’s Oration on the Dignity of Man stated that?:
God gave humans free will so that they could choose to be earthly or spiritual creatures.
Showing favoritism to relatives; common practice among the Renaissance popes
Nepotism
Renaissance courtiers were?:
people who served a prince in multiple political and administrative ways.
Renaissance education was characterized by?
emphasis on developing the “complete individual”
Renaissance Humanism was a threat to the Church because it
emphasized a return to the original sources of Christianity.
Renaissance individualism
sought great accomplishments and looked for heroes in history
The city-state was the primary political unit during the
Italian Renaissance
The dominant trend of government in Renaissance city-states in Italy was from?:
republicanism to despotism
The early Renaissance humanists in Italy would have been MOST interested in?:
finding an old Greek manuscript
The English author of Utopia (1516) was
More.
The favorite classical author of Renaissance scholars was?
Cicero
The governments of France, England, and Spain at the end of the fifteenth century, where the rulers were successful in reestablishing or extending centralized royal authority, suppressing the nobility, controlling the church, and insisting upon the loyalty of all peoples living in their territories
new monarchies
The literary masterpiece that satirized the ideals of knighthood and chivalry was written by?:
Cervantes.
The most profound accomplishment in the art of drama was achieved in Renaissance England by
Shakespeare
The Northern Renaissance differed from the Renaissance in Italy in that
it placed a greater emphasis upon religious piety.
The old banking supremacy of the medieval Italian cities passed first to Flanders and the German bankers of the sixteenth century and then, finally, to Holland and London. The Bank of Amsterdam and the Bank of ___________ were already international economic forces in the seventeenth century. About them clustered other banks and merchant houses undertaking operations of credit and finance.
England
The Prince argued that?
the prince’s highest obligation was the preservation of his state.
The Renaissance did not occur in Russia for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
unlike Western Europe, feudalism was not in decline but rather it was about to take hold.
The Renaissance was evident in all of the following Italian cities EXCEPT:
Naples
The sixteenth century carnival was
a three- to six-day event which occurred immediately prior to Ash Wednesday and the beginning of Lent.
The slave trade was commercially very important, too. Huge profits were occasionally made…value of the trade made it a great and contested prize, though the normal return on capital has been much exaggerated. For two centuries it provoked diplomatic wrangling and even war as nation after nation sought to break into it or monopolize it. This testified to the trade’s importance in the eyes of statesmen, whether it was __________ justified or not.
economically
The twentieth century needs no reminders that social change can quickly follow economic change. We have little belief in the ___________ of social forms and institutions. Three hundred years ago, many men and women believed them to be virtually God-given and the result was that although social changes took place in the aftermath of inflation (and, it must be said, for many other reasons) they were muffled and masked by the persistence of old forms. Superficially and nominally much of European society remained unchanged between 1500 and 1800 or thereabouts. Yet the economic realities underlying it changed a great deal. Appearances were deceptive.
immutability
The word “Renaissance” refers to the
revival of interest in the culture of classical antiquity.
The word vernacular is used to describe?
the spoken language of an area.
The year 1500 may be said to represent a turning point in European history because
communications among the diverse civilizations of the world became global.
This overall agricultural change in the end eliminated the recurrent deaths which so long retained their power to destroy __________ advance.
demographic
This was the beginning of the increasing use of paper, instead of bullion. In the eighteenth century came the first European paper currencies and the invention of __________.
the cheque
Thomas More suggested how sixteenth-century people could implement Christian social principles in his
Utopia.
Thomas More’s Utopia?
presented a revolutionary social order based on communal living and property.
What does “Renaissance” mean?
Rebirth
What extrmely important invention was created around that time?
The printing press because it spread ideas rapidly and effectively
What is harder is to see what it was in the European mind which pressed the European craftsman forward and also stimulated the interest of his social betters so that a craze for mechanical engineering is as important an aspect of the age of the __________ as is the work of its architects and goldsmiths. After all, this did not happen elsewhere.
Renaissance
What is the term meaning, “separate from the Church”?
secular
What was “indulgence”?
selling salvation
What was the order of succession after King Henry VIII?
Edward, Mary, Elizabeth
Which is NOT one of the main ripple effects the Renaissance brought?
Lower class is strengthened.
Which of the following locations had the greatest influence on shaping the values of the Italian Renaissance?:
the townhouse of an Italian merchant
Which of the following was NOT a characteristic of the Renaissance?
strong anti-Christian sentiment
Which one of these was NOT one of the Three Catholic Principles?
You must pray every day.
Who founded Calvinism?
John Calvin
Who of these characters were artists of some sort?
All of these
Who was a, Italian poet who rewrote Roman works, made many love poems, and was considered pioneer of the Renaissance?
Petrarch
Who was a monk, scholar, physician and author?
Rabelais
Who was Martin Luther?
A monk who started his own religion after being banned from the Catholic Church
Who wrote “The Prince” due to his belief that men were decietful greedy, and power-hungry?
Machiavelli
Why did princess Mary get the nickname “Bloody Mary”?
She executed many Protestants since she was Catholic
Why did King Henry VIII start his own religion?
The Pope would not allow him to divorce
__________The misdeeds of the clergy and the problems of the temporal church were popular themes in Renaissance literature.
Anticlericalism
… modern” period. By this, though, they are really drawing our attention to a process in which the modern Atlantic world emerged from the tradition-dominated, agrarian, superstitious and confined western Christendom of the Middle Ages, and this took place at different times in different countries. So is its importance, for it laid the groundwork for a European world __________.
hegemony
… begin with the simple and obvious truth that for most of human history most people’s lives have been deeply and cruelly shaped by the fact that they have had little or no _________ about the way in which they could provide themselves and their families with shelter and enough to eat. The possibility that things might be otherwise has only recently become a conceivable one to even a minority of the world’s population and it became a reality for any substantial number of people only with changes in the economy of early modern Europe …
choice
…the world was growing more commercial, more used to the idea of employing money to make money, and was supplying itself with the apparatus of modern __________.
capitalism
Anticlericalism
the misdeeds of the clergy….
Classicism
A cultural designation characterized by symmetry, harmony….
Humanism
The reading and understanding of writings and ideals of the classical past….
Individualism
emphasized the hero in history….
Italian Renaissance
was characterized by a genuine interest in the ancients and the pursuit of art.
Nationalism
contributed to the movement to establish nation-states in western Europe
Northern Renaissance
was characterized by a half-hearted interest in the ancients and
Renaissance
french for Rebirth…
Who was the King of England who started his own reformation because he wanted to divorce his wife and the Pope did not approve?
Henry VIII
Protestant educators
did all of the other possible answers ( attempted to educate as large a percentage of the population as possible, divided students into classes based on age and capabilities, retained humanist principles of pedagogy and curriculum, and sought to produce both good pastors and good state servants)
Anabaptist
required that baptismal candidates be able to make their own confessions of faith and so rejected baptism of infants
Lutheranism
advocates a doctrine of justification “by grace alone through faith alone because of Christ alone and “hold the Bible of the Old and New Testaments to be the only divinely inspired book, the only source of divinely revealed knowledge, and the only norm for Christian teaching
Catholic
“faith formed by love”, or “faith and works”. … doctrine maintains that the Church is infallible when it dogmatically teaches a doctrine of faith or morals
German princes were granted the power to decide the religion of their states in the
Peace of Augsburg
Erasmus hoped to reform Christianity through all of the following except
spreading the radical reform ideas of Luther
Typically in Protestant societies
women were restricted to the roles of wife and mother
The English Reformation began in 1533 when Henry VIII broke with the pope because?
The pope refused to grant Henry a divorce from Catherine of Aragon
The French Wars of Religion (1562-1598)
. ended when Henry IV guaranteed rights both to Catholics and Huguenots
Which of the following statements best describes the reform movement of John Calvin?
its belief that men must “obey God rather than man” made Calvinists willing to rebel against secular power
n Bohemia, Calvinists object to unfair taxation and the HRE sends officials to make them pay up. They defenestrate them at Prague Castle.
Defenestration of Prague
Bohemian Phase
Catholic Ferdinand I of the HRE
Count Tilly
A Catholic General…
Danish Phase
A good phase of the war…
Martin Luther’s early monastic life was characterized by
an obsession with his own sinfulness
Popular religion in the late Middle Ages and Renaissance witnessed a
an obsession with his own sinfulness
The basic premise of the Protestants was?
Man can reach salvation through his/her own faith and not by buying ritualistic indulgences
In eastern Europe serfdom actually extended its range when it was dying out elsewhere. Yet by 1800, taking Europe as a whole and a few leading countries in particular, agriculture was one of the two economic sectors where progress was most marked (commerce was the other). Overall, it had proved capable of sustaining a continuing __________ of population at first very slowly, but at a quickening rate.
rise
During the Renaissance, the European economy
gradually recovered from the troubles of the fourteenth century
The leader of the German revolt was?
Luther
The Peasants’ War of 1524-1525 was
a revolt by people of rising expectations against their local lords
About how much of the land in Western Europe was owned or controlled by the church?
1/3rd
Which was a major result of the Reformation?
new Christian denominations emerged
The 16th century revolt which divided Christians into Protestants and Catholics is known as the?
Reformation
The Christian humanists were
supported by wealthy German patrons
At the Council of Trent, the Catholic Church
established a clear body of doctrine under a supreme pontiff
the form of Protestantism originated and led by John Calvin, centered at Geneva, which spread more widely than any other branch of the movement
Calvinism
founded by Ignatius of Loyola, this religious order became the most powerful instrument of the Catholic Reformation.
Society of Jesus
meeting of Catholic leaders from 1545 to 1563 which dealt with abuses and created the modern Church
Council of Trent
decree from King Henry IV that established Catholicism as the official religion of France but gave freedom of worship to Huguenots.
Edict of Nantes
made the Book of Common Prayer standard for worship in England and essentially established the Protestant Church of England.
Act of Uniformity
Johann Eck
Luther
Philip Melanchthon
Lutheran scholar who became known as “Teacher of Germany”
Katharina von Bora
nun who married Martin Luther
Ulrich Zwingli
Leader of the Swiss Reform Church
Munster
City declared by radical Anabaptists to be the New Jerusalem
The Edict of Worms
made Luther an outlaw within the HRE
An early church reformer, this person nis responsible for translating the old and new testaments of the Bible in English. Although burned at the stake as a heretic, his early work laid the foundation for the “King James” version of the Bible.
William Tyndale, England
In France just prior to the Wars of Religion there
the nobility was between 40 and 50 percent Hugeunot
As part of the “counter reformation” movement from the Catholic Church, officials in Rome revived a practice of aggressively convicting and punishing heretics. They often used torture and even death as a tactic. What was this called?
The Inquisition
The Catholic Church’s response to the Reformation is known as?
counter-reformation
The slave trade was commercially very important, too. Huge profits were occasionally made…value of the trade made it a great and contested prize, though the normal return on capital has been much exaggerated. For two centuries it provoked diplomatic wrangling and even war as nation after nation sought to break into it or monopolize it. This testified to the trade’s importance in the eyes of statesmen, whether it was __________ justified or not.
economically
Find the false description among the following officials of Henry VIII.
Thomas Cranmer—Archbishop of Canterbury executed for refusing to annul the king’s marriage.
What doctrine created by Martin Luther challenged the clergy’s position between God and man?
Faith Alone
Pacifist leader of Dutch Anabaptists
Menno Simons
Thomas Cranmer
Archbishop of Canterbury who granted Henry VUI
Anne Boleyn
Henry VIIIs second wife
Francis Xavier
Jesuit missionary to India and Japan
Henry IV
Huguenot who became a Catholic to gain a crown
Renaissance courtiers were?
people who served a prince in multiple political and administrative ways
What Pope called the Council of Trent and helped to lead the Counter-Reformation?
Paul III
The church practice of selling positions of leadership was called
simony
What is harder is to see what it was in the European mind which pressed the European craftsman forward and also stimulated the interest of his social betters so that a craze for mechanical engineering is as important an aspect of the age of the __________ as is the work of its architects and goldsmiths. After all, this did not happen elsewhere
Renaissance
Lutherans wanted to get the Bible into as many hands as possible. This is why they had it translated into many different languages.
true
Eventually Martin Luther comes to openly oppose the church by organizing a new Christian religion. What was his new religion called
the Lutheran Church
considered the first Church reformer (living prior to Luther, Calvin, and Zwingli).
Jan Hus
he was one of the earliest opponents of papal authority influencing secular power…was also an early advocate for translation of the Bible into the common language.
John Wycliffe
a leader of the Reformation in Switzerland. Born during a time of emerging Swiss patriotism and increasing criticism of the Swiss mercenary system
Huldrych Zwingli
Calvin’s doctrine of Predestination
made Calvinists more certain than other Christians that they were doing God’s will on earth
Luther and Zwingli parted company over the issue of the
doctrine of the Lord’s Supper
…the world was growing more commercial, more used to the idea of employing money to make money, and was supplying itself with the apparatus of modern __________
capitalism
Who set up a theocracy in Geneva that trained preachers to spread Protestantism all over northern Europe?
John Calvin
The Renaissance and the Protestant Reformation were similar in that both were
stimulated by a spirit of inquiry
The immediate cause of the English Reformation was
Queen Catherine’s failure to produce a male heir
Luther finally answered the question “How can I be saved?” by
the doctrine of justification by grace through faith
All of the following are causes of the scientific revolution EXCEPT
Military threats from the Mongols in the East and Arab Muslims in the South
Albrecht von Wallenstein
Though not as savage as Tilly, he is a clever military general and his armies are constantly winning battles.
Edict of Restitution
Cancels out all gains made by Protestants in HRE, including a cancellation of Peace of Augsburg. Catholics vs.
Swedish Phase
King of Sweden, Gustavus Adolphus, cannot accept the end of Protestantism in the HRE becase Sweden, a Lutheran
30 Years
How Long Did The Thirty Years War Last?
The dominant trend of government in Renaissance city-states in Italy was from?:
republicanism to despotism
A late Renaissance reformer who maintained that “the Hermetic philosophy, with its mystical approach to God and nature, held the key to true wisdom,” was
Giordano Bruno
The French and Dutch drew their Protestantism chiefly from?
Calvin
Luther was condemned by
Diet of Worms
The most important political treaty signed at the conclusion of the religious wars?
Peace of Augsburg
The Swiss leader Zwingli
stressed the need for state supervision over the church
The reign of England’s Queen Mary I was noted for
her failure to restore Catholicism
In Bohemia, Calvinists object to unfair taxation and the HRE sends officials to make them pay up. They defenestrate them at Prague Castle.
Defenestration of Prague
In his book Utopia, Thomas More
outlined a harmonious social order with communal property
Why did many of the nobles support the English Reformation?
they got cheap estates from sale of monasteries
author of The Imitation of Christ, an example of the Catholic movement toward pietism and mysticism just before the Reformation.
Thomas a Kempis
German city where Martin Luther posted his Ninety-five Theses, which precipitated the Protestant Reformation.
Wittenberg
imperial decree branding Luther a criminal and ordering that his books be burned as heresy
Edict of Worms
former nun whom Luther married, providing a model for the Protestant ministry of the future.
Katharina von Bora
former Lord Chancellor of England who supported the pope
Thomas More
The church took action. From 1545 to 1563 in what is called the?
Council of Trent
The Reformation bolstered
individualism
All of the following ideas were part of Martin Luther’s teachings EXCEPT
salvation was predestined by God
In the most advanced countries it brought new ideas about what constituted status and how it should be recognized. Though not complete, there was a shift from personal ties to market relationships as a way of denning people’s rights and expectations, and a shift from a __________ vision of society to an individualist one.
corporate
Which term best matches what a “denomination” is?
It referred to a particular religious group practicing within a larger faith. For example Lutheranism is a “denomination of Christianity
“…It is, then, much safer to be feared than to be loved…for touching human nature, we may say in general that men are untruthful, unconstant, dissemblers, they avoid dangers and are covetous of gain. While you do them good, they are wholly yours…but when (danger) approaches, they revolt.”

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Renaissance and Reformation Quiz
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A distribution of power among several states such that no single nation can dominate or interfere with the interests of another.
balance of power
A late Renaissance reformer who maintained that "the Herme
2017-09-06 05:40:59
Renaissance and Reformation Quiz
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