1ST SEPTEMBER 1939- story
Auden sitting in a dive when Germany declares war on Poland. He’s thinking about how history is repeating itself throughout the decades and how people want only personal love, rest universal.
1ST SEPTEMBER 1939- time and sequence
Poem is set in 1st September 1939. 1 and 2 stanzas in here and now. But time begins to shift e.g stanza 3-Martin Luther- 1500’s- relating this to how societies were corrupt. stanza 3- dictators= ‘the elderly rubbish they talk’ – showing that modern dictators tale outdated nonsense. Stanza 4- back to present- personifying sky scrapers to represent power of man. said they are ‘blind’ as man doesn’t know how to use power.
1ST SEPTEMBER 1939- setting
Urban civilization- café/bar in 52nd street. Narrator observing. Brings in historical settings also such as societies in ancient Greece- stanza 3.
1ST SEPTEMBER 1939- voice
subjective voice. 1st person- assumed to be Auden. Has opinions on war= BIASED. speaking for society- ‘I and the public know.’ Narrator is observant.
1ST SEPTEMBER 1939- form
free verse no particular rhyme or meter. Stanzas have different themes (don’t link) Non chronological order – ‘From Luther until now… what occured in Linz.’
1ST SEPTEMBER 1939- destination
Unclear. Question at the end or sense of a question- does not know what is to come. ‘Affirming flame’- shows hope.
1ST SEPTEMBER 1939- notes
Accepted society= THEME- uses war to explain this.
Auden describes a boy bought up in a very religious environment growing up as he marries a women who doesn’t really love him and so he decides to murder her.
Linear chronological order: ‘December…April…August…September’ Alternate regular rhyming patter.
VICTOR-time and sequence
Bildungsroman: ‘Victor was a little baby’- follow character from birth. Linear chronological order. No flashbacks or flash-forwards. Some stabzas tell month= sequence and setting. Reference to months= cold and warm- sad or happy life.
Lambic Pentameter- mimics speech in rhyme. Ballad.
3rd person narrative. Gives views on all characters- reliable narrator. Omniscient narrator and objective.
VICTOR- scene and setting
Dad dies in December- cold month. Anna (Victors wife) arrives in 1st April= April Fools Day and Anna makes a fool of victor. Marriage in August= height of summer and height of love.
Anna- ‘sets men aflame’- looks pure but desirable and sexual and promiscuous- ‘her kisses are like champagne= bubbly, luxurious… ‘objectified by men.’
Victor- ‘Cliffs were always clean’ =obsessive, tidy and conservative. -innocent- has not been with a woman- religious upbringing = honest, pure and has morals.- however when victor falls in love her changes. His punctuality changes e.g he is late for work but does not mind. being in love has made him more relaxed.
-Anna (wife) also again changes Victor when she is unfaithful which causes Victor to become unstable… murders Anna.
AS I WALKED OUT ONE EVENING- scenes and places
In Bristol street and it is evening, there are crowds of people. Urban setting but takes place in a park.
AS I WALKED OUT ONE EVENING- story
Speaker walks out into the evening and hears the song of a lover, promising fidelity. He then hears the clocks reply, reminding those that time leads to change.
AS I WALKED OUT ONE EVENING- time and sequence
We move from Bristol Street to a railway arch near the river. During the love song- the chime of the clocks cut in (the voice of time) We end at the now silent river.
Use of time- ‘o let not time deceive you’- time is always there= disturbing. The use of Time Capital T- plays a big part- shows its controlling- ‘you cannot conquer time.’
AS I WALKED OUT ONE EVENING- voice
3 separate speakers. we hear the voice of the narrator, voice of the cover and then Time (personified). The narrator opens the poem; the lovers song middle of poem and Time ends poem. This suggests that tome rises above everything else and even if the lovers are so dearly in love- Time can tear them apart.
AS I WALKED OUT ONE EVENING-form
Tradition ballad- repetition and refrain and a detached narrator. Lambic Pentameter.
O WHAT IS THAT SOUND-story
2 unnamed people discuss the movement of a group of soldiers wondering where they are going.
soldiers are heading to the 2nd speaker door. by this time the 2nd speaker has escaped.
O WHAT IS THAT SOUND- scenes and places
set indoors- character looking out of a window at the events outside. the soldiers pass the farmers house and the parson’s house = a village.
O WHAT IS THAT SOUND- time and sequence
stanzas takes us through a series of questions and answers. As houses are passed by the soldiers= a sense of closing in. the questioner moves from innocence to understanding. Archaic language- Parson- past.
O WHAT IS THAT SOUND- voice
poem=2 voices- the questioner (wonders what is going on) and the one who answers-seems to have all the answers.
Voice 1= ‘o what is that sound’
Voice 2= ‘only the scarlet soldiers, dear’
O WHAT IS THAT SOUND- form
Question and reply- suspense. regular rhyme scheme- shows calculation- creates marching rhythm- ‘drumming… the soldiers are coming’. Chronological structure.
MISS GEE- story
about an elderly lady who is diagnosed with cancer after living a normal lonely life. suddenly she dies and her body is given to university students for education purposes.
MISS GEE- scenes and places
83 cleved on terrace where Miss GEE lives. but miss gee dreams of a place then to an unknown place where she sleeps with the vicar. visits a clinic and a hospital emerges as she is taken there. chronological order- life and death.
MISS GEE- time and sequence
told retrospectively. omniscient narrator (3rd person) takes up to end of Miss GEE’s life. Narrator starts from middle of Miss GEE’s life till the end.
-Voice= light-hearted- juxtaposes sad story- ‘yes they hung up Miss GEE.’
MISS GEE- characterisation
Miss GEE= center of poem. Doctor comes in care and vicar only achive in Miss Gee’s mind. Miss GEE’s shown through prudish dress sense and self absorbed personality.
MISS GEE- voice
told from an outsiders perspective- dominates story showing Miss GEE’s lonely life.
Voice zooms in and out of miss Gees Personality and life and zooms in on conversations from Doctor Thomas and his wife.
MISS GEE- point of view
3- miss gee, doctor and oxford students and students mock miss gee without knowing her.
JAMES HONEYMOON- story
about a quiet odd boy who grows up dedicating his life to science and neglecting his wife and child as he innocently creates a poisonous gas which kills lots of people in the war.
JAMES HONEYMOON- voice
3rd person narrative- shows an overview. detached narrator. Direct speech from teacher, tutor, land lady, Doreen (wife), doctor, son and women portrayed in a more positive light.
scientific lexis- joe rose Enduring love link?
Irony: ‘Imperial Alkali’ is not a real company but ‘imperial’ implies fro the British Empire which adds irony as he develops for them is used by foreign powers. Last five stanzas- voices developed round.
JAMES HONEYMOON- scene and setting
places are specific to London- ‘Whitehall’
-Auden targeting Britain in relation to the war and development in pursuit of killing- (imperialism never succeeds)
JAMES HONEYMOON- time and sequence
Chronological order. Bildungsroman=poem taking reader though journey of James. Life from young age till death. Ballad.
JAMES HONEYMOON- characterisation
James preferred to be alone- shown from a young age- line 12. Doreen (wife) balances James out- line 65- Doreen’s laid back and relaxed and James is the opposite.
End of poem- James shows remorse and a conscience.
MUSEÉ DES BEAUX ARTS- story
This poem follows the story of a character looking at the artist Breughal’s ICARUS in a museum.
As he observes it he ponders how the old mashers insight into the human condition wasn’t wrong.
MUSEÉ DES BEAUX ARTS- scene and setting
Museé des Beaux Arts is a fine art museum in Belgium.
A range of settings due to narrators thoughts.
E.g ancient/mythic Greece that’s where Icarus the boy flying to the sun with wings of wax hails from.
Also it is 16th Century Belgium identified from ‘plowmen’
|But this is all in the speakers mind.- this is where all these wonderful worlds collide. Only myth could pair myth and the ordinary.
And only Auden’s speaker can filter the experience of that poem through an individuals consciousness.
MUSEÉ DES BEAUX ARTS- voice
One speaker. He talks about those that suffer and those who don’t care.
3rd person narrator. No references to what he thinks or believes- he remains neutral on the issue.
MUSEÉ DES BEAUX ARTS- form
free verse and regular rhythm. suggests the character is in a thought protess
MUSEÉ DES BEAUX ARTS- points of view
1st stanza is Auden’s thinking- second gives an example of the meaning of thought process.