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Music Appreciation Unit 1 and 2

rhythm
the flow of music through time
meter
the organization of beats
time signature
a symbol for beats per measure
tempo
the speed of beats
melody
a series of pitches forming a unit (the tune)
pitch
a term describing high or low regions of pitch
theme
the main recurring melody
contour
the shape and direction of a melody
decorative notes
less significant notes decorating the melody
phrasing
a logical grouping of melody notes; similar to the use of language
chord
any two or more simultaneous pitches
key
tonality; hierarchichal system featuring a central harmony
modulation
the process of changing key
major: happier
minor: depressing
describe the sounds of major vs. minor harmonies
consonance: stable; pleasant
dissonance: clash; creates tension
describe the sounds of consonance vs. dissonance
texture
the number and use of melodies
monophonic
texture featuring one unaccompanied melody
homophonic
texture featuring one melody with accompaniment
polyphonic
texture featuring two or more melodies simultaneously
imitation
term for successive entries of a single melody like a round.
dynamics
a term for volume
crescendo
italian term for an increase in volume
decrescendo
italiam term for a decrease in volume
timbre
term synonymous witht one quality or tone color
forms
the plan of organization for a piece of music
repetition, variation, contrast
3 possible formal principles
genre
category of a piece of music based on its instrumentation and form.
movement
independent sections within a larger piece, usually with pauses in between
violin, viola, cello, bass
4 orchestral string instruments in order from highest to lowest
plucked or bow
2 ways sound is produced ona string instrument
half
percentage of the orchestra is taken up by the string section?
flute, oboe, clarinet, and bassoon
4 man orchestral woodwinds in order from highest to lowest.
wood
inner construction of each woodwind instrument.
trumpet, french horn, trombone, tuba
4 brass instruments in order from highest to lowest range.
vibrating lips
describe how sound is produced in a brass instrument.
tuned and untuned
2 broad categories of percussion instruments.
soprano, alto, tenor, bass
4 voice types in order from highest to lowest range.
harpsichord, piano, and pipe organ
3 most commen keyboard instruments.
dates covering ancient greece and rome
1000bc-500ad
vocal and greek dramas
2 most common uses of music in ancient greece
lyre
most common instrument of ancient greece?
influenced moral character
what was the most common greek belief about the power of music?
476-1100’s
dates of the middles ages
vocal
what was the most popular genre during this time?( Middle Ages)
latin mass
what was the most important type of church service?
gregorian chant
what is the name and purpose of the special mass featuring the dies irae?
hildegard bingen
which abbess was the 12th C composer of liturgical dramas?
1100-1450
give the dates of the medieeval period/
polyphony
during medieval period music changed from monophony to what texture?
oragnum
what 11th C genre added a parallel line to a chant, forming the link between monophony and polyphony?
leonin and perotin
which 2 composers in the 12th C developed 4 part organum at the cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris?
cantus firmus
the term for a bass line based on a phrase of chant.
medieval motet
what 4 part polyphonic genre was based on cantus firmus?
leonin and perotin
which french composer was known for his motets?
estample
fast dance in triple meter
1450-1600; rebirth
date and definition of the renaissance.
josquin
which renaissance composer from the netherlands was known for his chansons and motets?
chanson
what genre is described as a french polyphonic song?
palestrina
which italian composer was considered conservative during his lifetime, but is now considered the culmination of the renaissance?
madrigals
what italian genre is a polyphonic piece for a small group of singers?
text painting
the term for the musical depiction of words.
thomas wealkes
which english composer was known for his madrigals?
lute
what was the most common instrument of the renaissance?
1600-1750
give the dates of the baroque period.
doctrine of affections
what is the term for the idea that music should sound like the plot or text in use?
continuo
give the term for continous accompaniment by keyboard and low string instrument.
oratorio
what genre was originally for church use, and resembles opera without theatrics?
recitative
what speech like section with minimal accompaniment uses much text to move the plot along?
aria
what song like section with solo singer and accompaniment slows the plot of insight into a particular character?
chorus
what less frequent section features a large group of singers at climactic moments?
handel
which german composer, whose partron became the kind of england, is known for oratorio and opera?
chorale
what is the term for a german lutheran hymn?
cantata
what is the term for a shorter oratorio used in the worship service?
opera
what genre was meant to recreate greek drama, and is similar to musical theatre?
libretto
what is the italian term for the text for an opera?
monte verde
which italian composer shows the transition from renaissance polyphony to baroque homophony?
purcell
who is the most well known english composer of opera during this period?
suite
what is the term for a collection of stylized dance?
trio sonata
what genre featuring 3 instruments plus continuo usually has 4 movements?
arcangelo corelli
which italian composer and violinist was the first to promote virtuosic playing?
concerto grosso
what genre featuring 2 groups of contrasting sizes has 3 monvements? (fast-slow-fast)
antonio vivaldi
which prolific italian composer and violinist was also a priest at an orphanage for girls?
program music
what is the term for music that portrays extramusical ideas?
Fuge
what genre w/ frequent imitation has 2 themes called the subject and countersubject?
toccata
what genre features mostly free style virtuosity?
bach
which german composer/organist is considered the culmination of the baroque period?
1750-1820
dates of the classical period?
absolute music
what is the term for music with no extramusical associations?
sonata form
common form for first movements of symphonies, sonatas, and concertos?
exposition
name of the section that exposes the 2 contrasting themes?
development
what is the name of the section that works with 1 or both themes?
mozart
austrian compoer and keyboard prodigy father was well known violinist?
solo concerto
what genre for orchestra and solo instrument is more virtuosic than the baroque version?
double exposition
what is it called when the 1st section of the 1st movement is played by the orchestra, then repeated with the soloist?
cadenza
what is the term for the impressive, improvised solo section in the 1st movement?
rondo
what common form for final movements features a main theme alternating with contrasting themes?
haydn
austrian composer for prince esterhazy is known as the father of several genres, and also taught beethoven?
opera seria
italian term for the serious, dramatic, style of opera
opera buffa
italian term for the light, comic style of opera
chamber music
genre for small instrumental groups was orginally played in small rooms for wealthy homes?
string quartet
most significant chamber group featuring 2 violins, 1 viola, and 1 cello?
minuet and trio
common 2nd or 3rd movement form is based on a stylized dance in triple meter?
variation
what form features a melody placed in many different setting or costumes?
piano sonata
solo genre with 3-4 movements rivaled the symphony in importante?
beethoven
german composer struggled with composing and eventually became deaf?
symphony
genre for orchestra usually with 4 movements was the more important genre?
scarzo
form, sometimes replacing the minuet and trio, means “joke”

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Music Appreciation Unit 1 and 2
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rhythm
the flow of music through time
meter
the organization of beats
2017-09-06 05:32:49
Music Appreciation Unit 1 and 2
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